Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

DECEMBER 2020 | EARLY VIEW | 14(12):2020 | 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12


Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng (Gac fruit): An abundant source of nutrient, phytochemicals and its pharmacological activities

Priscilla Jayanthi Thavamany, Hong Lim Chew, Sreeramanan S., Bee Lynn Chew, Ming-Thong Ong*

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia
School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia
Centre for Chemical Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11900, Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia
School of Bioprocess Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UNIMAP), 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia


Abstract
Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) is an exploitable perennial dioecious fruit found commonly in Southeast Asian countries (SA). Gac fruit has been traditionally used in folk medicine due to its high medicinal and nutritive value. Generally, the aril of the fruit is used as a red colourant for cuisines and supplement for healthier vision. Gac fruit is highly rich in lycopene and β- carotene, fatty acids, vitamin E, polyphenols like phenolic acids, flavonoids and trypsin inhibitors. These compounds are linked with many important bioactivities such as provitamin A, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and anticancer activities. This paper reviews the findings on nutritional properties, phytochemical composition and the biological activities of Gac fruit. The review has also briefly discussed the suitable conditions for the storage and utilisation of the fruit in food, beverage, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries.

Pages 1844-1854 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.p2515
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Mating designs commonly used in plant breeding: A review

Jane Muthoni*, Hussein Shimelis

Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Kenya
African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Private Bag X01, Scottsxille 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
West Africa Centre for Crop Improvement (WACCI), Collage of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Ghana, PMB 30, Legon, Ghana


Abstract
Mating design represents "rules" for arranging different controlled crossings; a mating design is a procedure of producing progenies. This review describes mating designs commonly used in plant breeding. Biparental is the simplest design in which a number of P plants are paired off to give ½P families; the parents are mated only once in pairs. The design is simple and it provides information needed to determine if significant genetic variation is present in a population for a long term selection program. A polycross is a mating arrangement for interpollinating a group of cultivars or clones using natural hybridization in an isolated crossing block. The design is often used for generating synthetic cultivars. The North Carolina (NC) mating designs permit determination and/or estimation of variance components (additive and dominance components) by using the information from half-sib (HS) families. The experimental material of North Carolina designs I, II and III is developed from F2 generation as a base material. The design III (NCIII) involves backcrossing the F2 plants to the two parental inbred lines from which the F2 were derived. The NCIII design was extended to include a third tester. This third tester is the F1 from the two parental inbred lines; in this extended form, this design is known as the triple test cross (TTC). Line x Tester mating design uses inbred lines as the base population. The design is useful in deciding the relative ability of a number of female and male inbreds to produce desirable hybrid combinations. When the same parents are used as females and males in breeding, the mating design is called diallel. Parents used range from inbred lines to broad genetic base varieties to clones. The design is the most commonly used in crop plants to estimate GCA and SCA and variances.
Generally, it should be noted that is not the mating design per se, but the breeder who breeds a new cultivar. Consequently, proper choice and use of a mating design will provide the most valuable information for breeding.

Pages 1855-1869 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.p2588
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Impact of N-fixing bacterium Nitrospirillum amazonense on quality and quantitative parameters of sugarcane in field condition

Pietro de Santis Sica*, Eric Seiji Shirata, Fabiano Aparecido Rios, Denis Fernando Biffe, José Usan Torres Brandão Filho, Kátia Regina Freitas Schwan Estrada, Rubem Silvério de Oliveira Jr

Department of Crop & Soil Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
DAFNAE, University of Padova, Legnaro, Padova, Italy
Agricultural Experimental Station, BASF S.A., Santo Antônio de Posse, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Agronomy, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil


Abstract
Sugarcane is the world’s largest crop by production quantity. In Brazil, the sugarcane cultivation requires 30-70% less nitrogen than in other countries, due to the biological nitrogen fixation. Nitrospirillum amazonense is an N-fixing bacterium that has proven to increase plant growth and yields of sugarcane in greenhouse experiments. However, studies on field conditions are very scarce. For these reasons, this study aimed to assess the impact of different doses of a pre-commercial product, Aprinza®, containing N. amazonense on quality and quantitative parameters of the cultivar RB867515 in field conditions. The plant height, number of internodes, stem yield and sugar yield were measured. The leaf nutrient content was analyzed 60, 90 and 180 days after planting and the plant nutrient content was analyzed after harvest. The inoculation of N. amazonense did not affect the leaf and the stem nutrient content positively. The stem yield was increased 27.5 tons ha-1 (20%) and the total recoverable sugar yield increased 4.6 tons ha-1 (25%), compared to the control, by using 1 liter of Aprinza® per hectare. Therefore, N. amazonense can increase sugarcane stem and sugar yields in sandy soils with low nitrogen application, reducing the environmental impacts of the sugarcane cultivation system.

