Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

October 2018 | EARLY VIEW | 12(10) 2018 | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10

Leaf area response in dual purpose wheat submitted to different defoliation managements and seeding densities

Gustavo Henrique Demari*, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Maicon Nardino, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Tiago Corazza da Rosa, Tamires da Silva Martins, Nathan Löbler dos Santos, Mauricio Horbach Barbosa, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Tiago Pedó, Paulo Dejalma Zimmer, Tiago Zanatta Aumonde

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, CEP 96010-610, Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Campus de Frederico Westphalen, RS, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Pampa, Dom Pedrito, RS, Brazil


Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the performance of leaf area during the development of dual purpose wheat genotypes when subjected to different seeding densities and defoliation managements. The experiment was conducted in 2014 growing season in experimental area belonging to the Breeding Lab and Plant Production of the Federal University of Santa Maria Campus Frederico Westphalen-RS. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a factorial treatment design, as follows: five genotypes (BRS Figueira, BRS Guatambu, BRS Tarumã, BRS Umbu and BRS 277) × five seeding densities (75; 150; 225; 300; 375 plant m-2) × four defoliation managements (without cut. one cut. two cuts and three cuts) arranged in three replications. The cuts were made when the plants reached 30 cm, leaving 10 cm for regrowth. Leaf area is influenced by defoliation management seeding densities and dual purpose wheat genotype. Increased in seeding density reduces leaf area in all genotypes. The larger leaf area at tillering was obtained at the density of 300 plant m-2 to management with three cuts for the genotypes BRS Tarumã, BRS Umbu, Guatambu BRS and BRS Figueira. The density of 300 plant m-2 provide increase on leaf area in flowering stage for BRS Umbu, BRS Guatambu and BRS 277 genotypes in all defoliation managements. Leaf area reduces in the grain filling when seeding density is increased for all defoliation managements in the genotypes BRS Tarumã, BRS Umbu and BRS 277.

Pages 1552-1560 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.p638
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Electrical conductivity test for evaluating physiological quality in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds

Thiago Alberto Ortiz*, Guilherme Renato Gomes, Nícolas Alexandre de Siqueira Vengrus, Rodrigo Anschau, Lúcia Sadayo Assari Takahashi

Post Graduate Program in Agronomy, State University of Londrina (Universidade Estadual de Londrina, UEL), 6001, 86051-990, Londrina, Brazil
Agronomy Academic, UEL, 6001, 86051-990, Londrina, Brazil
Department of Agronomy, UEL, 6001, 86051-990, Londrina, Brazil


Abstract
Snap bean is a variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that is cultivated and consumed as a vegetable worldwide. In order to optimize the crop’s production, germination tests are used to ensure that seeds are high in quality. However, because these tests possess inherent limitations, vigor tests, such as the electrical conductivity test, may be used instead to assess seed quality. The goal of the present study was to develop a standardized methodology for measuring electrical conductivity in snap bean seed that could reliably assess the physiological quality of seed batches. Groups of seeds (n = 50) from each of seven snap bean genotypes (UEL 1, UEL 2, HAV 21, HAV 22, HAV 34, HAV 35, and HAV 42) were immersed in distilled water (75 or 150 mL) for various immersion periods (2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, or 24 h), using a completely randomized 7 × 2 × 7 factorial design, with eight replicates per treatment. After immersion, the electrical conductivity of seeds from each treatment group was measured in μS cm-1 using a conductivity meter. The group means were subjected to ANOVA and the Scott-Knott test (p ≤ 0.05). The optimal conditions for the electrical conductivity test in snap bean seeds were a 16-h immersion in 75 mL of water. Under these conditions, genotypes could be clearly differentiated based on their seed vigor, optimizing the measurement of seed quality.

Pages 1561-1565 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.pne1022
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Identification of olive pollen donor trees and pollinizers under controlled pollination environment using STR markers

Catherine Marie Breton*, André Jean Bervillé

Institut des Sciences de l'Évolution de Montpellier (ISE-M), UMR CNRS 5554 Place E. Bataillon, cc63, Bât 24, 1er étage F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
INRA, UMR-DIAPC 1097, Supagro Bat 33, F-34060 Montpellier Cedex 1, France


