Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

FEBRUARY 2020 | EARLY VIEW | 14(02):2020 | DOI: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02


Mixed models and multivariate approach applied to maize breeding: A useful tool for biofortification

Tiago Corazza da Rosa, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho*, José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Maurício Horbach Barbosa, Jessica Fernanda Hoffmann, Ester Mafalda Matter, Christian Szambelam Zimmermann, Valéria Escaio Bubans, Velci Queiróz de Souza

Federal University of Pelotas, Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil
Regional University of Northwest of State of Rio Grande do Sul, Ijuí, RS, Brazil
Federal University of Pampa, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil


Abstract
Biofortification and bioactive compounds enrichment of maize genotypes is a great alternative for mitigating micronutrients deficiency in human and animal diet, and also for improving the benefits of maize for human health. This work aimed to estimate variance components and genetic parameters of bioactive compounds and micronutrients to predict superior maize hybrids from different genetic bases, and to apply the RELM/BLUP methodology to multivariate techniques. The inbreed lines were crossed and the F1 hybrids were grown for evaluations in 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 growing seasons, respectively. Then, micronutrients and bioactive compounds related traits were evaluated. The variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by REML methodology. The BLUP methodology was employed to predict genetic values and to verify the percentages of genetic gain with selection. The predicted genetic values were applied to estimate genetic distances by the Mean Euclidean Distance. The relative contribution of each trait to genetic divergence was evaluated and the principal components analysis determined, proposing the genotypes that are potentially capable to increase a given trait. The presence of genetic variability was evidenced among genotypes, while some of them presented potential for increasing specific traits. The top cross hybrid L64XAS1590 showed the highest estimates for increasing antioxidant-responsible traits, and micronutrients contents such as manganese, cooper, iron and zinc. In general, there was the possibility of achieving genetic gains with selection under application of biofortified and bioactive compounds to enhance maize hybrids through conventional breeding. However, it does not applicable for iron content due to its low estimate of broad sense heritability.

Pages 213-220 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p1518
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Expected values and predictive model for black seed (Plaseolus vulgaris L.) production

Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Luiz Leonardo Ferreira, Gustavo Henrique Demari, José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva, Mauricio Horbach Barbosa, Tiago Corazza da Rosa, Jerffeson Araujo Cavalcante, Ester Mafalda Matter, Devid Araujo Magano, Velci Queiróz de Souza

Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Ijuí, RS, Brasil
Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão, RS, Brasil
Centro Universitário de Mineiros, Mineiros, GO, Brasil
Universidade Federal do Pampa, São Gabriel, RS, Brasil


Abstract
The objective of this work was to determine the tendencies of expected values, linear associations, and to define which traits compose the best predictive model for mass of seeds per plant of black and pinto bean genotypes from different regions of Rio Grande do Sul. The experiments were conducted in the agricultural years of (2015-2017). The expected values are increased as function of the segregating generation of F2, F3, F4 for first pod insertion height and plant height. Furthermore, black commercial group determines superiority for number of seeds per plant, while pinto genotypes are closely related to increments of mass of seeds per plant. Linear associations are specific to germplasm origin, commercial group and segregating generations of bean genotypes regarding traits of agronomic interest. The predictive model created to increase mass of seeds per plant is specific for germplasm origins and commercial group of beans. The seed yield of pinto genotypes was maximized by plant height and number of seeds per plant. For genotypes of black commercial group, this increase is achieved through plant height, number of pods and seeds per plant in F3 and F4 segregating generations.

Pages 221-228 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p1585
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Effects of foliar application of chemical agents and shading levels on growth and physiological aspects of "malagueta" pepper plants

Alexandre de Araújo Ascoli*, Flávio Ferreira da Silva Binotti, Gabriel Wanderley de Mendonça, Geraldo Candido Cabral Gouveia, Edilson Costa, Eliana Duarte Cardoso

Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Ilha Solteira - SP
State University of Mato Grosso do Sul - UEMS, Cassilândia - MS


Abstract
Foliar application of chemical agents and cultivation in different levels of shading can modify pepper plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of chemical agents in the growth, partition of photoassimilates and photosynthetic pigments of malagueta pepper in different growing environments. The treatments were arranged in a randomized design with a 2x5 factorial scheme under two cultivation environments [eucalyptus structures measuring 5.0 x 5.0 x 2.5 m (length x width x height), coated with type coverage screens (Sombrite®) with 18% and 35% shading], and five treatments with chemical agents [1 - C - without application; 2 - PBZ (50 mg L-1) + Nut. (1%); 3 - Gib. (50 mg L-1) + Nut. (1%); 4 - Amin. (50 mg L-1) + Ant. (50 mg L-1) and 5 - Gib. (50 mg L-1) + A (50 mg L-1) + Amin. (50 mg L-1) + Ant. (50 mg L-1)] in four replications. We evaluated the stem diameter, the plant height, number of leaves, leaf dimensions, leaf area, accumulation and dry matter partition and chlorophyll contents. The cultivation of pepper plants in environment with 18% of shading provides plants with a higher number of leaves and dry matter, as environment protects plants against climatic agents by controlling temperature, humidity and solar radiation. The application of the Paclobutrazol + Nitrogen promotes shoot growth and increases the green pigmentation in pepper plants.