Pages 1870-1875 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2590
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Effect of nicosulfuron on chlorophyll content of marandu-grass cultivated in crop-forest-livestock integration systems

Evander Alves Ferreira*, Marcia Vitória Santos, Leandro Diego da Silva, Priscila Júnia Rodrigues da Cruz, Raul Ribeiro Silveira, Igor Costa de Freitas, Leidivan Almeida Frazão, Alcienie Mistico de Azevedo, Gustavo Antônio Mendes Pereira, Thiago Gomes dos Santos Braz

Instituto de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Campus Regional de Montes Claros (ICA), Av. Universitária 1000, Montes Claros, MG, CEP: 39400-090, Brazil
Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Campus JK, Rod. MGT 367 km 583, Diamantina, MG, CEP: 39100-000, Brazil
3Universidade Federal de Lavras, Campus da UFLA, Lavras, MG, CEP: 37.200-000, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Campus da UFV, Vicosa, MG, CEP: 36.570-000, Brazil


Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the effect of sub-doses of herbicide nicosulfuron on the levels of chlorophyll and growth of marandu-grass in an forest-livestock integration system. The treatments consisted of eucalyptus consortium with sorghum (BRS 655 hybrid) and forage Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (marandu-grass) at 12×2 and 12×3 m spacings in agroforestry systems, in addition to sorghum + marandu-grass and marandu-grass in monoculture. The doses of nicosulfuron applied at the marandu-grass were 0, 15 and 30 g ha-1. At 30 and 120 days after the application of nicosulfuron, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were measured usinf a portable chlorophyll meter, with six measurements per plant. Afterwards, the total chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b were calculated. We also measured the mass of the total dry matter of marandu-grass and growth rate of the culture. Marandu-grass plants cultivated in monoculture showed higher quantities of chlorophyll and the highest growth rates. The levels of chlorophyll a, b and chlorophyll a/b and the growth rate of marandu grass were similar between systems integrated with eucalyptus (12x2 and 12x3 m). The increase of herbicide dose negatively influenced on chlorophyll content in marandu-grass in all treatments evaluated. The use of nicosulfuron in doses of 25 and 50 g L-1 reduced the growth rate of marandu grass only when grown in monoculture.

Pages 1876-1882 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2631
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Spatial distribution of physical attributes of a clayey Latosol under different management systems

Simone Andreia Roehrs, Aracéli Ciotti de Marins, Deonir Secco, Rogério Luís Rizzi, Luiz Antônio Zanão Júnior, Pablo Chang, Claudia Borgmann, Bruna de Villa, Lucas da Silveira, Luciene Kazue Tokura*

Post-Graduate Program in Energy Engineering in Agriculture, State University of Western Paraná, UNIOESTE, Cascavel, PR, Brazil
Department of Mathematics, Federal Technological University of Paraná, Toledo, PR, Brazil
State University of Western Paraná, Cascavel, PR, Brazil
Paraná Agronomic Institute, Santa Tereza do Oeste, PR, Brazil
Post-Graduate Program in Agronomy, State university of Western Paraná, UNIOESTE, Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR, Brazil


Abstract
The use and management of the soil cause occasional changes in its physical properties; thus, altering its spatial variability. This work aimed to show the spatial distribution of physical attributes of a clay latosol under different management systems, through thematic maps of spatial distribution for values of these attributes. The experimental area consisted of three treatments: scarified no-tillage at 0.3 m depth (T1), no-tillage with 3 t ha-1 of plaster applied to the surface (T2) and; the control as traditional no-tillage system (T3). The attributes such as density, macroporosity, and microporosity in three soil layers were evaluated: 0-0.1; 0.1-0.2; and 0.2-0.3 m. The analysis of the experimental results indicates that all physical attributes presented spatial dependence between the data, with higher density values (values ranged from 0.95 to 1.37 Mg m3) and lower macroporosity in areas with T1 (SPD with scarification) and T2 (SPD gypsum) management systems. However, in all treatments, the Macro values presented a volume above 10.51%, which is above the limit value for good aeration and water movement in the soil. Treatment T3 (traditional SPD) showed favorable physical soil conditions, even after compaction.

Pages 1883-1888 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2650
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Application of biofertilizer in degraded pasture modified C dynamics and improved forage yield in a short-term period at the tropical region

Patrick Leal Pinheiro, Renato Ribeiro Passos, Anderson Lopes Peçanha, Eduardo de Sá Mendonça*

Agronomy Department, Federal University of Espírito Santo, CCAE, Alegre Campus, Alegre, ES, Brazil
Biology Department, Federal University of Espírito Santo, CCENS, Alegre Campus, Alegre, ES, Brazil


Abstract
Recovery of degraded pastures improves the sustainability of meat and milk production systems. Humic acids (HA) and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria (EDB) are known to have bio-stimulating effects on several crops but have not been tested for the recovery of degraded pastures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate soil C and N dynamics, nutrient uptake and forage yield of Brachiaria decumbens following the foliar application of HA and EDB in a degraded pasture. A randomized block design with six replications was used. The four treatments were: HA, EDB, HA+EDB and Control. The subplots consisted of four evaluation times for soil characteristics: before treatment application (0) and 30, 60 and 120 days after treatment application (ATA). Soil total organic carbon (TOC), recalcitrant carbon (Crecal), labile carbon (Clabil), total nitrogen (TN) and C and N stocks were determined in the 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm of soil layers. Forage yield and leaf nutrient contents were evaluated at 30 days ATA. The application of the HA and EDB increased the TOC, Clabil, soil C stock (≈18%), forage dry matter yield (16 to 52%) and nutrient uptake (≈30%) after 30 days ATA. Our results showed that the application of HA combined with EDB may be a strategy for the recovery of degraded pastures in the tropical region.