Abstract
In the olive tree, the bag method is efficiently used to determine whether the pollen donor is compatible, and thus can be used as a pollinizer. Besides, paternity tests are claimed to enable identification of the pollen donor trees and thus pollinizers, via embryo genotype testing based on short tandem repeat (STR) markers. We examined here, on concrete data, gathered from studies in the literature, the advantages and drawbacks of both methods. We implemented the published data, reasoning in the frame of the sporophytic self-incompatibility model, by i) calculating the fruit set rate referred to 100 hermaphroditic flowers, ii) introducing the S-allele determinants in stigmata, iii) adding the S-pollen determinant(s) that coated pollen grain for each variety, when deciphered for each variety. Cross compatibility/incompatibility was deduced from theory and compared to recorded experimental fruit set. New conclusions revealed that when a variety failed as pollen donor, it was not always incompatible in theory. This fully changes previous conclusions. Thus, we suggest combining the bag method and STR protocol to answer most unsolved queries and to bring information dealing with fertilization by unwanted pollen in the host variety, and whether self-pollination may have occurred at the same time as some crosses. We showed that introduction of the sporophytic self-incompatibility model and attribution of S-alleles pairs to varieties, both efficiently improve the bag method and paternity tests on embryos harvested under the bags leading to a trustworthy identification of pollinizers for more varieties.

Pages 1566-1572 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.p1071
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Agronomic performance and economic profitability of lettuce fertilized with Calotropis procera as a green manure in a single crop

Italo Nunes Silva, Francisco Bezerra Neto, Aurélio Paes Barros Júnior*, Jailma Suerda Silva de Lima, Aridênia Peixoto Chaves, José Ricardo Tavares de Albuquerque, Hamurábi Anizio Lins, Manoel Galdino dos Santos, Enielson Bezerra Soares

Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Centro de Ciências Vegetais, Departamento de Ciências Agronônimas e Florestais, Av. Francisco Mota, 572, Costa e Silva, CEP 59625-900, Mossoró, RN, Brazil

Abstract
Lettuce is a vegetable crop that requires a large supply of nutrients in a readily available form, within a short period of intense vegetative growth. The use of green manuring, with spontaneous species of the Caatinga biome, can quickly increase the organic matter content in the soil, providing nutrients for the crop. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance and economic profitability of lettuce fertilized with Calotropis procera in single crop under the semi-arid conditions of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with four treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of four amounts of C. procera biomass incorporated into the soil (10, 25, 40, and 55 t ha-1 of dry matter). The maximum agronomic efficiency of lettuce productivity was obtained for a yield of 18.16 t ha-1, with 40.29 t ha-1 of C. procera biomass added to the soil. The maximum economic efficiency of lettuce yield was achieved by the net income of AU$3,006.50 (R$7,546.31 ha-1), provided by the production of 17.65 t ha-1 of fresh mass, with 32.20 t ha-1 of C. procera biomass added to the soil. The use of C. procera as a green manure presents agro-economic feasibility for lettuce cultivation in the semi-arid conditions of the Rio Grande do Norte state.

Pages 1573-1577 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.p1114
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Exogenous proline affects nitrogen assimilation, mineral uptake, and antioxidant activity in tomato plants under NO3–/NH4+ proportions

Roberta Corrêa Nogueirol*, Simone da Costa Mello, João Cardoso de Souza Junior, Durval Dourado Neto, Francisco Antonio Monteiro

Crop Science Department, University of São Paulo (ESALQ/USP) Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, 13418-900
Soil Science Department, University of São Paulo (ESALQ/USP) Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, 13418-900


Abstract
The nitrate (NO3‒) reduction process is complex and has a high energy cost for plants when N is provided exclusively as NO3‒. For this reason, the addition of part of N in the form of ammonium (NH4+) may improve the development of many species. There are no studies showing how proline spray may affect plants under NH4+/NO3‒ treatment in varying proportions. The objective was to evaluate the role of exogenously applied proline on N assimilation, photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, mineral uptake, and biomass production of tomato plants in initial growth treated with NO3‒/NH4+ in varying proportions. The experiment was carried out with NO3‒/NH4+ proportions (100/0, 70/30 e 50/50) and exogenous proline doses (0, 10 e 20 mmol L‒1). The parameters of production, nutrition and enzyme activity of the antioxidant system of tomato plants were evaluated. The NO3‒/NH4+ proportions and proline spray did not affect the plant biomass, but the SPAD value, CO2 assimilation, and stomatal conductance were lower in plants supplied with NO¬3‒ exclusively. Proline concentration in the shoots was increased with the proline rate applied exogenously. The nitrate reductase activity was enhanced by proline rates only in plants under NO¬3‒ exclusively, whereas glutamine synthase was not affected by proline spray. However, proline spray decreased NH4+ concentration in shoots of the plants grown under 100/0 and 70/30 NO3‒/NH4+, but not in the roots. The NO3‒ concentration and accumulation in roots were raised by proline spray only in plants grown under NO3‒ exclusively, indicating that proline is an excellent osmoregulator, which explains the maintenance of NO3‒ in the roots. Proline spray increased N assimilation and mineral uptake. Ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase activity in shoots was higher in plants treated with a proline rate of 20 mmol L‒1. Producers using proline spray for tomato plants should consider the NO3‒/NH4+ proportions, because the proline supply effects NO3‒ and NH4+ uptake, nitrate reductase activity, and antioxidant activity in tomato plants under treatment from N ionic forms.