Pages 229-235 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p1852
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In vitro evaluation of anticaries, antimycobacterial, antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from Eremanthus erythropappus and of α-bisabolol, their major sesquiterpene

Cassia Cristina Fernandes Alves, Priscila Mileide de Andrade, Tainá Caroline Lucena dos Santos, Mariana Brentini Santiago, Mariana Cintra Pagotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller Crotti, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins, Lizandra Guidi Magalhães, Mayker Lazaro Dantas Miranda*

Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Goiano, Campus Rio Verde, Av. Sul Goiana, s/n°, Zona Rural, 75901-970, Rio Verde, GO, Brazil
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Pouso Alegre, Av. Maria da Conceição Santos, 900, Parque Real, 37550-000, Pouso Alegre, MG, Brazil
Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade de Franca, Franca, SP, Brazil
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Triângulo Mineiro, Campus Uberlândia Centro, Rua Blanche Galassi, 150, Morada da Colina, 38411-104, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil


Abstract
Interest in researches into medicinal plants and therapeutic effects of essential oils (EOs) on humans has increased over the last few years. Eremanthus erythropappus, known as candeia, is a Brazilian aromatic herbaceous plant whose α-bisabolol-rich oil has been used in several cosmetic preparations. This paper reports in vitro anticaries, antimycobacterial, antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of EOs from E. erythropappus leaves (EL-EO) and stalks (ES-EO), besides α-bisabolol, their main sesquiterpene. EL-EO and ES-EO were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. α-Bisabolol, cis-α-bisabolene and β-bisabolene were identified as their major constituents. Antibacterial activity of EOs was evaluated against eight standard strains of pathogens from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the use of the microdilution method. Antibacterial activity was evaluated against Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, S. sanguinis, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium and M. kansasii. EL-EO, ES-EO and α-bisabolol exhibited high leishmanicidal activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis; IC50 values were 9.22 µg/mL, 6.00 µg/mL and 3.12 µg/mL, respectively. The 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) of EL-EO, ES-EO and α-bisabolol against mouse peritoneal macrophages were 24.65 µg/mL, 8.87 µg/mL and 1021.00 µg/mL, respectively. These results suggest that EOs from E. erythropappus seem to be very promising for the development of new bactericidal and leishmanicidal agents.

Pages 236-243 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p1876
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Cadmium, copper, and chromium levels in maize plants and soil fertilized with sewage sludge

Iolanda Maria Soares Reis*, Suelen Cristina Nunes Alves, Wanderley José de Melo, Laércio Santos Silva, Ludmila de Freitas, Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira, Ianna Bizerra Barros, Gabriel Maurício Peruca de Melo, Valéria Peruca de Melo

Teacher of Institute of Biodiversity and Forests, Federal University of the West of Pará (IBEF / UFOPA), 68040-255, Santarém, Pará, Brazil
Faculty of Agrarian and Veterinary Sciences, Paulista State University, FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pará, Breves, Pará, Brazil
Department of Soils, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
The use of sewage sludge as fertilizer is a widespread practice. However, the presence of heavy metals and pathogens in sludge are a cause for concern. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and chromium (Cr) in leaves, aerial parts, and kernels of maize grown in red latosol that was fertilized with sewage sludge for 15 consecutive years. Metal concentrations in soil and kernel yield were also determined. A randomized block design was used, with five replicates and four treatments: T1, mineral fertilization (control); T2, application of sewage sludge at 5 Mg ha−1; T3, application of sewage sludge at 10 Mg ha−1; and T4, application of sewage sludge at 20 Mg ha−1. All plots received potassium (K) supplementation. Fertilization with sewage sludge was as efficient as mineral fertilization. Sewage sludge had no negative effect on kernel yield. A negative correlation was observed between metal concentrations in soil and plant samples. Cd was detected at ≤0.04 mg kg−1 in kernels and Cu at ≤2.34 mg kg−1, whereas Cr was not detected in any sample. These levels are considered safe for human consumption, according to the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency. Fertilization with sewage sludge for 15 years did not increase Cu, Cd, and Cr levels in the soil and had no negative effect on maize, which shows the potential of sewage sludge for agricultural use.

Pages 244-249 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p2006
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Nutrient availability in phosphate and potassic rocks induced by Acidithiobacillus oxidizing bacteria to produce biofertilizers

Emmanuella Vila Nova da Silva*, Newton Pereira Stamford, Wagner da Silva Oliveira, Valdomiro Severino de Souza Júnior, Lusiene Barbosa Sousa, Mário de Andrade Lira Junior

Federal Rural University of Pernambuco - Department of Agronomy, Av. Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/n – 52171-900, Recife-PE, Brazil

Abstract
Production of conventional fertilizers requires significant energy consumption which increases the price of the product. In recent years, a growing interest on the application of natural products has been shown by public. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the sulfur bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans to promote mineralogy changes and increase nutrient availability, using phosphate and potassic rocks to produce PK biofertilizers. The study was set up in Petri dishes using 30 g of phosphate rock + 30 g of potassium rock, each rock mixed with elemental sulfur applied at two levels 10% and 20% (3 g and 6 g) in dish. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with eight replications (each rock). The bacterium was inoculated applying 1 ml per g of elemental sulfur. The rocks were incubated during 180 days and mineralogical analysis by XRD and chemical analysis were processed at 30, 60, 120, 150 and 180 days after inoculation. The Acidithiobacillus produced sulfuric acid, which promoted mineralogical changes especially at 180 days after inoculation, compared with the initial time. The inoculation of Acidithiobacillus reduced pH and promoted mineralogical changes in P and K rocks with a significant increase in P and K availability, becoming a viable alternative to plant nutrition instead of soluble PK fertilizers. In addition, it showed great potential for a sustainable agriculture system.