Pages 1889-1897 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2666
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Combining ability in maize hybrid for yield-related traits and silage production

Flávia Nicácio Viana, Jocarla Ambrosim Crevelari*, Gabriel Moreno Bernardo Gonçalves, José Arantes Ferreira Júnior, Débora Evellin Gonçalves França, Messias Gonzaga Pereira, Antonio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior

Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Laboratório de Melhoramento Genético Vegetal, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque Califórnia, CEP 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Laboratório de Zootecnia, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque Califórnia, CEP 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil


Abstract
Maize cultivars developed for silage production are desirable because ensiling enables the production of high-quality feed and, increases farmers profit. Diallel cross is an efficient and advantageous mating technique that allows the selection of the best parents and crossings. The objective of this study was to estimate the general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) of hybrids and their parents and to evaluate promising hybrid crosses that can be used in breeding programs. Six genotypes were crossed in a complete diallel system. Fifteen hybrid combinations, six parents, and three commercial controls were evaluated in the 2017/2018 growing season in the north and northwest regions of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Nine agronomic traits were analyzed at the silage stage: plant and ear height, stem diameter, stand, husk covering, number of cobs, husked ear weight, unhusked ear weight, and fresh mass yield. The study employed a completely randomized block design with four repetitions. The parents UENF 2210, Piranão 12, and UENF 2208 presented higher GCA values for fresh matter yield and were indicated for the generation of single cross (F1) hybrids. The parental combinations of UENF 2208  Piranão 12, UENF 2208  UENF 2205, and UENF 2209  UENF 2205 had high SCA for most of the evaluated traits and were promising for the use in breeding programs. The crosses with higher average yield were UENF 2208  Piranão 12, UENF 2210  Piranão 12, and UENF 2208  UENF 2205.

Pages 1898-1904 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2700
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Phenotypic correlations and path analysis between morphoagronomic and bromatological traits in corn hybrids for silage production

Jocarla Ambrosim Crevelari*, Nayara Norrene Lacerda Durães, Gabriel Moreno Bernardo Gonçalves, José Arantes Ferreira Júnior, Vivane Mirian Lanhellas Gonçalves, Camila Queiroz da Silva Sanfim de SantAnna, Laila Cecília Ramos Bendia, Flávio Henrique Vidal Azevedo, Messias Gonzaga Pereira

Universidade Estadual do Norte Flumin¬ense Darcy Ribeiro, Laboratório de Melhoramento Genético Vegetal, Av. Alberto Lamego, 2000, Parque Califórnia, 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
Universidade Estadual do Norte Flumin¬ense Darcy Ribeiro, Laboratório de Engenharia Agrícola, Av. Alberto Lamego, 2000, Parque Califórnia, 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
Universidade Estadual do Norte Flumin¬ense Darcy Ribeiro, Laboratório de Zootecnia, Av. Alberto Lamego, 2000, Parque Califórnia, 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil

Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate the correlation coefficients and slicing the phenotypic correlations into direct and indirect effects by path analysis between morphoagronomic and bromatological traits in corn hybrids for silage. Nineteen topcross hybrids and five controls were assessed in a randomized block design with four replications in two environments (Campos dos Goytacazes and Itaocara, RJ), in the 2013/2014 agricultural year. Phenotypic correlations and path analysis were estimated between morphoagronomic (average plant height; average first ear height; average stem diameter; ear yield with husk at silage point; grain yield at silage point; green mass yield) and bromatological (dry matter; crude protein; neutral detergent fiber; lignin; crude fat and mineral matter) traits. The highest correlation estimates were obtained between dry matter and crude protein and between dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, with magnitudes of 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The coefficient of determination was high, indicating that the assessed components explain much of the variation in the dry matter content. Path analysis showed that traits with highest direct effect on dry matter content were the yield of green mass, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, crude fat, and mineral matter associated to high correlations of 0.96, 0.97, 0.98, 0.90, and 0.96, respectively. The results showed the possibility of obtaining significant gains through indirect selection.

Pages 1905-1912 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2721
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Effects of Azospirillum brasilense applied along with herbicides on maize

María Albana Di Palma, Paula Cardozo, Soledad Martin, Herminda Reinoso, Marta Dardanelli, Claudia Travaglia*

Área Botánica, Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físico Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto-Instituto de Investigación Agrobiotecnológicas (INIAB), Córdoba, Argentina
Departamento de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físico Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina


Abstract
The aim of this work was a study of a native strain (Az39) and a reference strain (Sp7) of Azospirillum brasilense, evaluating their effects on commercial herbicides like glyphosate and atrazine applied in maize. In vitro assays were performed to determine the survival capacity of both strains by adding each herbicide with and without the addition of carbon or nitrogen. A growth chamber experiment was carried out with maize plants, and the treatments consisted on applications of atrazine and glyphosate, with and without foliar inoculations of each strain. Morpho-physiological variables were determined in V6. The in vitro assays determined that the survival capacity of both strains was different in the presence of herbicides; Az39 was the only one able to survive both to the application of glyphosate and atrazine and was able to use glyphosate as the sole source of carbon. In maize plants, both herbicides affected the foliar area, the aerial and the radical biomass negatively and increased the damage of cell membranes. Most of the negative effects of both agrochemicals were mitigated with Az39, while both strains ameliorated the damage at the radical biomass. Therefore, the native strain has better adaptive characteristics against herbicides widely used in maize. This highlights the importance of the use of native microorganisms for effective inoculations in crops.