Pages 1578-1586 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.p1120
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Genetic interrelationship among tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) genotypes revealed through SSR markers

Zinhle Babongile Mhlaba, Beyene Amelework, Hussein A. Shimelis, Albert Thembinkosi Modi, Jacob Mashilo*

University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Discipline of Crop Science, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
University of KwaZulu-Natal, African Centre for Crop Improvement (ACCI), Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa


Abstract
Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) is one of the useful plant genetic resources possessing novel genes for abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. It is largely used in the breeding of common bean or related tropical legumes. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic interrelationship present among 20 diverse tepary bean genotypes using 10 selected and polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to identify genetically unique parental lines for developing breeding populations. The SSR markers amplified a total of 57 putative alleles with a size range of 102 to 304 base pairs. Number of alleles ranged from 2 to 16 with a mean of 5.7 per locus. Number of effective alleles ranged from 1.5 to 11.6 with a mean of 4.32. The mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.45 and 0.51, respectively, reflecting moderate level of genetic interrelationship among the tested genotypes. The mean polymorphic information content (PIC) of the SSR loci was 0.50 suggesting that the selected markers had high discriminatory power for genetic diversity analysis of tepary bean. Genetic distances varied from 0.18 to 0.64 with a mean value of 0.42, signifying relatively low levels of genetic diversity among the studied genotypes. Cluster analysis grouped the genotypes into three distinct genetic groups. Unique genotypes such as G40201, G40237, G40158, G40157 and G40158 from Cluster I, G40084 and G40033 from Cluster III were selected. These are distantly related parents and recommended for further breeding or genetic recombination to broaden the genetic basis of tepary bean or related legumes.

Pages 1587-1595 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.p1129
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The integration of quantitative and multicategorical data for the analysis of genetic divergence in germplasm of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.): A new approach

Ronaldo Silva Gomes*, Francisco Charles dos Santos Silva, Ronaldo Machado Junior, Cleverson Freitas de Almeida, Fabio Teixeira Delazari, Renata Dias Freitas Laurindo, Rafael Henrique Fernandes, Derly José Henriques da Silva

Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa-MG, Brazil

Abstract

The analysis of genetic divergence in plant germplasm based on a set of quantitative data has revealed a low association to the divergence estimated from multicategorical data and vice versa. On the other hand, strategies involving the integration of quantitative and multicategorical information may provide more accurate estimations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate the genetic divergence in the germplasm of cassava based on the integration of quantitative and multicategorical data, targeting a greater comprehensiveness and accuracy in the estimation. Data from 10 genotypes of M. esculenta, characterized by 20 quantitative and 24 multicategorical characteristics was used in this work. The genotypes were collected from autochthonous fields from five different microregions of Brazil and evaluated in a completely randomized block design experiment with four replications. First, the analysis of genetic divergence was performed based on the distances individually obtained from the quantitative and multicategorical information. For the data integration, three strategies were adopted, the Gower’s algorithm, the transformation of quantitative data by the equitable division of its amplitude into several classes, and the sum of the distance matrices, obtained from quantitative and multicategorical data. The estimates of genetic divergence from the quantitative data had a low association with that expected from the multicategorical data and vice versa. The transformation of data and the algorithm of Gower were not efficient, which resulted in low correlations with the matrices of distances obtained from the original data. The sum of matrices consisted on the strategy of higher efficiency and provided a higher comprehensiveness and accuracy in the analysis of genetic divergence in the germplasm of cassava.

