Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

APRIL 2019 | EARLY VIEW | 13(04) 2019 | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04

Effects of different roostertree (Calotropis procera) amounts and spatial arrangements on the performance of the beet-cowpea intercropping system

Edilson Carvalho de Moraes, Jailma Suerda Silva de Lima, Francisco Bezerra Neto, Paulo Cássio Alves Linhares*, Arnaldo Pantoja da Costa, Joabe Freitas Crispim, Lissa Izabel Ferreira de Andrade, Gardênia Silvana de Oliveira Rodrigues

Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pará, Castanhal, PA 68740-000, Brazil
Federal Rural Semi-Arid University, Department of Plant Sciences, Mossoró, RN 59625-900, Brazil
Federal University of Lavras, Postgraduate Program in Agronomy/Plant Physiology, Department of Biology, Lavras, MG 37200-000, Brazil
Mater Christi Faculty, Mossoró, RN 59611-130, Brazil


Abstract
Intercropping of beet with cowpea-vegetable is increasing in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. However, its management requires scientific information and technologies pertaining to space arrangement and adequate fertilization with roostertree. The present study evaluated the agronomic/biological performance of the beet and cowpea-vegetable intercropping system with different amounts of roostertree and spatial arrangements of the component cultures. We established a 4 × 3 factorial completely randomized design with four blocks. The first factor was the amount of roostertree biomass incorporated into the soil (20, 35, 50, and 65 t ha-1 in dry matter), while the second was the spatial arrangement of beet rows alternated with cowpea rows (2:2, 3:3, and 4:4). We evaluated the total, commercial, and root yields of beet, as well as the number of green pods per m2, green and dry pod yields, the number of green grains per pod, the weight of 100 green grains, and green and dry grain yields of cowpea. The agronomic efficiency of the intercropping system was evaluated by the land equivalent ratio, yield efficiency index, and z-score. The results showed no significant interactions among the amounts of roostertree biomass and spatial arrangements for any evaluated trait or agronomic index. The highest agronomic efficiency of the intercropping system was obtained with 65 t ha-1 of roostertree biomass and the 2:2 spatial arrangements.

Pages 486-493 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p843
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Productivity and nutrient extraction by Brachiaria brizantha fertigated with treated sewage effluent

Gilmar Oliveira Santos*, Rogério Teixeira de Faria, Gilberto Aparecido Rodriguês, Geffson de Figueredo Dantas, Natã Rodriguês Costa

University of Rio Verde - UniRV, Department of Agronomy and Environment, Rio Verde-GO, Brazil
State University Paulista - UNESP, Department of Rural Engineering, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil
Faculty of Technology of Taquaritinga - FATEC, Department of Agribusiness, Taquaritinga, SP, Brazil
State University Paulista - UNESP, PhD Student in Soil Science, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil
State University Paulista - UNESP, Agronomist, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil


Abstract
The present study was performed to evaluate the responses in productivity and nutrient extraction in dry biomass of Brachiaria brizantha ‘Marandu’ fertigated with treated sewage effluent (TSE) from 2013 to 2014, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil. A triple line source sprinkler system was used to perform uniform but gradual irrigation of TSE and mineral fertilization in five treatments, with the following TSE fractions in water: 1.0 (E5); 0.87 (E4); 0.6 (E3); 0.31 (E2), and 0.11 (E1). In addition to fertigation, all treatments were supplemented with P and K. TSE was applied at depths of 1,853 and 2,253 mm year-1 in 2013 and 2014, respectively. This provided E5 with the following amounts of N, P, K, and Na (kg ha-1): 931, 27, 314, and 894, in 2013, and 1,132, 21, 463, and 1,428, in 2014. The most relevant effects on B. brizantha dry biomass yield and nutrient extraction were obtained with higher doses of TSE. The extract of macronutrients was higher for K and N, followed by K, Ca, Mg, and Na. Based on the responses in productivity and nutrient extraction of soil by the crop as a function of TSE fertilization without soil contamination, we propose that increased fertilizer application be studied further.

Pages 494-501 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p989

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Vegetative ash biomass as a potential source of silicon for soils in eucalyptus plantation

Mara Lúcia Martins Magela*, Lísias Coelho*, Rafael Resende Finzi, Luciana Nunes Gontijo

Instituto de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia-UFU, Campus Umuarama, Av. Amazonas, s.n, Bloco sala 01, Uberlândia, MG.CEP 38400-902, Brazil

Abstract
In face of the need to broaden the knowledge about the effects of ashes in eucalypt plantations, this study evaluated the use of ashes in two typical Brazilian soils for forest plantations. The experiment was done in a greenhouse, from November 19 to December 19 (2014), in Uberlândia, MG. The ashes were obtained from eucalypt wood and bark, eucalypt twigs and leaves, pine wood and bark and sugar cane bagasse, applied to a sandy soil (experiment 1) or to a clayey one (experiment 2). In each experiment, incubation tests were done in a completely randomized design as 4×2+1 factorial consisting of four ash sources. Vegetative ash biomass from eucalypt wood and bark (EWB), eucalypt twigs and leaves (ETL), pine wood and bark (PWB) and sugar cane bagasse (SCB), two doses (200 and 400 kg ha-1), and a control (with no silicon source), with three replications. Soluble silicon, pH, and exchangeable Ca and Mg were determined after incubating the soils for 30 days. PWB supplied more Si to both soils. The SCB did not increase Ca and Mg to either soil, regardless of the dose. The ashes that most reduced soil acidity in the sandy soil were those of eucalypt, at 400 kg ha-1, while no pH change was observed in the clayey one. The best silicon source evaluated for both soils was pine wood and bark (PWB) at 400 kg ha-1; however, EWB and ETL should be used whenever available.