Pages 250-258 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p2109
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Genotype by environment analysis of rice (Oryza sativa L.) populations under drought stressed and well-watered environments

Lourine Chebet Bii, Kahiu Ngugi, John M. Kimani, George N. Chemining’wa

Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Industrial Crops Research Centre, Mwea, Kerugoya, Kenya

Abstract
In Kenya, the key abiotic stress affecting rice production is drought stress which is experienced mainly during reproductive phase of the crop. This study evaluated the performance of Kenyan rice populations including 19 generation of crosses, 6 parental and 5 checks under well-watered and drought stressed environment with the aim of identifying the phenotypic traits that confer drought tolerance in rice. The 19 generation of crosses were in F3 when they were evaluated in the short rains season and later advanced to F4 in the long rains season. Nineteen generation of crosses rice (Oryza sativa L.) lines, six parental and five check lines were evaluated for response to drought under drought stressed and well-watered environment. The study was conducted over two seasons in the year 2016/2017 at Kenya Agricultural Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) -Mwea Centre. The experiment was set up in an alpha lattice design with three replications. Drought stress was imposed at panicle initiation by withholding irrigation till physiological maturity meanwhile the well-watered environment continued to enjoy the recommended irrigation regime from planting to physiological maturity. Yield data were scored for drought tolerance. AMMI analysis of variance for grain yield showed that genotypes from crosses of crosses of SARO5XNERICA11, NERICA2XSARO5 and NERICA15XSARO5 expressed high grain yield. AMMI stability Variance (ASV) showed genotypes NERICA15, Duorado Precoce and progenies from crosses of NERICA11XNERICA2, SARO5XKomboka and NERICA2XNERICA11 expressed high stability in both well-watered and drought-stressed environment.
GGE analysis showed that Principal Components (PC1) and PC2 accounted for 96.46% and 3.54%, respectively. GGE biplots showed that genotypes from crosses SARO5XNERICA11 and NERICA15XSARO5 were the most stable and high yielding. GGE biplots ranked the rice lines as follows: those above average in performance, the stable ones, unstable and those below average in performance. SARO5XNERICA11 is worth of selection due to its high mean yield value and is stable across the mega-environments.

Pages 259-262 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p2112
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Estimation of adaptability and stability of early strains of ‘Carioca’ and black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Pernambuco State, Brazil

Richardson Sales Rocha, Paulo Ricardo dos Santos, Tâmara Rebecca Albuquerque de Oliveira, Rogério Figueiredo Daher, Maxwel Rodrigues Nascimento, Alexandre Gomes de Souza, Larissa Jaina da Silva de Oliveira, Katiane da Rosa Gomes da Silva, Kleyton Danilo da Silva Costa, Antônio Félix da Costa, Helton Pereira Santos

Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Centro do Ciências e Tecnologias Agropecuárias, Avenida Alberto Lamego, no 2000, Parque Califórnia, CEP 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
Instituto Agronômico de Pernambuco (IPA), Avenida General San Martin, nº 1371, Bongi, CEP 50761-000, Recife, PE, Brazil
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Alagoas (IFAL), Avenida Sergipe, s/nº, Xingó, CEP 57460-000, Piranhas, AL, Brazil
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa Arroz e Feijão), Rodovia GO 462, km 12, s/nº, CEP 75375-000, Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil


Abstract
Low yields of early ‘Carioca’ and black bean varieties are a consequence of instability and low yield adaptability to specific growing environments. The goal of this work was to evaluate the genotype x environment interaction of early ‘Carioca’ and black bean new lines aiming at obtaining genotypes with high grain yield and good adaptability and stability. In (2012), 15 genotypes of the black group were evaluated in Ibimirim, Belém do São Francisco, and Petrolina municipalities, in Pernambuco State, Brazil; and, in (2016), 11 genotypes of early ‘Carioca’ bean were evaluated in Caruaru, Arcoverde, and Araripina municipalities, also in Pernambuco State. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replicates, and grain yield data were submitted to analysis of variance, in which means were compared by the Tukey’s test and analysis via GGE Biplot. In Arcoverde, the grain yield was greater for all early ‘Carioca’ bean genotypes, whereas, in the environment of Petrolina, there was the worst grain yield in kg ha-1 for all black bean genotypes, individually. The GGE Biplot methodology was found to be efficient in identifying genotypes with good adaptability, stability, and yield. Differences presented by the genotypes for the grain yield trait give the basis to recommend the genotypes and express the possibility of selection for genetic improvement of the species.