Pages 1913-1919 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2746
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Potential effects of essential oil from Zanthoxylum limonella seeds against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Ruchuon Wanna*, Bunyaporn Satongrod

Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Kantarawichai District, Maha Sarakham 44150, Thailand

Abstract
Essential oils of plants with insecticidal properties have been considered as replacements for synthetic chemical pesticides to combat and control insect pests. The chemical composition of the essential oil from dried seeds of Zanthoxylum limonella Alston was determined by the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry technique. Insecticidal activity was investigated on Tribolium castaneum Herbst using impregnated filter paper with six concentrations of essential oil at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% for adults and larvae mortality tests, and 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% for egg mortality. All experiments were performed under completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications at 30±5°C and 70±5% relative humidity in 16:8 hours light/dark cycle. A total of 83 components were identified. The principal compounds in the essential oil of Z. limonella were beta-pinene (19.65%), 9-octadecanone (18.80%), D-limonene (9.76%), alpha-fenchene (8.48%), p-mentha-1,5,8-triene (7.16%), 1,8-cineole (6.88%), gamma-terpinene (5.46%), terpinen-4-ol (3.81%), linalool (2.73%), alpha-thujene (1.34%), decanal (1.32%), alpha-phellandrene (1.20%) and linalyl propionate (1.13%). Insecticidal activity presented that 5% of essential oil had the highest effect against T. castaneum at 120 h for adults and 48 h for larvae, while 10% of essential oil at 14 days obtained 100% mortality against eggs of T. castaneum. Results indicated that the essential oil of Z. limonella from dried seeds showed potential for use in the control of T. castaneum.

Pages 1920-1925 | Full Text PDF | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2770
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Si attenuates the transpiration and increases both N assimilation and root development in the tomato under N availabilities

Roberta Corrêa Nogueirol*, Simone da Costa Mello, João Cardoso de Souza Junior, Rafael Gómez Arrieta, Francisco Antonio Monteiro

Crop Science Department – University of São Paulo (ESALQ/USP) Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, 13418–900
Soil Science Department – University of São Paulo (ESALQ/USP) Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, 13418–900


Abstract
Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient in crop productivity and silicon (Si) increases the uptake of nutrients and affect the uptake of N. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Si combined with rates of N on the growth, root development, uptake of N and Si, assimilation of N, and photosynthesis of the tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum). A factorial 3 × 3 was used, with rates of Si 0 (control treatment), 1, and 3 mmol L–1, and rates of N 5 (control treatment), 15, and 25 mmol L–1 in the nutrient solution. The rates of N did not affect the dry mass production and uptake of Si. However, the application of Si improved the plant growth and accumulation of Si and N. Relating to control treatment, the rate of Si 1 mmol L–1 increases the dry mass production and accumulation of Si and N in order of 52, 37, and 54 %, respectively. Although the rate of N did not increase the plant growth, it was verified that the N 15 mmol L–1 improves the concentration and accumulation of N in the shoots, and the relative concentration of chlorophyll with values of 43.5, 67, and 14 %, respectively, compared to the control. The supply of Si under low and high availability of N improved the glutamine synthetase, but at the rate of N 25 mmol L–1, a decrease in the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance was verified. Under the high availability of N, the glutamine synthetase raised 78 % as an effect of Si 3 mmol L–1 compare to control treatment (Si 0 mmol L–1). Nevertheless, the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance decreased 49 and 52 % under that condition. The excess of N 25 mmol L–1 negatively affected the root development, but under that condition, the application of Si increased the root length, root surface, and root hood in order of 70, 40, and 77 % compared to the control treatment. Application of Si is recommended for tomato growth, especially when cultivated with high N availability. The application of silicon enhances the plant growth, root development, nutrient uptake, nitrogen assimilation, and photosynthesis of the tomato plants cultivated under rates of N. We recommend the use of Si 3 mmol L–1 and N 15 mmol L–1 for the tomato plants under the nutrient solution.

Pages 1926-1934 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2771
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Effect of soil moisture stress at booting and flowering stages on pollen development, pollination and fertilization in upland NERICA cultivars

Momoko IWATA-HIGUCHI*, Jun-Ichi SAKAGAMI, Sachio MARUYAMA

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan
Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan


Abstract
Spikelet sterility induced by soil moisture stress during reproductive development greatly limits grain yield in upland rice. This study aimed to elucidate differences in responses to soil moisture stress for pollen development, pollination and fertilization among upland rice cultivars. A greenhouse experiment with a split-plot design was performed for five different soil moisture treatments (T1 to T5) as the main plots and three cultivars (NERICA 1, NERICA 4 and Yumenohatamochi) as subplots, each with three replicates. Plants in pots were grown under well-watered condition (T1) and various moisture stress conditions: moderate at the booting stage (T2), severe at the booting stage (T3), moderate at the flowering stage (T4) or severe at the flowering stage (T5). During the 9-day stress period, soil moisture was maintained at -10 to -20 kPa for moderate moisture stress or -20 to -49 kPa for severe moisture stress under controlled irrigation. NERICA 1 had fewer differentiated microspores and developed pollen grains in T2 and T3 and showed poorer anther dehiscence and fewer pollen grains on the stigma than did NERICA 4 and Yumenohatamochi. NERICA 4 showed a lower percentage of basal dehiscence in T4 and T5, causing fewer pollen grains to be deposited on the stigma than for NERICA 1 and Yumenohatamochi. The results indicate that the highly sensitive process of fertilization are pollen development in NERICA 1 and pollination in NERICA 4 under soil moisture stress.