Pages 502-506 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p995

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Screening of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) varieties for resistance to Curvularia leaf spot disease

Jittra Kittimorakul, Anurag Sunpapao, Saowapa Duangpan, Jakarat Anothai, Theera Eksomtramage*

Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand
Department of Pest Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand
Pest Management Biotechnology and Plant Physiology Laboratory, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand

Abstract
Leaf spot disease, particularly Curvularia leaf spot (CLS), can devastatingly damage both quality and quantity of oil palm seedlings in Thailand. Chemical fungicides have been intensively applied to control transmission of this disease. However, this has relatively low efficiency as the causative pathogen gains resistance to fungicides with selection pressure. An alternative or complementary cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach is necessary to find the resistant varieties for disease management. In this present study, a total of 122 lines of Dura female plant, 2 lines of Pisifera male plant, and 4 Tenera commercial varieties (A, B, C and SUP-PSU1) were screened by Curvularia inoculation using detached leaf method. Two weeks after inoculation, the results showed 13 Dura lines as highly resistant to CLS (0% disease incidence), whereas one line (129) and the commercial variety B were highly susceptible (100% disease incidence). Nine Tenera hybrid lines from 13 Dura highly resistant lines were selected to test for high resistance and subjected to Curvularia inoculation in greenhouse conditions, and compared with the susceptible and highly susceptible lines. Three Tenera hybrid lines (138, 187 and 203) showed high resistance to CLS significant difference from susceptible lines. These were the most highly resistant varieties to CLS and should be considered for breeding programs of oil palm stock among the cases tested.

Pages 507-512 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1276
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Effect of calcium, BAP and putrescine on somatic embryo induction in juvenile explants of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla hybrids

Luciana Coelho de Moura*, Aloisio Xavier, Ana Cláudia Ferreira da Cruz, Diego Siva Batista, Ricardo Gallo, Natane Amaral Miranda, Wagner Campos Otoni

Forest Engineering Department, Plant Tissue Laboratory, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Forest Engineering Department, Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory/BIOAGRO, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil
Plant Biology Department, Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory/BIOAGRO, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil


Abstract
Considering the constant improvement of Eucalyptus cloning and the search for new technologies to produce plantlets of this species, somatic embryogenesis has attracted interest from research groups and forestry companies that use advanced genetic breeding and cloning programs. The objective of the present study was to verify the effect of concentrations and sources of calcium, concentrations and effect time of cytokinin BAP and polyamine putrescine on the induction and development of somatic embryos in juvenile explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. Cotyledonary explants were inoculated into culture medium containing calcium chloride (MS medium) or calcium nitrate (JADS medium) as source of calcium. Different concentrations of calcium were also used, for MS medium containing: 4.40 gL-1 (control-Ca), 6.60 gL-1 (50% increase over control - Ca 50) and 8.80 gL-1 (increase of 100% over control – Ca 100) of calcium nitrate; and for JADS medium containing: 11.81 gL-1 (Ca), 17.72 gL-1 (Ca50) and 23.62 gL-1 (Ca100) of calcium chloride. Cotyledon explants were inoculated into the primary induction medium (PIM) containing 20.71 μM picloram as growth regulator. At 10, 20 and 30 days of primary induction, the explants were transferred to the secondary induction medium (SIM) containing 20.71 μM picloram and 11.10 μM BAP or 28.36 μM putrescine. The culture medium containing calcium nitrate provided higher callogenesis when compared to the medium containing calcium chloride. The increase in calcium concentration in the media did not provide higher percentage of induction of somatic pro-embryos. However, the addition of 28.36 μM putrescine to the culture medium provided a higher percentage of induction of somatic embryogenesis. The number of somatic pro-embryos formed per explant was higher when BAP and putrescine were added to the culture medium when compared to medium containing only picloram. To obtain a greater number of somatic pro-embryos of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla, the JADS culture medium containing 28.36 μM putrecine should be used.

Pages 513-519 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1345
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Physiological quality and grain production of Phaseolus vulgaris (cv. BRS Pérola) using boron (B) application under irrigatation system

Rilner Alves Flores*, Patrícia Pinheiro da Cunha, Virgínia Damin, Klaus de Oliveira Abdala, Deyvid Diego Carvalho Maranhão, Marivone Moreira dos Santos, Luiz Raimundo Garcias Neto, Mayara Cardoso Donegá, Raissa Alves Rodrigues

Soil Sector, Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil
Agriculture Sector, Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil
Rural Development, Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil
Department of Soil Science, Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Brazil