Pages 263-270 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p2121
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Nitrogen levels and rotation with cover crops in wheat under no-tillage

Letícia Martins e Martins, Orivaldo Arf, Fernando de Souza Buzo*, Vagner do Nascimento, Lucas Martins Garé, José Roberto Portugal, Tayná Lara Serantoni da Silveira, Flávia Constantino Meirelles, Nayara Fernanda Siviero Garcia

São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Plant Science, Food Technology and Social Economy, Ilha Solteira, State of São Paulo, Brazil
Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

Abstract
The spread of the conservationist agriculture system involving green fertilization, crop rotation, and no-tillage has altered the dynamics of production, which can benefit the development and productivity of the successor crop, as well as the N fertilizer economy. In this context, the objective of this experiment was to study the effect of single maize cropping and maize intercropping with four cover crops in conjunction with the application of N doses under cover on wheat. The experiment was carried out in 2015 and 2017, in an experimental area using a 5 × 4 factorial randomized block experimental design with four replicates. Treatments consisted of the combination of five cover crops (maize, maize + Crotalaria spectabilis, maize + Cajanus cajan, maize + Canavalia ensiformis, and maize + Urochloa ruziziensis) with four N doses (0, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha-1) in no-tillage wheat production. The main production components and yield of wheat were evaluated. It was concluded that the plant residues of maize + Canavalia ensiformis and maize + Urochloa ruziziensis enhanced the yield of wheat cultivated in the winter of 2015 and 2017, when compared with the other treatments. The effect of N doses on wheat grain yield was positive (with significant increase in grain yield) and the maximum average was obtained with the application of 74 and 86 kg ha-1 of N in 2015 and 2017, respectively.

Pages 271-277 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p2151
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Potential of Colletotrichum typhae H.C Greene mycoherbicide for bio-control of Southern cattail (Typha domingensis Pers.) plants

Cláudio Belmino Maia, Paulo Alexandre Fernandes Rodrigues de Melo, Robert Weingart Barreto, Luiz Antônio Maffia, Kedma Maria Silva, Ilka Márcia Ribeiro de Souza Serra, Antonia Alice Costa Rodrigues, Mário Luiz Ribeiro Mesquita, Aline Priscilla Gomes da Silva, Janaina Marques Mondego

Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agroecologia, CP 65.055-098, São Luís, MA, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Departamento de Fitopatologia, Brazil
Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Produção Agrícola, Brazil
Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agricultura e Ambiente, Brazil
Michigan State University, Department of Horticulture, East Lansing, MI 48824, United States

Abstract
The anthropic interference in aquatic ecosystems favors the disordered colonization of T. domingensis, damaging the production of hydroelectric power and river traffic. Because of this, studies report the efficacy of fungal mycoherbicides, with control rates reaching as high as 90%. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of C. typhae as a mycoherbicide in bio control of T. domingensis, at in vitro and greenhouse conditions. 107 samples of symptomatic T. domingensis leaves were collected in flooded areas of rivers in Brazil, with identification and isolation of the collected fungal species. The concentration of inoculum was determined to evaluate the incidence and severity of the disease, the influence of temperature on mycelial growth and conidia germination, the effect of temperature and leaf wetness period on T. domingensis infection by C. typhae and the host range test in vitro. The growth of the colonies of C. typhae was higher at 25 to 30 ºC. There was no interference of the photoperiod on germination of the spores, but the highest percentage of germination was occurred at 20 ºC. The influence of environmental conditions on infection of inoculated leaves of T. dominguensis revealed that at 15 ºC and the period of leaf wetness of 48 hours the highest incidence of the disease was observed, as well as the severity for the same period of leaf wetness. The specificity test showed that C. typhae is specifically pathogenic to T. domingensis. This the first report of the occurrence of this pathogen in aquatic macrophytes of this species and in T. domingensis, a potential mycoherbicide for the control of this aquatic weed.

Pages 278-285 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p2170
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Use of aerial image in the estimation of volume and biomass of Eucalyptus sp. forest stand

Thallita R. S. Mendes, Eder P. Miguel, Pedro G. A. Vasconcelos, Marco B. X. Valadão, Alba V. Rezende, Eraldo A. T. Matricardi, Humberto Angelo, Alcides Gatto, Mauro E. Nappo

Department of Forestry Engineering, University of Brasilia (UnB), DF, Brazil

Abstract
Assessing forest stands is crucial for managing and planning the use of these resources. Forest inventory is the instrument that provides information about the stand situation, which can be costly and time consuming. In order to facilitate and reduce the time spent obtaining these data, the main objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of volume and biomass estimates per unit area with data from remote sensing. Forty sample units were allocated and georeferenced, in which all trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were inventoried. Sequentially, the cubage was performed in order to obtain individual biomass and volume and adjustment of the individual models. With data from georeferenced images of the study area, the vegetation indices MSAVI (Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index) and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) were obtained. The volume and biomass estimation using remote sensing variables were carried out through the adjustment of sigmoidal models by regression analysis, which used a combination of the average values of the vegetation indices and the basal area of the plot/hectares as an independent variable. The fit statistics and the accuracy of the tested models presented consistent results to estimate forest production. The results showed that indices derived from remote sensing techniques associated with forest variables information could accurately estimate the volume and biomass of Eucalyptus spp. plantations.