Pages 1596-1602 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.p1152
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Nitrogen fertilization and different crop management practices in pickling cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

Gabriel Pereira de Souza, Isa Anastacia Borges, Cleiton Gredson Sabin Benett*, Leandro Caixeta Salomão, Katiane Santiago Silva Benett, Danielle Godinho de Araújo Perfeito

Goiano Federal Institute (Instituto Federal Goiano), Urutaí Campus, Urutaí-GO, Brazil
Goiás State University (Universidade Estadual de Goiás), Ipameri Campus, Ipameri-GO, Brazil


Abstract
The use of nitrogen (N) fertilization has been shown to increase the quality and production of cucumber. Thus, the goal of this work was to evaluate crop management practices with and without shoot pruning and the application of N in a pickling cucumber crop under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Goiano Federal Institute, Urutaí Campus. The experimental design involved randomized blocks in a 2×5 factorial arrangement, with two different management treatments (with and without pruning) and five doses of N (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 N), with four replicates. The doses of N were split among three applications at 15, 30 and 45 days after plant emergence. Each plot contained ten plants with a 0.2-m spacing between plants and a 0.8-m spacing between rows. The four central plants in each plot were evaluated, and the following assessments were performed: leaf N content, relative chlorophyll index, stem diameter, fruit length, fruit diameter, number of fruits, fruit fresh mass, fruit dry mass, shoot fresh mass, production per plant and total yield. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (F test) at the 5% probability level, and when significant effects were observed for the N doses, regression analyses were performed. Management with and without pruning directly influenced the production of pickling cucumber. The doses of N influenced the development and yield of cucumber under greenhouse conditions.

Pages 1603-1608 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.p1154
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Changes in the spatial distribution of maize plants affect efficient use of solar radiation

Jaqueline Sgarbossa*, Diecson Ruy Orsolin da Silva, Elvis Felipe Elli, Felipe Schwerz, Braulio Otomar Caron, Denise Schmidt, Elder Eloy, Sandro Luiz Petter Medeiros

Federal University of Santa Maria, Frederico Westphalen Campus, Departamento of Agronomic and Environmental Sciences, Frederico Westphalen, RS, Brazil
University of São Paulo, College of Agriculture, Department of Biosystems Enginnering, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil 3University of São Paulo, College of Agriculture, Department of Plant Science, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
Federal University of Santa Maria, Frederico Westphalen Campus, Department of Forest Engineering, Frederico Westphaen, RS, Brazil
Federal University of Santa Maria, Department of Plant Science, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil


Abstract
Spatial arrangement of plants is undoubtedly considered to be the key in determining high production levels of the maize crop. This study was conducted to evaluate the benefits of variations in the spatial distribution of maize plants. The spatial distribution has its effect on the leaf area index (LAI) and efficiency in the use of solar radiation. All these factors affect the yield of maize. The experiment was conducted in Frederico Westphalen - RS, in 2015/2016 agricultural year. The experimental design comprised of a randomized but homogenized block in a factorial 4 × 3 × 7, namely, four variations of plants in one sowing line (0, 20, 40 and 60%); three plants with different spacings (pre-determined), and seven plant collections during the crop cycle with four replications. The increase in the variation in the distribution of plants resulted in greater LAI values and more efficient use of solar radiation. However, it did not show any effect on the crop productivity levels. Varation of spatial distribution increased the efficient utilization of solar radiation in different ways between plants in the sowing line. This happened due to increase in LAI values and the capture of solar radiation. Under favorable weather conditions, some possible failures in plant distribution in the sowing line do not interfere with the crop yield. This research recommends the acceptable levels of variation that do not compromise crop yield.

Pages 1609-1615 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.p1187
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Alleviation of chilling injury induced by cold quarantine treatment in Midknight Valencia and Lane Late sweet orange fruit

Muneer Rehman, Zora Singh*, Tahir Khurshid

Curtin Horticulture Research Laboratory, School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia
NSW Department of Primary Industries, Dareton, Australia


Abstract
Cold quarantine treatment (1°C for 21 days) induces chilling injury (CI) in sweet orange fruit. We investigated the effects of different treatments such as hot water dip (HWD, 50 °C) alone or combined with thiabendazole (TBZ) five-minute, different concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MJ) one-minute dip and fumigation of nitric oxide (NO) two-hour and ethylene (ET) (six-hour) on CI and fruit quality following cold quarantine treatment for 10-day at ambient temperature in ‘Lane Late’ and ‘Midknight Valencia’ fruit. The experiment was laid out by following completely randomised design included three replications. HWD alone or combined with TBZ, or MJ significantly reduced CI in both cultivars. NO (5 μL L-1) fumigation significantly reduced weight loss in ‘Lane Late’ only as compared to all other treatments except SA (1, and 3 mM). SCC/TA ratio was significantly reduced with ethylene, HW alone or combined with TBZ or MJ (0.25 mM) as compared to all other treatments in ‘Midknight Valencia’, but not in ‘Lane Late’. The NO (10 μL L-1) fumigation resulted in the significantly highest level of vitamin C only in ‘Midknight Valencia’. SA (3 mM) dip treatment resulted in the significantly highest levels of total antioxidants as compared to all other treatments in ‘Lane Late’ but not in ‘Midknight Valencia’. In conclusion, HWD alone or in combination with TBZ (20 mg L-1) or MJ (0.50 mM) effectively reduced CI caused after cold quarantine treatment without adversely affecting fruit quality.