Abstract
Some aspects of the micronutrients management in common bean under boron fertilization in tropical agroecosystems are still poorly understood. The aim of this work was to evaluate the physiological quality and grain production of common bean using different B sources and dose applications, cultivated under irrigated system. The experimental design was a randomized block, in a factorial scheme 2 x 5 x 3, with two sources of B (boric acid containing 17% of B applied in leaves and FTE (fritted trace elements) and BR-12 including 1.8% of B, applied on the soil) with five doses of each source: 0 (control), 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg ha-1, with three repetitions. Each plot had a total area of 5.06 m2 (2.25m x 2.25m). The stomatal conductance and transpiration were reduced by increasing B doses, mainly when boric acid was used. Results showed that application of boric acid at 8 kg ha-1 of B reduced grain production about 21%. However, application of 6 kg ha-1 FTE BR 12 on the soil promoted grain production. However, application of 6 kg ha-1 of B using FTE (fritted trace elements) BR-12 as a source on the soil, promoted higher production and differential profit (618 US$ ha-1). Therefore, these sources and doses are recommended to common beans under irrigation systems in Brazilian Savanna agroecosystems.

Pages 520-528 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1383
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Use of different doses of glyphosate to control invasive plants: Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis, Digitaria insularis, Ipomoea grandiofolia and Tridax procumbens

André Luiz de Souza Lacerda, Ricardo Victoria Filho, Zigomar Menezes de Souza, José Luiz Rodrigues Torres*

Valinhos City Hall (SP), Agronomist, PhD, Rua Antônio Carlos, 301, CEP. 13.270-005, Valinhos, São Paulo, Brazil
School of Agriculture “Luiz de Queiroz” (ESALQ/USP) – Professor, PhD, Department of Plant Production, CP 9 – Zip code . 13.417-950 – Piracicaba, SP – Brazil
University of Campinas (UNICAMP), School of Agricultural Engineering (FEAGRI) – Av. Cândido Rondon, 501, Barão Geraldo, 13.083-875, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
Institute Federal of Education, Science and Technology, Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil, PhD in Agronomy/Plant Production, Rua João Batista Ribeiro, 4000, Zip code 39064-790, Brazil


Abstract
Glyposhate is among the most widely used herbicides in Brazil and worldwide and has a broad spectrum of control, low toxicity, non-selective, and systemic action. In Brazil, it has been increasingly consumed after its release to be used in plants with tolerance to the product; however, excessive use has contributed to select resistant or tolerant weed species. Our goal was to evaluate the efficiency of weed control by using glyphosate in a growth chamber at different doses, periods of applications, and weed species. The experimental design was completely randomized – factorial scheme 7 x 5 – by assessing seven doses of glyphosate: 0; 720; 960; 1200; 1440; 1680, and 1920 g ha-1 i.a., in five weeds: black picket, bitter grass, bull herb, viola string, and ragged, with five repetitions. The weeds were sowed in polyethylene pots with three plants per pot. Assessments of dry biomass were conducted after 7, 14, and 21 days of application (DAA) with the treatment of glyphosate in scores from 0 to 100%. We concluded that the herbicide was efficient at controlling the black picket and bitter grass species as 100% of the weed plants 14 DAA died with the doses of 720 g ha-1 i.a. Doses of glyphosate required to reach indices of control above 915 were 1680 g ha-1 i.a. for ragged, 960 g ha-1 i.a. for bull herb, and 1440 g ha-1 i.a. for viola string at 21 DAA – since these are considered hard to control. It is recommended to apply 1440 g ha-1 i.a. of glyphosate for an effective control over 80% of all invasive plants assessed at 21 DAA,.

Pages 529-535 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1432
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Morpho-physiological traits associated with heat stress tolerance in tropical maize (Zea mays L.) at the reproductive stage

Jewel Jameeta Noor, M.T.Vinayan, Shahid Umar, Pooja Devi, Muhammad Iqbal, K. Seetharam, P.H. Zaidi*

Asian Regional Maize Program, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), ICRISAT Campus, Hyderabad-502 324, India
Hamdard University, Hamdardnagar, New Delhi, India

Abstract
Heat stress resilience has emerged as an important trait in maize hybrids being targeted for post–monsoon spring cultivation in large parts of South Asia and many other parts of the tropics. Selection based on grain yield alone under heat stress is often misleading, and therefore an approach involving stress-adaptive secondary traits along with grain yield could help in the development of improved, stable heat stress tolerant cultivars. We attempted to identify reliable and effective secondary traits associated with heat stress tolerance in tropical maize and sources of heat stress tolerant germplasm. A panel of 99 elite maize inbred lines representing the wider genetic diversity of tropical maize and a set of 58 elite hybrids were phenotyped under natural heat stress and optimal temperature for grain yield and 15 secondary traits including10 morpho-physiological traits and 5 yield attributes. Evaluation under natural heat stress was done during the spring season by adjusting the planting date in so that the complete reproductive stage (from tassel emergence to late grain filling) was exposed to heat stress. The optimal temperature trial was planted during the monsoon season with no exposure to heat stress at any crop stage. Heat stress significantly affected most of the observed traits. Among the traits studied two yield attributing traits, i.e.- ears per plant (EPP) and kernel per row (KPR), and three morphological traits, i.e.- chlorophyll content (CC), leaf firing (LF) and tassel blast (TB) were found to be the key secondary traits associated with grain yield under heat stress. In addition, low anthesis-silking internal (ASI) is an important trait that needs to be added in the index selection for heat stress tolerance. The study identified nine promising heat stress tolerant maize inbred lines with desirable secondary traits and grain yield under severe heat stress, which could be used as a source of germplasm in heat stress tolerance maize breeding program.