Pages 286-294 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p2183
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Response of peach tree leaf area to seasonal variation in tropical climate

Gener Augusto Penso*, Gabriel Antônio Dalapicula Serafini, Carlos Eduardo Magalhães dos Santos, Edgard Augusto de Toledo Picoli, João Paulo Gava Cremasco, Matheus Matos de Paiva

Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Viçosa, UFV, Campus Viçosa, ZIP: 36570-900, Viçosa – MG, Brazil

Abstract
Here, we describe differences in the establishment of the leaf limb area and morphology of peach tree attributed to different seasonal conditions at a high-altitude tropical climate. The cultivars ‘Tropic Beauty’, ‘BRS Kampai’ and ‘BRS Rubimel’ were cultivated in a production area located in Ervália – MG, Brazil. A series of experiments is being carried out in this area since 2016, and the data collection for the present report was carried out in the 2018 productive cycle, when the plants were 4 years old. Fully expanded leaves were collected from ‘brindilla’ type (with same flushes vegetative growth) branches according to the period of the year. Leaves were collected for two seasons in year, August (first flushes) and December (second flushes) 2018. Three hundred leaves from each cultivar at each season were collected randomly as representative of the canopy in its middle portion. They were separated into ten replicates and evaluated individually for length, width and leaf area. All cultivars exhibited cyclic and significant differences in length, width and leaf area attributed to the environmental conditions, where and when they were developed. Further investigation is needed regarding this differential leaf growth and its impact on the production of peach trees grown in tropical highland regions.

Pages 295-298 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p2551
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Temporal rainfall variability as inductor of the phenology of Brazilian semiarid species

Alberício Pereira de Andrade, Divan Soares da Silva, Riselane de Lucena Alcântara Bruno, Dinnara Layza Souza da Silva, João Luciano de Andrade Melo Junior*, André Luiz Rodrigues Magalhães, Luan Danilo Ferreira de Andrade Melo, Ariosvaldo Nunes de Medeiros

Academic Unit of Garanhuns, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Brazil
Center of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil
Center of Agricultural Sciences, State University of Piauí, Brazil
Center of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Alagoas, Brazil


Abstract
Usually, in the Brazilian semiarid region where dry and humid periods are well determined, phenological events are mainly affected by seasonal rainfall and availability of water in the soil. The studies in these regions have importance especially to understand the dynamics of dry forests. Thus, the objective of this work was to characterize the phenophases of trees P. pyramidalis, C. blachetianus, A. pyrifolium and J. mollissima, and their relationship with the temporal distribution of rainfall, which occurs in the form of pulses. Furthermore, the effect of goat grazing was evaluated. The experimental areas presented different caprine stockings, where first had ten and the second five. The third stocking remained without goats during the experimental period. For the phenological follow-up, 50 tree individuals of each species were selected, tagged and monitored weekly, at Experimental Station, in the municipality of São João do Cariri-PB. In order to quantify the phenological events, the percentage of Fournier intensity was used, registering the presence and absence of the phenophases: sprouting, flowering, fruiting and senescence, whose data were related to the water pulses and inter-pulses. The phenological events presented annual patterns, with interannual variations in intensity. We observed that the phenophases occur in synchrony with the temporal distribution of the rainfall pulses in the area of its occurrence. As the dry season progresses, reduction in sprouting, flowering and fruiting occurs when the inter-pulses of rainfall was intensified. The presence of goats did not influence the phenological development of the species.

Pages 299-307 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p2312
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Effect of population and organomineral fertilization on physico-chemical quality of fruits of Passiflora edulis cv. Guinezinho

Bruno Alexandre Araújo de Sousa*, Francisco Thiago Coelho Bezerra, Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante, Marlene Alexandrina Ferreira Bezerra, Walter Esfrain Pereira, Isabel Cristina dos Santos Oliveira

Paraíba Federal University, Post-Graduation Program in Agronomy, Center of Agrarian Sciences, Areia, Paraíba, Brazil

Abstract
The phyto-technical management of crops, such as the conduction system, spatial arrangement of plants and mineral and organic fertilization are pre-harvest agronomic factors that can alter fruit quality. Therefore, this research was developed to evaluate physico-chemical attributes of yellow passion fruit as a function of population arrangement and organomineral fertilization. The experiment was carried in Entisol with free-sand texture under tropical climate with dry summer. The treatments were obtained from the combination of doses of nitrogen (92, 119, 183, 248 and 275 kg ha-1) and soil organic matter (1.3, 1.8, 2.9, 4.0 and 4.5%), through Central Box Compound, plus four additional treatments to study the effect of the number of plants per pit. The evaluations were carried on seven and ten months after the transplanting of the seedlings. A randomized block design with three replications was used. The fruits were harvested at the beginning of the yellowing of the bark and evaluated in the pulp: pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), total soluble solids (TSS), reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and total sugars, ascorbic acid, TSS/TTA ratio, electrical conductivity and humidity. The harvesting season changed the physico-chemical properties of the passion fruit pulp and interfered with the effects of plant management and fertilization on the quality of passion fruit. For the production of the best quality passion fruit we may cultivate one, two or three plants per pit. With three plants per pit it is recommended to apply 180 kg ha-1 of nitrogen annually and raise the soil organic matter to 4%.