Pages 1616-1625 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.p1197
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The chia (Salvia hispanica): past, present and future of an ancient Mexican crop

Anacleto Sosa-Baldivia, Guadalupe Ruiz-Ibarra, Raúl René Robles de la Torre, Reyna Robles López , Aurora Montufar López

Nutrilite S de RL de CV. Av. México #8. Rancho el Petacal, Municipio de Tolimán Jalisco, México
Instituto Tecnológico José Mario Molina Pasquel y Henriquez campus Tamazula, Tamazula de Gordiano Jalisco, México
Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CIBA-IPN, Unidad-Tlaxcala, Ex-Hacienda de San Juan Molino, Km 1.5 Carretera Estatal Tecuexcomac-Tepetitla, Tepetitla, Tlaxcala, México
Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH), DF, México


Abstract
The history of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as a domesticated crop presents many contradictions. Almost 4,500 years ago in Mesoamerica, chia was used as food and medicine. However, just only in three centuries, chia became a forgotten crop and remained an unknown crop for many years. Considering this issue, the main objective of this review was to testify the importance and history of chia as a Mexican ancestral crop. Chia along with corn and bean were keys for the nutrition of the ancient habitants in Mesoamerica. It has been reported that Spanish domination brought a massive reduction of the native population of Mexico down to 5 % (from 22 million of native people at 1520 to 1 million at 1620). These two facts caused the use of chia to diminish and almost disappear. The chia crop was rescued thanks to a small group of farmers in Jalisco, Guerrero, and Puebla. Around 1990, they developed a crop of chia and preserved the tradition of their use. Today its value as crop and food is so high and their cultivation and consumption are currently takes place in 30 countries. The chia’s demand will be increased up to 239 % by 2020 and its sales are expected to reach 1.2 billion dollars. It is clear that after 500 years of lethargy chia will be the Sleeping Beauty of Mexico.

Pages 1626-1632 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.p1202
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Adult plant resistance to stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Pakistani advanced lines and wheat varieties

M.U. Rehman, S. Gale, G. Brown-Guedira, Y. Jin, D. Marshall, L.W. Whitcher, S. Williamson, M. Rouse, S. Bahavni, M. Hussain, G. Ahmad, M. Hussain, M.A. Sial, J.I. Mirza, Y. Rauf, A.R. Rattu, M. Qamar, K.A. Khanzada, A. Munir, R. Ward, R. Singh, H. Braun, M. Imtiaz*

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) Pakistan Office, CSI Building, NARC, Park Road, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
USDA-ARS, Cereal Disease Laboratory, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA
USDA/ARS-Plant Science Research Unit 3411 Gardner Hall Box 7616, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7616, USA
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) Kenya
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Mexico
Wheat Research Institute, AARI Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan
Cereal Crop Research Institute (CCRI), Pirsabak, KPK, Pakistan
Regional agricultural research institute (RARI), Bahawalpur Pakistan
Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tandojam, Pakistan
Crop Diseases Research Institute, Murree, Pakistan
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC), Islamabad, Pakistan
Crop Sciences Research Institute Wheat Program, NARC-Islamabad, Pakistan
Crop Diseases Research Institute, Karachi, Pakistan
Crop Diseases Research Institute, NARC, Pakistan