Pages 536-545 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1448
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Fruit quality of a traditional pineapple cultivar (Turiaçu) compared to the most popular cultivar (Pérola) in Brazil

Fabrício Oliveira dos Reis*, José Ribamar Gusmão Araujo, Heder Braun, Augusto César Vieira Neves Junior, Anna Paula A Pereira

UEMA – Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, NO-1, Maranhão, Brazil

Abstract
Turiaçu is a traditional pineapple cultivar in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, and its fruits have high potential for the fresh fruit market due to consumer acceptance. This cultivar is in the process of domestication, but information on the quality of its fruits and their standards for marketing is scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biometric and chemical characteristics of the Turiaçu pineapple cultivar and the Pérola cultivar, which are grown in the main pineapple producing areas—Turiaçu, and São Domingos do Maranhão—in the state of Maranhão. The fruits were harvested at the green stage to evaluate the following biometric characteristics: fruit weight, infructescence weight, pulp yield, crown, peel and total residues, and base to apex diameter ratio; and the following chemical characteristics—total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TTA), and TSS to TTA chemical ratio. The Turiaçu cultivar presented higher fruit and infructescence weights, more cylindrical fruits, and pulp with higher TSS concentration and less acidity, compared to the Pérola cultivar. Fruits of the Turiaçu cultivar had more desirable biometric and chemical qualities for the consumer market— they were large, cylindrical, sweet, and with low acidity—, compared to those of the Pérola cultivar.

Pages 546-551 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1452
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Sample size for determination of the physiological potential of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seeds

Érica Fernandes Leão-Araújo*, Anderson Rodrigo da Silva, Amanda Rithieli Pereira dos Santos, Kaique Ferreira Alves, Lara Bernardes da S. Ferreira, Hygor Amaral Santana, Wilhan Valasco dos Santos, Brunna Rithielly Rezende

Goiano Federal Institute – Rodovia Geraldo Silva Nascimento, km 2.5, Zona Rural, 75790-000 – Urutaí, GO – Brazil

Abstract
The objective of this work was to determine the minimum number of replications and seeds per replication to perform the germination and seed vigor tests with coriander seeds. Two seed lots were compared in terms of water content, vigor and viability. Eight hundred seeds per lot were used. Values of germination first count, germination, germination speed index and mean germination time were analyzed. Sample size scenarios were developed using different combinations of number of replications (from 2 to 10) and the number of seeds per replication (from 20 to 80) by means of a resampling with replacement technique. The reference sample consisted of four replications of 50 seeds, as it is commonly used in researches with this species. Determination of the minimum number of replications and seeds was based on comparing the 95% bootstrapped confidence intervals for the index of variation (CV/n0.5) of each scenario with the confidence interval of the reference sample. It is reasonable to reduce the number of seeds per replication from 50 to 30 in order determine germination first count, germination and germination speed index. Forty seeds per replication are recommended to quantify the mean germination time. However, reductions in the number of replications can affect negatively the accuracy of germination and vigor tests.

Pages 552-557 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1482
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Implication of some pre-germination treatments on seeds and initial seedling growth of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

Laís Naiara Honorato Monteiro*, Aparecida Conceição Boliani, Antonio Flávio Arruda Ferreira, Maria Gabriela Fontanetti Rodrigues, Gláucia Amorim Faria, Marcela Sant’anna Cordeiro da Silva, Marcela Pacola Oliveira, Silvia Regina Cunha, Luiza Rocha Ribeiro

Department of Horticulture, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), School of Agriculture, José Barbosa de Barros Street, Postcode 18610-307, Botucatu, SP, Brazil
Department of Plant technology, Food technology and Socioeconomics, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Engineering College, Monção Street, Postcode 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, SP, Brasil
Department of Matemathics, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Engineering College, Rio de Janeiro Street, Postcode 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, SP, Brasil
Department of Vegetable Production, University of São Paulo (USP), Agriculture college “Luiz de Quiroz”, Pádua Dias Avenue, Postcode 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil
Department of Soils, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, MS 306 Road, 105Km, Postcode 79560-000, Chapadão do Sul, MS, Brasil


Abstract
Pomegranate stands out as healthy fruit due to its phytochemical compounds. Some dormancy studies have stated the need to understand seed physiology, subsequent seedling production, as producers intended to expand the supply of pomegranate, besides facilitating the introduction of such promising crop. Thus, this study aimed to identify possible integumentary dormancy in seeds of pomegranate cultivar Comum and to evaluate the effect of mechanical scarification and water immersion of seeds, as overcoming method. In this study, sarcotesta was removed from scarified and non-scarified seeds, and then immersed in deionised water for up to 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours. Then seeds were embedded in trays of expanded polystyrene with organic substrate at greenhouse. The following evaluations were carried out: initial emergence, speed index, mean time of emergence and emergence percentage, besides biometric variables such as leaf number, stem diameter, length of aerial part and root system, fresh matter and total dry matter. A 2 x 4 factorial arrangement (presence or absence of scarification x four immersion time) in a completely randomized design was used, with 4 replicates of 25 seeds each. The results showed that seeds do not need to be scarified and immersed in water, regarding to both emergence and initial seedling growth variables. Results indicated that it was unnecessary to perform scarification and water immersion for emergence and initial growth variables, leading to conclusion that pomegranate seeds cv. Comum have no integumentary dormancy.