Pages 1935-1941 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2774
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In vitro antifungal activity of Desmodium intortum and D. uncinatum root extracts against growth of toxigenic Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus

Nancy Karimi Njeru*, Charles Aura Odhiambo Midega, James Wanjohi Muthomi, John Maina Wagacha, Zeyaur Rahman Khan

International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe), Mbita, Kenya
Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, Kenya
School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya


Abstract
Maize grown under push-pull cropping system has been reported to contain lower concentrations of fumonisin and aflatoxin than maize monocrop. This study determined the inhibitory effect of desmodium root extracts on spore germination and radial growth of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Aspergillus flavus and F. verticillioides were isolated from maize and soil and tested for ability to produce aflatoxin and fumonisin by inoculation on mycotoxin-free maize. Aflatoxin and fuminisin were detected and quantified by direct competitive ELISA. Desmodium roots were dried, ground to fine powder and extracted with methanol and dichloromethane and evaluated for anti-fungal activity against by inhibition of spores of A. flavus and F. verticillioides potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. Isolates of F. verticillioides produced up to 599,741 µg/kg fumonisin while isolates of A. flavus produced up to 199,184 µg/kg aflatoxin. Desmodium root extracts reduced germination of A. flavus spores and F. verticillioides by 9.6% and 43.8%, respectively and reduced their respective colony radial growth by 15% and 57%. The results suggested that desmodium roots contain chemical compounds that inhibit growth of A. flavus and F. verticillioides. This may explain the reduction in infection of maize with mycotoxin-producing fungi before harvest in push-pull cropping systems by reducing the pathogen inoculum in the soils. Determination of the active compounds in the root exudates is recommended.

Pages 1942-1948 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2792
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Edaphic invertebrate macrofauna associated with cassava crop in different soil coverages

Nathalia de França Guimarães*, Auro Akio Otsubo, Rodrigo Arroyo Garcia, Anderson de Souza Gallo, Emerson Machado de Carvalho, Rogério Ferreira da Silva

Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Institute of agronomy, Soil Department, Seropédica, RJ, Brazil
Embrapa Western Agriculture, Dourados, MS, Brazil
Federal University of Southern Bahia, campus "Jorge Amado", Itabuna, BA, Brazil
State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Unity of Glória de Dourados, Glória de Dourados, MS, Brazil


Abstract
This study aimed to identify and assess the edaphic invertebrate macrofauna associated with cassava crop in succession to different soil coverages. The experimental design was randomized blocks as 6 x 3 factorial design with four replications. The first factor was soil cover cultivated from December 2014 to April 2015 (fallow, pearl millet, forage sorghum, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Urochloa ruziziensis and Corn+Urochloa ruziziensis). The second factor was sampling periods (March/2015, October/2015 and June/2016). We sampled four blocks of 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.20 m in each system, following the TSBF (Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility) collection method. The taxonomic composition and abundance of organisms, richness of groups and the diversity indexes of Shannon, Pielou equitability and Simpson dominance were evaluated. There was no interaction between the factors (soil cover x season) for the variables studied. There was difference in the dominance of organisms according to the soil cover (isolated), being the highest index (0.44) obtained by previous cultivation of forage sorghum. The abundance of organisms, group richness and diversity index were influenced by sampling period, demonstrating the influence of seasonality on the invertebrate macrofauna community of the soil.

Pages 1949-1956 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2822
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Optimum plot size for field experiments in sesame

Janilson Pinheiro de Assis, Roberto Pequeno de Sousa, Paulo César Ferreira Linhares, Eudes de Almeida Cardoso, Walter Martins Rodrigues, Joaquim Odilon Pereira, Robson Pequeno de Sousa, Aline Carla de Medeiros, Neurivan Vicente da Silva, Anderson Bruno Anacleto de Andrade, Geovanna Alícia Dantas Gomes, Mateus de Freitas Almeida dos Santos, Lunara de Sousa Alves

Jitirana Research Group, Department of Agronomic and Forestry Sciences, Federal Rural Semi-Arid University, Mossoró, RN, Brazil
Center of Exact and Natural Sciences, Federal Rural Semi-Arid University, Mossoró-RN, 59625-900, Brazil
Computing Department, State university of Paraíba, Campina Grande-PB, 58429-500, Brazil
Plant Protection at the Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, AL, Brazil


Abstract
This work aimed to determine the appropriate plot size for field experiments in sesame. We performed a complete randomized block design experiment, using 14 sesame varieties and four replicates. The plots were composed of four rows of 0.8 m long, spaced 0.6 m apart, and 0.1 m between plants. The useful plot area (0.72 m2), which was the two central rows, was divided into 12 basic units with one plant (0.06 m2) each. The measures of sesame production were taken from the useful plot area. The appropriate size of the experimental plot was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient method and calculated the detectable difference between treatments. The optimum plot size for evaluation of sesame seed yield was 0.18 m2 (useful area), taking into account the one-row border on the sides. Gains in experimental precision (12%) were occurred with increments in plot size up to eight basic units (0.48 m2), using five replicates and four or more varieties. The increase in the number of replicates and plot size was more efficient than the increase in varieties number to increase the experimental precision.