Pages 308-318 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p2318
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Water status, cell damage and gas exchanges in West Indian cherry (Malpighia emarginata) under salt stress and nitrogen fertilization

Geovani Soares de Lima, Francisco Wesley Alves Pinheiro, Adaan Sudário Dias, Hans Raj Gheyi, Saulo Soares da Silva, Lauriane Almeida dos Anjos Soares, André Alisson Rodrigues da Silva, Pedro Dantas Fernandes, Jussara Silva Dantas

Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agrarian Sciences, Pombal, 58.840-000, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Recôncavo of Bahia, Nucleus of Soil and Water Engineering, Cruz das Almas, 44.380-000, Bahia, Brazil


Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate water status, cell damage and gas exchanges of West Indian cherry grown under saline water irrigation and nitrogen (N) fertilization in the post-grafting stage. The experiment was carried out in drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions in Regolithic Neosol with sandy loam texture. Treatments consisted of two levels of electrical conductivity of water (ECw) (0.8 and 4.5 dS m-1) and four N doses (70; 85; 100 and 115% of the N recommendation), arranged in randomized blocks, with three replicates. The dose relative to 100% corresponded to 200 g of N per plant per year. Irrigation with 4.5 dS m-1 electrical conductivity water resulted in a reduction in stomatal conductance, transpiration, CO2 assimilation rate and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency but increased cell damage percentage and internal CO2 concentration in West Indian cherry plants. Inhibition of CO2 assimilation rate in West Indian cherry plants is related to non-stomatal effects. Irrigation with 4.5 dS m-1 water and fertilization with 115% of N recommendation intensified leaf water saturation deficit in the West Indian cherry crop. The BRS Jaburu West Indian cherry was sensitive to 4.5 dS m-1 water salinity.

Pages 319-324 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p2320
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The effect of silicon (Si) on the growth and nutritional status of Schizolobium amazonicum seedlings subjected to zinc toxicity

Gerson Diego Pamplona Albuquerque, Bruno Lemos Batista, André Leandro Maia de Souza, Ana Ecidia de Araújo Brito, Vitor Resende Nascimento, Cândido Ferreira de Oliveira Neto, Andressa Pinheiro de Paiva, Jessica Suellen Silva Teixeira, Mário Lopes da Silva Júnior

Instituto Ciberespacial, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Belém, Pará, Brazil
Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil
Instituto de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Belém, Pará, Brazil


Abstract
Zinc is an essential element to plants. However, excessive zinc levels can severely damage them. Schizolobium amazonicum is an Amazon native species that presents desirable features to remediate environments contaminated with heavy metals. Silicon has the beneficial effect of reducing the toxicity of different contaminants. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of Si on the growth and nutritional status of S. amazonicum seedlings subjected to zinc toxicity. The study followed a completely randomized design at 4 x 2 factorial arrangement based on four zinc (1, 150, 300 and 600 μM) and two silicon (0 and 1.5 mM) concentrations with five repetitions for 30 days. Increasing Zn concentrations in the nutrient solution reduced the growth of the plant and Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Mn and Cu contents in plant tissues, increased S concentrations and led to higher toxicity in the roots than shoot of S. amazonicum plants. Si addition to the nutrient solution increased plant growth and the absorption of the evaluated macro and micronutrients. Si increased plant tolerance level from 42.8 to 41.3% at 600 µM Zn, which suggested that this element mitigated the phytotoxic effects of the excess of zinc. Based on the tolerance index, the species presented medium and high tolerance to the evaluated zinc doses. Bioconcentration and translocation factors have indicated the low Zn-phytoextraction capacity of S. amazonicum and suggested that the species may be promising for Zn phytostabilization purposes.

Pages 325-332 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p2565
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In vitro antimicrobial activity of Spiranthera odoratissima A. St. Hil. essential oils against foodborne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

Fernando Duarte Cabral, Cassia Cristina Fernandes Alves, Guilherme Brinker Willrich, Antônio Eduardo Miller Crotti, João Matias de Souza, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins, Mayker Lazaro Dantas Miranda*

Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Goiano, Rio Verde, GO, Brazil
Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade de Franca, Franca, SP, Brazil
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil


Abstract
In Brazilian folk medicine, Spiranthera odoratissima has been used to treat rheumatism, infection and abdominal pain. Essential oils (EOs) are technological options that may be employed in natural foods due to their antimicrobial activities. This paper aimed to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial effects of EOs from S. odoratissima leaves and flowers against foodborne and spoilage bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of EOs were calculated by the broth microdilution method on 96-well microplates. Both GC-FID and GC-MS analyses revealed that the major components determined in EOs from S. odoratissima leaves were β-caryophyllene (23.8%), bicyclogermacrene (10.8%) and δ-cadinene (7.1%). Major constituents found in EOs from its flowers were β-caryophyllene (14.1%), spathulenol (8.1%) and γ-cadinene (7.2%). EOs from S. odoratissima leaves and flowers showed strong antibacterial activity against Yersinia enterocolitica (MIC = 0.30 mg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 0.12 mg/mL), Clostridium botulinum (MIC = 0.30 mg/mL), Bacillus cereus (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL) and Listeria monocytogenes (MIC = 0.25 mg/mL). These EOs could be important natural alternatives to prevent bacterial growth in food products.