Pages 558-565 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1496
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Recurrent selection method for improvement of lutein and zeaxanthin in orange waxy corn populations

Watanyoo Khamkoh, Danupol Ketthaisong, Khomsorn Lomthaisong, Kamol Lertrat, Bhalang Suriharn*

Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
Department of Biochemistry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
Plant Breeding Research Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand


Abstract
The information on the responses to simple recurrent selection for yield and total carotenoid content in orange waxy corn is lacking. The objectives were to evaluate the responses to simple recurrent selection for two cycles for yield and carotenoids of orange waxy corn population and to investigate the correlations between color parameter with carotenoids in waxy corn kernels. Parental sources of germplasm with differences in kernel colors and levels of disease resistance were used for generation of a base population of orange waxy corn. A simple recurrent selection for superior phenotypes was practiced on this population for two selection cycles. Cycle 0 (C0), C1 and C2 were evaluated for two locations in 2016. The cycles showed significant differences for most traits except for plant height. The locations contributed to large portions of total variation in total yield, whereas selection cycle contributed to large portions of total variations in lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and total carotenoid content and color parameter (ho), indicating that selection for carotenoids would be possible. Simple recurrent selection for two cycles increased total yield and husked ear weight of 23.2% and 15.0%, respectively. Simple recurrent selection for two cycles also increased lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and total carotenoid content with increasing percentages ranging from 18.5 to 196.6%. The results indicated that population improvement by simple recurrent selection could be useful in increasing these traits. Color parameter at immature stage and dry stage was negatively and significantly correlated with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and total carotenoid content, indicating that color parameter can be used as an indirect selection criterion for these traits.

Pages 566-573 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1507
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Effect of different training systems to catch greater light interception in apple cultivar Maxi Gala in temperate climate

Guilherme Fontanella Sander, Tiago Afonso Macedo, Pricila Santos da Silva, Juliana Fátima Welter, Augusto José Posser, Leo Rufato, Aike Anneliese Kretzschmar

Department of Biotechnology, Santa Catarina State University, Brazil

Abstract
Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. In Brazil, apple is the deciduous fruit of major importance. Its production is focused in the southern region of the country. To increase apple tree yield and to optimize fruit quality, it is important to choose a suitable training system to obtain greater light interception and photosynthetic radiation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate vegetative and productive aspects of the cultivar Maxi Gala grafted on seven-year-old dwarf rootstock M.9, under three different training systems: Tall Spindle, Solaxe and Vertical Axis. The experimental orchard was implemented in August, 2010 in Vacaria city, Rio Grande do Sul province, Brazil. The experiment was conducted and evaluated in (2014-2017) seasons. The results showed that Tall Spindle, Solaxe and Vertical Axis driving systems had no effect on internode length, plant height, fruit diameter and quality parameters such as pulp firmness and soluble solids. Therefore, the Tall Spindle driving system was more efficient for accumulative production, being this the indicated combination for regions with the edaphoclimatic characteristics like those of the orchard under study.

Pages 574-577 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1542
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Phenotypic diversity and marker-trait association studies under heat stress in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Muhammed Alsamir, Nabil Ahmad1, Vivi Arief, Tariq Mahmood, Richard Trethowan

Plant Breeding Institute, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, University of Sydney, 107 Cobbitty Road, Cobbitty, NSW 2570, Australia
School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
The Date Palm Research Center, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq


Abstract
Tomato is a mild season crop and high temperature stress impacts productivity negatively. However, the development of cultivars with improved heat tolerance is possible as genetic variability has been consistently reported. This study aimed to identify candidate genes that impact various traits under heat stress. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted on a diverse set of 144 tomato genotypes collected from various germplasm centers and breeding programs. The genotypes were grown under control and heat stress in poly tunnels having mean temperatures of 30°C and 45°C for two seasons and phenotypic data were collected on seven agro-physiological traits. All individuals were genotyped withthe80K DArTseq platform using 31237 SNP markers. Data were analysed using a mixed model based on restricted maximum likelihood (REML). Pattern analysis of the phenotypic data showed five primary clusters each with genotypes from multiple origins. Based on the genotypic data, three wild tomato genotypes showed a degree of un-relatedness with the other materials as they were distantly located from the rest of the genotypes in the scatter plot. Control treatment data were used to ascertain markers that are exclusively important under high temperature stress. A large number of markers were significantly associated with various traits under heat stress. These included strong marker associations for number of inflorescence/plant (IPP), number of flowers/inflorescence (FPI), fresh fruit weight (FFrW), and electrolyte leakage (EL). High association with EL was found due to two SNPs 7858523|F|0-25:G>A-25:G>A and 4705224|F|0-60:C>G-60:C>G located on Chr 6. Other less pronounced marker-trait associations were observed for plant dry weight (PDW), and number of fruit/plant (FrPP).