Pages 1957-1960 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2828
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Effect of phosphorus and potassium on gas exchanges of Tachigali vulgaris

Pedro Henrique Oliveira Simões*, João Olegário Pereira de Carvalho, Dênmora Gomes de Araujo, Marcos André Piedade Gama, Clenes Cunha Lima, Cândido Ferreira de Oliveira Neto, Ricardo Shigueru Okumura, Raimundo Thiago Lima da Silva, Glauco André dos Santos Nogueira, Manoel Tavares de Paula

Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Campus Belém, PA, Brazil
Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Campus Capitão Poço, PA, Brazil
Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Campus Parauapebas, PA, Brazil
Universidade do Estado do Pará, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Tecnologia, PA, Brazil


Abstract
Tachigali vulgaris L. G. Silva & H. C. Lima is a pioneer species with great potential for reforestation. The inadequate supply of phosphorus and potassium results in nutritional disorders, requiring nutritional complementation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) doses on Tachigali vulgaris gas exchange. Three doses of P (0, 26.7 and 53.5 kg-1 ha) and three doses of K (0, 50 and 100 kg-1 ha) were applied in a 3x3 factorial scheme as randomized block design. The data were submitted to analysis of variance using the Tukey 1% test and Pearson's linear correlation test. Potassium fertilization provided increases of approximately 30% in the rate of liquid photosynthesis (PN). Stomata conductance (GS), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), perspiration (E), instantaneous caboxilation efficiency (ΦC), water use efficiency (EWU) and intrinsic water use efficiency (iEWU) were also favored at dose of 78.2 g kg-1 K, suggesting their role in regulating essential physiological processes for plant growth. The highest PN values were observed with application of 33.1 g kg-1 P and 78.2 g kg-1 K, with rates of 4.28 and 4.86 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively, which also occurred with E, ΦC, EWU and iEWU. It was observed that P exerted antagonistic effects on K absorption, which may also have impaired Mg2+ absorption due to the fact that Ca2+ is an accompanying ion of potassium fertilizer.

Pages 1961-1969 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2838
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Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in Savanah agrosystems

Elias Gomes de Oliveira Filho, João Carlos Medeiros, Jaqueline Dalla Rosa*, Henrique Antunes de Souza, Diana Signor Deon, Beata Emoke Madari

Santa Cruz State University, Rodovia Ilhéus-Itabuna, Km 16 - Salobrinho, Ilhéus - BA, Brazil
Federal University of Southern Bahia, Center of formation in Agroforestry Sciences /UFSB, (CEPLAC/CEPEC), Rodovia Ilhéus-Itabuna, Km 22, Ilhéus-BA, Brazil
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa Mid-North, Av. Duque de Caxias, 5650, Teresina - PI, Brazil
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa Semi-Arid, Rodovia BR-428, Km 152, s/n - Zona Rural, Petrolina - PE, Brazil
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa Rice and Beans, km 12 - Zona Rural, GO-462, Santo Antônio de Goiás – GO, Brazil


Abstract
In Brazil, 87% of N2O released into the atmosphere comes from agriculture, emphasizing the importance of assessing emissions in agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate N2O fluxes and emissions in agroecosystems and to identify how physical and chemical attributes of soil may affect the emissions. The study was carried out in the northeastern savannah (Cerrado), in an area under current agricultural expansion, in the municipality of Bom Jesus, State of Piauí. The treatments were composed of grain cultivation systems under no-tillage: exclusive soybean with biological nitrogen fixation (FBN), exclusive corn and corn intercropped with brachiaria. An adjacent area under native Cerrado was evaluated as reference ecosystem. N2O fluxes were monitored using manual static chambers between February 18 and April 22, 2017, covering the period from planting until the beginning of the harvest. Corn cultivation systems presented the highest N2O fluxes and the highest total emissions. Nitrogen fertilization significantly contributed to soil N2O fluxes as opposed to FBN. The soybean system and the native Cerrado had the lowest N2O emissions. Substantial amounts of N2O may be emitted during plant residue decomposition, however, it was not evaluated in this study. The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3-available in the soil were different among the cropping systems, presenting a positive correlation with N2O fluxes.

Pages 1970-1976 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2846
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Effects of plant density on growth, yield and seed quality of quinoa genotypes under rain-fed conditions on red basalt soil regions

Nguyen Van Minh, Dinh Thai Hoang, Nguyen Van Loc, Nguyen Viet Long*

Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Tay Nguyen University, Dak Lak, 63100
Faculty of Agronomy, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi, 131000


Abstract
Because of rainfall shortage, quinoa has the potential to supersede traditional crops that contribute to agricultural production less effectively. The current study determined the quinoa genotypes and plant density suitable for production under rain-fed conditions in red basalt soil regions. The experiments were conducted in the rainy and dry seasons of 2018/2019 using split-plot designs with three replications. In these, the main factor consisted of four quinoa genotypes and the subfactor four plant densities (133, 100, 80 and 66 plants m-2) with a row interval of 50cm and a plant interval of 15, 20, 25 and 30cm, respectively. The current study’s results showed that plant density significantly affected polynomial trends on panicle length, panicle number/plant, seed number/panicle, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, protein content, and ash content. The plant density of 80 plants m-2 seems to be the optimal density for quinoa under the studied conditions. Results here also indicate significant differences among quinoa genotypes for agronomical and seed quality performance. Better performances of quinoa occurred in the dry season compared to the rainy season. Atlas and Cahuil were the best adaptive quinoa genotypes in the red basalt soil regions.