Pages 333-338 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p1881
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Accelerated ageing as a vigour test on chickpea seeds

Letícia Betânia Xavier Dias, Pedro Afonso de Melo Queiroz, Lara Bernardes da Silva Ferreira, Marco Antônio Moreira de Freitas, Érica Fernandes Leão-Araújo*, Patrícia Pereira da Silva, Warley Marcos Nascimento

Goiano Federal Institute – Rodovia Geraldo Silva Nascimento, km 2.5, Zona Rural, 75790-000 – Urutaí, GO – Brazil
Embrapa Hortaliças – Núcleo Rural Vargem da Benção, Gama, Caixa Postal 280, 70275-970 – Brasília, DF, Brasil


Abstract
The objective of this work was to establish the temperature and the period of exposure needed to perform the traditional accelerated ageing test with saturated NaCl salt solution on chickpea seeds. Eight seed lots from two cultivars, including four seeds each, were subjected to germination and vigour tests for initial characterization. Following the methodology of the traditional accelerated ageing test. The seeds were placed on stainless steel screens in boxes with 40 mL deionized water. They were kept at 41 and 45º Celsius for 24 and 48 hours. Furthermore, the accelerated ageing test using [40 g of NaCl in 100 mL of water, thus providing 76% of relative humidity in air] NaCl (salt) solution in place of the deionized water was performed. Aged seeds were sowed in germination paper and kept in a germination chamber at 41º and 45º Celsius. The evaluations were performed five and eight days after sowing. The statistical analysis was performed with a completely randomized design and four replications. The traditional ageing of both cultivars showed a water content higher than the tolerated limits at 48 hour period and 41 and 45 °C. In the saturated saline test, the cultivar BRS Aleppo produced consistent results at temperatures 45 °C for 24 h. The cultivar Cícero showed a low correlation with the initial characterization as the results of accelerated ageing. Thus, for ‘BRS Aleppo’, the recommended accelerated ageing methodology was application of saturated saline solution, when seed exposed to 41 °C for 24 hours with germination evaluation at the first count date. For 'Cicero', satisfactory results were not obtained, and new studies are required to establish a methodology.

Pages 339-346 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p1957
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In vitro antileishmanial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from different parts of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack: a species of Rutaceae that occur in the Cerrado biome in Brazil

Flávia Fernanda Alves da Silva, Cassia Cristina Fernandes Alves, Gabriel Almeida de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Bolela Bovo Candido, Lizandra Guidi Magalhães, Tatiana Manzini Vieira, Antônio Eduardo Miller Crotti, Claudinei Alves da Silva, Mayker Lazaro Dantas Miranda*

Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Goiano, Rio Verde, GO, Brazil
Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade de Franca, Franca, SP, Brazil
Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Jataí, Jataí, GO, Brazil
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil


Abstract
In Brazilian folk medicine, Murraya paniculata has been used for treating intestine disorders, rheumatism and cough. This paper aims to investigate the in vitro antileishmanial and antioxidant activities of essential oils (EO) from M. paniculata leaves and fruits (ripe and unripe ones). Natural antioxidants may be very beneficial to improve quality of life, since they are capable of protecting the body against damage caused by free radicals and, consequently, either preventing or postponing many diseases from starting their cycles. One of the techniques which has been widely used for detecting antioxidant compounds is the method based on the elimination of the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•). It has been considered easy, precise, fast, simple, economical and appropriate to determine antioxidant activity of pure substances and complex mixtures, such as EO. Thus, antioxidant potential of EO was evaluated by using the method of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•). EO from M. paniculata leaves and fruits exhibited weak potential, since EC50 values were above 700 µg/mL. Several reports have stated that volatile oils from plants show promising leishmanicidal activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis; in relation to this activity, leaf oil was highly active (IC50 = 7.33±2.07 µg/mL) while ripe and unripe fruit oils were active, with values of IC50 = 30.77±2.07 µg/mL and 13.04±1.64 µg/mL, respectively. Both GC-FID and GC-MS analyses revealed that the major components determined in EO from M. paniculata were sesquithujene (25.0%), trans-β-caryophyllene (23.8%), α-zingiberene (21.0%), α-ylangene (13.3%), germacrene D (13.1%), α-copaene (12.7%), and β-cubebene (10.2%). In vitro antileishmanial and antioxidant activities of EO from M. paniculata have also been described for the first time.