Pages 578-587 | Full Text PDF| Full Text PDF | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1581
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Meta-analysis of Lamiaceae and Euphorbiaceae medicinal plants inoculated with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Sonivaldo Ruzzene Beltrame, Rayane Monique Sete da Cruz, Emerson Luiz Botelho Lourenço, Odair Alberton*

Programa de Pós-graduação em Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agricultura; Universidade Paranaense – UNIPAR; Praça Mascarenhas de Moraes; 4282; 87502-210; Umuarama – PR – Brasil
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso do Sul – IFMS, Campus Dourados; Rua Filinto Müller, 1790; 79833-520; Dourados – MS – Brasil
Programa de Pós-graduação em Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterápicos na Atenção Básica. Laboratório de Pesquisa Pré Clínica de Produtos Naturais e Bioativos, Universidade Paranaense, Umuarama – PR – Brasil


Abstract
Lamiaceae and Euphorbiaceae are two families of plants grown as medicinal, aromatic, food and ornamental crops, and are of great commercial importance. The cultivation of these species depends on soil quality and availability of soil resources. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) usually penetrates plants through their roots, supplying plants with water and nutrients and receiving photosynthesis products in return. These types of symbiosis benefit the development and production of crops. To analyze the effects of AMF inoculation on the production of plants of these families, a meta - analysis was performed using 183 data of Lamiaceae plants and 68 data of Euphorbiaceae plants. Meta-analysis consists of compiling data from literature to obtain the response ratio, calculated by the mean of the experimental group divided by the mean of the control group. The response variables were shoot dry mass (SDM), total dry mass (TDM), plant height and accumulation of phosphorus in the plant shoot (P-shoot). Results showed an increased mean production of AMF-inoculated plants with a 96% and 97% increase of SDM in Lamiaceae and Euphorbiaceae, respectively. Increases of 91% in TDM and 248% in P accumulated in the plant shoot were observed for Lamiaceae; values that were higher than those of Euphorbiaceae at 110% and 675%, respectively. This meta-analysis confirmed the potential of AMF to increase biomass production and P accumulation in medicinal plants of the Lamiaceae and Euphorbiaceae families.

Pages 588-598 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1615
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Accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in T1 transgenic tobacco seedlings expressing metallothionein gene from Eleusine indica

Nik Marzuki Sidik*, Roslina Mat Yazid, Dhalila Zafirah Mohd Dahlan, Babul Airianah Othman, Ismanizan Ismail

Faculty of Agro Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Locked Bag 100, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia
School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
Institute of Systems Biology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia


Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) contamination of urban and agricultural soils is toxic to humans, animals and may cause negative effects on plant growth and crop production. The existing conventional methods are found to be not efficient to remove Cd from contaminated soil. The present experiment reports the analysis of nine T1 lines of transgenic tobacco carrying metallothionein gene (eiMT1) from Eleusine indica, with potential for high efficiency to remediate Cd in contaminated soils. Thirty-days old tobacco plants were treated with different concentrations of CdNO3 (0, 50, 100 and, 150 µmol) for seven days and the accumulation of Cd in the whole seedling was quantitatively determined by using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). All transgenic tobacco lines showed greater tolerance and accumulated higher level of Cd than the wild type with lines 18D, 20D1 and, 18C were among the highest (678.7, 623.0 and 611.9 mgkg-1 Cd, respectively). Meanwhile, transgenic tobacco lines 18B1 and 20D1 showed higher expression of eiMT1 gene. These results suggest that the cadmium accumulation in transgenic tobacco did not strictly associate with the expression level of eiMT1 gene. However, expression of eiMT1 greatly required for higher accumulation of Cd in transgenic tobacco seedling.

Pages 599-604 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1630
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Development of a compartmentalized model for insight into the structured metabolic pathway of carbon metabolism in cassava leaves

Nattharat Punyasu, Saowalak Kalapanulak, Wanatsanan Siriwat, Treenut Saithong*

Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Program, School of Bioresources and Technology, and School of Information Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (Bang Khun Thian), Bangkok, 10150, Thailand
Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Program, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (Bang Khun Thian), Bangkok, 10150, Thailand
Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Research Group, Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (Bang Khun Thian), Bangkok, 10150, Thailand


Abstract
In silico metabolic modeling has enabled systematic study of complicated metabolic processes underlying phenotypes of organisms. Modeling of plant metabolism is often hampered by the network complexity and lack of adequate knowledge. The existing metabolic networks of cassava only cover broad metabolism and are not compartmentalized to truly represent metabolism in photosynthetic tissues. To address the aforementioned limitations and develop a robust metabolic network, physiological and genomic data derived from cassava and leaf models of Arabidopsis and rice were to extend the scope of the existing model. The proposed compartmentalized network of metabolism in photosynthetic tissues of cassava, ph-MeRecon (photosynthetic-Manihot esculenta Metabolic Pathway Reconstruction) was developed based on the information resulting of the comparative study of multiple model plants and cassava genome. The ph-MeRecon covers primary carbon metabolism and comprises 461 metabolites, 550 reactions, and 1,037 metabolic genes. Enzymatic genes on the network were validated using RNA-expression data, and the reactions and pathways were compartmentalized into cytoplasm, chloroplast, mitochondria, and peroxisome. To ensure network connectivity, metabolic gaps were filled using gap reactions obtained from literature and metabolic pathway omnibus. In addition, information on plant physiology, including photosynthetic light-dependent reactions, carboxylase and oxygenase activity of RuBisCO enzyme, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzyme activity was incorporated into ph-MeRecon to mimic cellular metabolism in cassava leaves. Thus, ph-MeRecon offers a multi-level platform for system analysis of cellular mechanisms underlying phenotypes of interest in cassava. The ph-MeRecon metabolic model is available at http://bml.sbi.kmutt.ac.th/ph-MeRecon/.