Pages 1977-1982 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2849
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Foraging, spatial distribution and the effect of honeybees on soybean yield

Afonso H. Jung, Clériosn R. Perini, Ivair Valmorbida, Alexandre Swarowsky, Letícia Puntel, Ricardo Froehlich, Jerson C. Guedes

Departamento de Defesa Fitossanitária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil
Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA
Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil


Abstract
The soybean is the most cultivated grain crop in Brazil and there are many efforts to protect visitor pollinators, especially honeybees. The understanding of honeybee behavior on soybean fields is important to growers to apply integrated pest management strategies to avoid harm the pollinators. The European bee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) is a social bee, with European origin, whose the worker length is 12 mm to 13 mm with darker chest hairs. In this sense, foraging hours of Apis on soybean, its spatial distribution, the effect of pollination on soybean yield and the effect of insecticides on honeybee behavior were investigated. Two experiments were carried out. The first experiment was performed in a soybean field with 79 sampling points and four insecticide treatments to understand the spatial distribution of honeybees. In addition, foraging behavior of honeybees was evaluated hourly from 7:00am to 7:00pm randomly on 40 sampling points. The second experiment was carried out in cages with and without honeybees to quantify the effect of pollination on soybean yield under spray of chemical insecticides. Four hives with Africanized honeybees (A. mellifera) were set around the area. The hives had approximately six to eight brood frames and two to four food frames. Insecticides were sprayed as diferent treatments. The first experiment showed that honeybees prefer to forage on soybean flowers from 10:00am to 1:00pm and have random distribution. The use of A. mellifera as a pollinator did not increase the yield of soybean. Besides the particular manner of experiment’s conduction, the information of foraging behavior of honeybees, the pollination effect on soybeans yield and the effect of insecticides on honeybees are prudently discussed and some implication for soybean producers are also carefully addressed to avoid insecticide applications to harm pollinators. It is important to understand that the effect of pollination on yield of soybean depends on environmental conditions, cultivars, the effect of caging plants, and the abnormally high concentration of bees in the cages.

Pages 1983-1990 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2855
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Quality and antioxidant activity of 'Isabel Precoce' grapes installed on different training systems and rootstocks in warmer seasons in a tropical semi-arid region

Rayssa Ribeiro da Costa, Talita de Oliveira Ferreira, Antônio Augusto Marques Rodrigues, Eugênio Ribeiro de Andrade Neto, Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de Lima

Universidade Federal da Paraíba, PO Box 66, Zip Code 58397-000, Areia, Paraiba, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, BR 407, km 119, Zip Code 56300-990, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil
Universidade de Pernambuco, BR 203, km 2, Zip Code 56328-900, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil
Embrapa Semiárido, PO Box 23, Zip Code 56302-970, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil


Abstract
Production system and environmental factors might cause changes in grapevine physiology, affecting grape yield, quality, phenolic composition, and antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to characterize the quality and antioxidant potential of 'Isabel Precoce' grapes on different training systems and rootstocks in warmer seasons, in tropical conditions. Experimental design was in randomized blocks, in sub-subplots through time and four replicates. Three training systems (overhead trellis, lyre and vertical shoot positioning - VSP) and two rootstocks (‘IAC 572’ and ‘IAC 766’) were studied in the production cycles from July to October, 2017 and from July to October, 2018 in the Submedium of São Francisco Valley. Berry weight; cluster weight; color attributes; berry resistance to compression (COMP); titratable acidity; soluble solids; total soluble sugars (TSS); yellow flavonoids; total anthocyanins; total extractable polyphenols and antioxidant activity by ABTS●+ and DPPH● free radical capture methods were analyzed. Lyre and VSP resulted on increases of 6% and 17% in berry weight and COMP, respectively. Moreover, differences between production cycles were more intense for both variables. In production cycle from July to October 2017, lyre and VSP systems provided increases of 2 g 100 g-1 of TSS and higher anthocyanin and yellow flavonoid contents, while grapes trained in VSP had higher antioxidant activity. Mean values of anthocyanins reached 529.34 mg 100 g-1 in grapes harvested in October 2017. Some grape quality and chemical components showed high variation in warmer seasons of sucessive years, according to training system or rootstock and their combinations.

Pages 1991-1998 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2871
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Inheritance of resistance against Peronospora destructor in onion cv. ‘Regia’

Mariana Arias*, Natalia Curbelo, Pablo González Rabelino, Esteban Vicente, Gustavo Giménez, Guillermo A. Galván

Departamento de Producción Vegetal, Centro Regional Sur (CRS), Facultad de Agronomía. Universidad de la República, Uruguay
Departamento de Protección Vegetal, Facultad de Agronomía. Universidad de la República, Uruguay
Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Programa Nacional de Horticultura. Salto Grande Exp. St., Uruguay
Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Programa Nacional de Horticultura. Wilson Ferreira Aldunate, Las Brujas Exp. St, Uruguay


Abstract
Onion downy mildew (DM) caused by Peronospora destructor is a very destructive leaf disease. Genetic resistance is an economic and environmentally friendly way of disease control. In this research, the segregation of DM resistance was analysed in six offspring from crosses between national cultivars and the cv. ‘Regia’, a partial resistance source. F1 plants were self-fertilised, and F1S1 derived progenies were evaluated. The segregations in DM severity were skewed towards susceptibility, with transgressive segregation in five of six progenies. The recessive inheritance could be associated with loss of susceptibility mechanisms. In another experiment, the response of advanced F1S2 lines ‘Regia’ x ‘Pantanoso del Sauce’ were evaluated two times (August and November 2017) in DM disease severity, DM histological quantitative differences, and agronomic traits. F1S2 lines, which have had an earlier selection process, presented an intermediate DM severity between the parents. Disease severity was positively correlated with histological differences in the proportion of infected stomata. ‘Regia’ presented the lowest DM severity and the highest percentage of healthy stomata. Most resistant F1S2 lines did not differ from control cultivars in bulb yield, bulb quality traits and postharvest behaviour, and could be the basis to develop a DM resistant cultivar in comparison to currently grown cultivars.