Pages 347-353 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p1966
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The growth and tissue mineral concentrations of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars in response to the ultraviolet-B radiation

Saeedallah A. Niazwali, Annadurai Senthilkumar, Kandhan Karthishwaran, Mohammed A. Salem*

Department of Aridland Agriculture, College of Food and Agriculture, PO Box No. 15551, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE

Abstract
The ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation is an integral part of the sun light and adversely affects the growth and development of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). Although, date palm is an economically important fruit tree and the majority the world’s production is centered in the Arabian Peninsula, the studies evaluating date palm genotypic diversity and response to the UVB radiation are limited. To investigate this, five commercially grown date palm cultivars were exposed to the control and two elevated levels (four and eight hours per day for one year) of UVB radiations. The results showed that UVB radiation decreased plant height and leaf number by 8-14%, shoot root fresh weight by 66-87% and dry weight by 20-23%, total chlorophyll and carotenoids concentrations by 22-28%, while increased the proline and UVB absorbing compounds (phenolics) by 142% and 17.5%, respectively, across cultivars. These changes were more pronounced under the eight-hour UVB exposure. In general, roots tended to have greater concentrations of S and N by ≈1.4 folds, Co, Na, and P by 3.3-7 folds than shoots, compared to average across cultivars and treatments. However, under UVB, several mineral concentrations were either increased (e.g, Ca, Co, Fe, Mn, P) or decreased (e.g, K, Mo, S, N) consistently in shoots and roots. One exception to this rule was the Na concentration that increased in the shoot (9-45%) but decreased in the roots (8-10%) under UVB. Thus, the response of the date palm cultivars to the UVB was dependent on the measured traits, exhibiting decline in the growth parameters despite the increase in the UVB absorbing compounds and the tissue concentrations of several minerals. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the cultivars differed similarly in response to a given level of UVB treatments. Based on the PCA, the cultivars were grouped into two groups as BARHI and FRDWT in one group, while KHD, NBSTF, and RFDRD in other group.

Pages 354-361 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p2098
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Analysis of genotype-environment interaction and yield stability of Thai upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes using AMMI model

Shams Shaila Islam, Jakarat Anothai, Charassri Nualsri, Watcharin Soonsuwon*

Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur 5200, Bangladesh


Abstract
Genotype-environment interaction and stability analysis has been important for plant breeders and plays a vital role in identifying genotypes that are stable or unstable in a given environment. The experiments in this research were conducted to determine the effects of genotype, environment and genotype-environment interaction on grain yield using the AMMI statistical model, and to recognize the most stable rice genotypes among ten genotypes in southern Thailand’s provinces of environments in Songkhla, Satun and Phatthalung. Highly significant differences were shown from the combined analysis for environments with grain yields, revealing that environments were different and indicated changeability between the genotypes and their interactions. The average grain yield assessment of the tested genotypes was around the environments where genotype G8 (Nahng Kian) had the highest grain yield (6234.11kgha-1). AMMI biplot of the Interaction Principal Component Analysis (IPCA) scores visualized 90.7% for IPCA1 and 9.3% for IPCA2 with the genotypes and environments for grain yield. In the AMMI stability value method, G8 (Nahng Kian) was the most stable genotype followed by the genotypes G2 (Mai Tahk) and G10 (Hawm Jet Ban) Songkhla, Satun and Phatthalung environments.

Pages 362-370 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p1847
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Growth, biomass distribution, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) under drought conditions

Carlos Cardona-Ayala*, Carlos Cardona-Villadiego, Carlos Peñate-Pacheco, Hermes Araméndiz-Tatis, Miguel M. Espitia-Camacho

Grupo de investigación Cultivos Tropicales de Clima Cálido [Research Group on Tropical Crops of Warm Climates], Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Universidad de Córdoba, Cr. 6 No. 77-305, Montería, Córdoba, Colombia

Abstract
Drought modifies plant development and generates losses in agricultural production. The aim of this study was to analyze the growth, biomass distribution, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence in nine cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes under drought conditions in the greenhouse condition. A completely randomized experimental design with four replicates was used. The following genotypes (treatments) of LC-006-016, LC-029-016, LC-036-016, LC-021-016, LC-005-016, LC-009-016, LC-014-016, LC-002-016, and Caupicor-50 (control) were evaluated with irrigation for 21 days (after sowing) and 38 days of drought (DD) for a total duration of 59 days. In a simultaneous experiment, other plants of the same genotypes were irrigated for 59 days after sowing (DAS) with replacement of evapotranspirated water every three days. Measures of plant height and number of leaves were taken every four days, biomass at 59 days, gas exchange every seven days and chlorophyll fluorescence at 17, 21 and 38 DD. Moisture losses were quantified by recording the loss of soil weight every three days. The results showed that plant height reached 27.8% higher in plants under irrigation, while the vegetative biomass increased by 76.3%. The photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and transpiration were decreased 64.6%, 93.1%, and 86.9% under drought, respectively. Furthermore, intrinsic water use efficiency (A/gs) was increased almost six times. However, it was decreased when drought progressed towards the soil water content loss more than 0.0827 g.g-1. The quantum yield of photosynthesis (ΦPSII) was decreased 28.4%, 40.3% and 43.5% at 17, 21 and 38 DD, respectively, under drought condition. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that the genotypes with higher A/gs and those with higher biomass production show greater resistance to drought.

Pages 371-381 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.02.p2557