Pages 605-615 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| Supplementary data .xlsx| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1639
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Response of spring wheat genotypes to organic farming systems in low-fertility soil

Nasser S. AL-Ghumaiz*, Mohamed I Motawei, Abdulrahman A Al-Soqeer

Department of Plant Production and Protection-College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, Buridah, Qassim, 51452, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abstract
Low-fertility soil is considered a major challenge for growing wheat (Triticum aestivum) in organic systems. The objective of this study was to identify spring wheat genotype(s) adapted to growing in organic systems with low-fertility soil compared with conventional systems in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Organic and conventional trials were established during the 2010, 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in the arid environment of central region of Saudi Arabia. Both trails were seeded in a sandy loam soil. Eight bread wheat genotypes were evaluated for the following parameters: grain and straw yields, grain-filling rate (GFR), days to heading (DTH), days to maturity (DTM), number of kernels per spike and 1000-kernel weight. The experiment was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. The findings showed that there were significant differences in grain and straw yields between the two systems and among genotypes. The Egyptian genotypes 'Sids 12' and Early-line produced the highest grain yields (7.8 tons ha-1) in the conventional system, whereas in the organic system, Yocora Rojo (control genotype) and Early-line produced the highest yields (5.8 and 5.9 tons ha-1, respectively). Grain and straw yields were higher in 2011 and 2012 growing seasons compared to 2010. Early-line and ICARDA genotypes (IC8 and IC17) had the highest grain-filling rate, whereas the Australian genotypes (P5 and P3) and the local genotype 'Sama' had the lowest grain-filling rate. The genotype Early-line had the shortest time to heading and maturity in both systems. Therefore, Early-line and Yocora Rojo are promising bread wheat genotypes for organic production systems in low-fertility soil.

Pages 616-621 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1648
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Biometric characteristics of fruits, seeds and plants of Hancornia speciosa Gomes. (Apocynaceae)

Alan Mario Zuffo*, Aécio Busch, Fábio Steiner, Charline Zaratin Alves, Francisco de Alcântara Neto, Mariely de Abreu dos Santos, Graziely Alves Nogueira, Wéverson Lima Fonseca, Augusto Matias de Oliveira, Tiago de Oliveira Sousa, Adaniel Sousa dos Santos

Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, 79560-000, Chapadão do Sul, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, 79540-000, Cassilândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Federal University of Piauí, 64049-550, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil
Federal University of Ceará, 60020-181, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil
Federal University of Piauí, 64900-000, Bom Jesus, Piauí, Brazil
Federal University of Vales de Jequitinhonha and Mucuri, 39100-000, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil


Abstract
The economic and scientific interest in Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangabeira) has increased in recent years, especially due to the commercialization of its fruits and the extraction of natural compounds with high pharmacological potential. This paper aims to determine and correlate the main physical and biometric characteristics of fruits and seeds of mangaba tree, as well as identifying the most appropriate substrate for the seedling emergence test. The following physical and biometric traits were measured in 100 fruits and 100 seeds: longitudinal diameter, transverse diameter, thickness, fresh mass, pulp fresh mass, volume, number of seeds. To identify the best substrate, a completely randomized design with two treatments (substrates) and ten replications of 20 seeds was used. The evaluated substrates were: sand and commercial substrate (Plantmax HT®). The shoot height, root length, stem diameter, total dry mass, and the relation between shoot height and stem diameter were evaluated at 50 days after sowing. Mangaba fruits and seeds showed great variations in their biometric traits, in addition to significant and positive correlation predominant in most characteristics. High fruit pulp yield can be optimized with the selection of plants with fruits show greater fresh mass due to the high degree of association between this characteristic and pulp yield. The use of the commercial substrate resulted in higher shoot height, greater number of leaves, and higher shoot height/stem diameter ratio.

Pages 622-627 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1651
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Identification of sources of resistance to damping-off (Rhizoctonia solani) in two phenological phases of watermelon

Fábio Sanchez da Cunha, Antonio Elton da Silva Costa, Alexandre Sandri Capucho, Rita de Cássia Souza Dias, Francine Hiromi Ishikawa*

Colegiado de Engenharia Agronômica, Campus de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, CEP 56300-990, Petrolina, PE, Brazil
Embrapa Semiárido, CP23, CEP 56300-000 Petrolina, PE, Brazil