Pages 1999-2009 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2883
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Genetic diversity among tropical maize inbred lines as revealed by SSR markers

Maizura Abu Sin, Ghizan Saleh*, Nur Ashikin Psyquay Abdullah, Pedram Kashiani

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Creepers Nursery, Spinney Hill, Addlestone KT15 1AD, United Kingdom
Department of Agricultural Science, Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia


Abstract
Genetic diversity and phenotypic superiority are important attributes of parental inbred lines for use in hybrid breeding programs. In this study, genetic diversity among 30 maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines comprising of 28 introductions from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), one from Indonesia and a locally developed, were evaluated using 100 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, as early screening for potential parents of hybrid varieties. All markers were polymorphic, with a total of 550 unique alleles detected on the 100 loci from the 30 inbred lines. Allelic richness ranged from 2 to 13 per locus, with an average of 5.50 alleles (na). Number of effective alleles (ne) was 3.75 per locus, indicating their high effectiveness in revealing diversity among inbred lines. Average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.624, with values ranging from 0.178 to 0.874, indicating high informativeness of the markers. High gene diversity was observed on Chromosomes 8 and 4, with high number of effective alleles, indicating their potential usefulness for QTL analysis. The UPGMA dendrogram constructed identified four heterotic groups within a similarity index of 0.350, indicating that these markers were able to group the inbred lines. The three-dimensional PCoA plot also supports the dendrogram grouping, indicating that these two methods complement each other. Inbred lines in different heterotic groups have originated from different backgrounds and population sources. Information on genetic diversity among the maize inbred lines are useful in developing strategies exploiting heterosis in breeding programs.

Pages 2010-2019 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.1589
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Application of the bacterial strains Ruminobacter amylophilus, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Enterococcus faecium for growth promotion in maize and soybean plants

Lívia de Paula Silveira Mello, Ana Cláudia dos Santos, Roberta Mendes dos Santos, Saveetha Kandasamy, George Lazarovits, Everlon Cid Rigobelo*

Graduate Program in Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agrarian and Veterinary Sciences, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Jaboticabal, Brazil
A & L Biologicals, Agroecological Research Service Center, London, ON, Canada


Abstract
Ruminobacter amylophilus, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Enterococcus faecium have characteristics that are similar to those of plant growth-promoting bacteria and can be used to promote plant development and reduce production costs. These bacteria were isolated from fistulated ruminants and are gram-negative, anaerobic or facultative anaerobic. These bacteria are frequently used to increase animal productivity through the production of many enzymes responsible for the carbon cycle and the release of other nutrients by organic matter decomposition. The bacteria R. amylophilus, F. succinogenes and E. faecium have growth promotion abilities, such as phosphorus solubilization, nitrogen promotion, and indole acetic acid and siderophore production. Tests were performed under greenhouse conditions with soybean and maize crops with five treatments and six replications. The first treatment was the control (without inoculant); the other treatments included each species of bacteria, and there was a treatment with a mixture (mix) of the three bacteria. F. succinogenes increased the root dry mass of maize by 21.4%, as well as the nitrogen and phosphorus contents, compared to the control. R. amylophilus and E. faecium decreased the phosphorus concentration in shoots of maize, and R. amylophilus increased the soil biomass carbon by 76.39% compared to the mix under maize cultivation, while E. faecium decreased the soil biomass carbon by 56.78% compared to the mix under soybean cultivation. The present study verified that Ruminobacter amylophilus, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Enterococcus faecium presented plant growth-related abilities and could be used to improve plant development, reducing the necessity of chemical fertilizers.

Pages 2020-2027 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2937.pdf
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The effects of paclobutrazol on enhancing tolerance of Plantago major L. to cadmium stress in vitro

Shamil I. Neamah*, Alla Hussein Hamad

Center of Desert Studies, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Ramadi, University of Anbar, Iraq

Abstract
The plant tissue culture technique has enabled us to study the tolerance of cells, tissues, and plant organs and cultures to different stresses that plants suffer from. The in vitro culture facilitates the ability to stimulate the production of secondary metabolites. The present study investigated the influence of paclobutrazol (PBZ) pre-treatment on the growth, physiological, morphological, biochemical traits, and phenolic compounds production in callus cultures of Plantago major L. in a medium containing different concentrations of cadmium. The callus was cultured in a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with different concentrations of cadmium (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 µM), with a PBZ concentration of 0 and 2 mg l-1. A factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design (CRD) was performed in triplicate. The results of the growth of the callus culture were obtained after 28 days. The increasing concentrations of cadmium were found to have a negative effect on some traits such as fresh weight (FW), dry weight (DW), browning intensity (BI), tolerance index (TI), electrolyte leakage (EL), and membrane stability index (MSI). The PBZ treatment reduced the effects of cadmium levels through the decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This was caused by a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Also, there was an increase in total phenol and flavonoids content in the callus grown on the tissue cultures supporting 200 µM cadmium compared to the other levels. The PBZ pre-treatment was a significant reducing factor to produce total phenolic and flavonoids content in P. major L. callus culture under the cadmium levels.

Pages 2028-2035 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.20.14.12.2968.pdf