Abstract
Sources of resistance to damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani were researched in watermelon accessions, in which thirty accessions were inoculated in two phenological phases (at seeding and seedling stages). The completely randomized design with five replications per accession was used in both phenological stages. The inoculation in seeding stage was carried out at the time of sowing, while for seedling the inoculation was done 15 days after sowing. In both stages the evaluation occurred 15 days after inoculation using a rating scale. At seeding stage, six accessions were moderately resistant to CMM-2967 of R. solani. However, no accession resistant to CMM-1053 and CMM-1052 isolates was recognized. Three accessions were resistant to CMM-1053 at the seedling stage. Posteriorly, inoculation was carried out using only accessions classified as resistant in the previous evaluations using both phenological stages. For CMM-1053, factorial scheme of 2x4 were used (two stages and four accessions). For assessments against isolate CMM-2967 a factorial scheme of 2x12 (two stages and 12 accessions) was used. We confirmed the results of first two experiments for both isolates. At seeding stage, all accessions were classified as susceptible to CMM-1053. However, at the seedling stage, only Crimson Swett was susceptible. For the CMM-2967, inoculated at the seeding stage, the accessions were classified into two groups (resistant and susceptible) (Scott-Knott at 5%). At seedling stage there was no statistical difference among eleven accessions and they were all classified as resistant. Due to difficulty of finding sources of resistance to damping off, the method of inoculation at seedling stage showed more efficient for this pathosystem and could facilitate the work of breeders and plant pathologists.

Pages 628-634 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1675
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Health quality and reduction of pathogenic transmission in tomato seeds using plant extracts

Mônica Shirley Brasil dos Santos e Silva, Antônia Alice Costa Rodrigues*, Erlen Keila Candido e Silva, Anna Christina Sanazário de Oliveira, Leonardo de Jesus Machado Gois de Oliveira, Natalia de Jesus Ferreira Costa, Maria Rosangela Malheiros Silva, Raimunda Nonata Santos de Lemos

Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, Centro de Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agroecologia

Abstract
The objective of the present study was to assess the seed health quality, quantification of seed- seedling pathogen transmission and the effect of plant extracts in reducing plant pathogens in the seeds of the tomato varieties San Marzano and Ipa 6. For seed health, the samples were disinfested, plated and assessed after seven days, according to the Brazilian Seed Analysis Rule. For the transmission rate, 12 trays were prepared with 100 seeds each and assessed at 7, 14 and 21 d.a.s. (days after seeding) using 100 seedlings. The plant (main root, stalk and leaves) tissues were plated in PDA culture medium and assessed after seven days of incubation. Aqueous extracts were prepared from cinnamon, basil, neem and eucalyptus with 0.5% concentration and the seeds were immersed in each solution for 10 minutes. Then they plated and assessed after seven days. The health test showed that biggest incidence of Aspergillus fumigatus (26 %) and Aspergillus flavus (26 %) were occurred in the seeds of the varieties Ipa 6 and San Marzano, respectively. The fungi A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, R. stolonifer and Curvularia sp. were detected in the transmission quantification in the seeds of the two tomato varieties. The treatment with basil extract resulted in the least fungus incidence in the transmission quantification of ‘San Marzano’ tomato seeds, while in the of Ipa 6 seeds the eucalyptus treatment was the best. Interference from the treatments was not observed in the tomato seed germination. However, there was decrease in pathogens in the seeds treated with the plant extracts and different effect was observed according to the pathogen.

Pages 635-641 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1680
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Interspecific grafting to solve the rootstock shortage in vegetative propagation of Lai-durian (Durio zibethinus x kutejensis) originated from East Kalimantan

Widi Sunaryo*, Hadi Pranoto, Nurhasanah, Rahman

Department of Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Mulawarman University, Jl. Pasir Balengkong, Kampus Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, 75123, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
UPTD, Pengawasan dan Sertifikasi Benih Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura, Dinas Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Propinsi Kalimantan Timur, Jl. PM Noor, Samarinda, 75123, East Kalimantan, Indonesia


Abstract
Lai-durian (Durio zibethinus x kutejensis) is a durio species derived from a natural crossing between Durio zibethinus (Durian, local name) and Durio kutejensis (Lai, local name) showing high performance of fruit quality and economic value such as golden yellow aril color, sweet and odourless taste, soft and dry texture, long shelf life (7-10 days), high edible portion, and relatively high fruit weight and yield per plant per year. The vegetative propagation of Lai-durian especially using shoot or bud grafting is facing a problem due to the low rootstock availability since Lai-durian seeds show a high percentage of abnormal/undeveloped seeds. This research was performed to evaluate the compatibility and growth performance of the interspecific grafting of two different grafting types, chip budding and cleft grafting using three different rootstock sources, D. zibethinus, D. kutejensis, and D. zibethinus x kutejensis. Three superior national varieties of Lai-durian, i.e., Lai Kayan, Lai Mandong, and Holai Sentawar were used in this research as scion sources. The total number of 180 grafting occasions of chip budding and cleft grafting was conducted using 4–5 months-old seedling plants with 50-60 cm height as rootstocks. The survival rate of the successful grafting and several growth parameters, i.e., plant height, shoot and rootstock diameter, leaf number, and branch number increment were evaluated for two months. The interspecific grafting of Lai-durian on three different rootstock seedlings derived from D. zibethinus, D. kutejensis, and D..zibethinus x kutejensis was compatible and showed a successful graft union using chip budding (94%) or cleft grafting (60%). The use of D. zibethinus and D. kutejensis as rootstocks could replace those of D. zibethinus x kutejensis since there were no significant differences in the grafting compatibility and growth among the three varieties of rootstocks.

Pages 642-648 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.04.p1845



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