Abstract
After decades of effective wheat stem rust control, due mainly to use of the Sr31 resistance gene in wheat, as of the early 2000s new virulent strains of the stem rust fungus, especially the Ug99 or the TTKSK races, are spreading and overcoming the resistance of commercial varieties worldwide, including the Sr24 and Sr36 resistance genes in Kenya. To address this, researchers are working to identify new resistance sources and to develop and release new high-yielding, resistant and adapted varieties. In this study we evaluated 707 advanced spring wheat lines and varieties for adult plant resistance (APR) to stem rust at the Njoro research station of the Kenya Agricultural & Livestock Research Organization, using a modified Cobb’s scale, and for seedling resistance at the Cereal Disease Laboratory (CDL), University of Minnesota, using the 0-4 Stakman et al. (1962) scale. We found 101 lines that showed APR and, through molecular marker analysis, identified 18 lines carrying the stem rust resistance marker allele for the Sr25/Lr19 gene. Of these 18 lines, 11 were resistant to Ug99 at both the seedling and adult stages and 7 were susceptible at the seedling stage, showing infection type (IT) 3 to 4, and moderately susceptible at the adult plant stage. Another 20 lines were resistant at all stages of development, without Sr25/Lr19 marker allele indicated the possibility of carrying other genes for stem rust resistance. We shared the results with national program breeders and scientists in Pakistan to facilitate the use of resistant lines in crossing programs and enhance stem rust resistance in candidate wheat varieties. As a result number of lines resistant to Ug99/ and its variants (TTKSK, TTKST) have been identified and released as commercial varieties, including NR-397 (Pakistan-2013) and NR-356 (NARC-2011).

Pages 1633-1639 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.p1226
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Analysis of the non-timber forest products market in the Brazilian Amazon

Humberto Angelo, Rafael de A. Calderon, Alexandre N. de Almeida, Maristela F. de Paula, Milton Meira, Eder P. Miguel, Pedro G. A. Vasconcelos*

Department of Forestry Engeneering, University of Brasilia (UnB), DF, Brazil
Federal University of Acre (UFAC), AC, Brazil
State University of West Centre (UNICENTRO), PR, Brazil


Abstract
The non-timber forest products (NTFP) market in the Brazilian Amazon plays a key role in social, economic, and forest sustainability. Are considered as belonging to the NTFP designation all those products extracted from the forest which is not wood, such as leaves, fruits, fibers, seeds, oils, resins, gums and others. This market has been poorly explored in the country. This study discusses the market for NTFP in the Amazon region. This study aims to measure the response of the extractive supply of NTFP to price changes during the period 1973–2011. We used econometric tools for the analysis, where the supply and demand equations were specified and adjusted by the Ordinary Least Squares method. The price response was measured by the estimation of two logarithmic models for each of the products. Simultaneous models of supply and demand for NTFPs were developed and used to explain the behavior of this market. The results showed low price elasticity for the supply, which means that the quantity produced showed a low response to price. Our findings imply that the NTFP market in the Amazon shows economic potential, although it requires investments in regional infrastructure for production, training, and organization of extractive communities, and marketing support. Our results have important implications for policymakers to formulate effective subsidy policies to encourage the commercial production of NTFPs and to strengthen the NTFP market in the region.

Pages 1640-1644 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.pne1341
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Acaricidal and larvicidal activity of leaves and fractions of rose pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. (Anacardiaceae) essential oil against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

Wanessa de Campos Bortolucci, Hérika Line Marko de Oliveira, Eloísa Schneider Silva, Mariana Rodrigues Vilas Boas, Taynara Magalhães de Carvalho, Caio Franco de Araújo Almeida Campo, José Eduardo Gonçalves, Ranulfo Piau Júnior, Zilda Cristiani Gazim*

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agricultura, Universidade Paranaense - Unipar, Umuarama – Pr, Brasil
Curso de Graduação em Tecnologia Estética. Universidade Paranaense, Unipar, Umuarama – Pr, Brasil
Programa de Pós-graduação em Tecnologias Limpas. Centro Universitário de Maringá – UniCesumar, Maringa – Pr, Brasil
Instituto Cesumar de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação – ICETI, Maringá – PR, Brasil
5Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal da Universidade Paranaense - Unipar, Umuarama – Pr, Brasil


Abstract
This experiment aimed to investigate the chemical composition and the acaricidal and larvicidal activities of essential oil (EO) and fractions from rose pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius (Raddi) leaves against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The EO was obtained from fresh leaves of adult rose pepper specimens by hydrodistillation (2h), then fractioned by column chromatography and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The acaricidal activity was determined by Adult Immersion Test (AIT) and Larval Packet Test (LPT). The concentrations of EO for AIT were from 500.00 to 0.19 mg/mL, and for LPT were from 12.50 to 0.00018 mg/mL. The mortality percentage (%) of female and larvae ticks were obtained by calculating the average ± standard error utilizing the Microsoft Excel® program. The data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and compared utilizing Sisvar 5.6 program by Scott-Knott’s test (p<0.05). The values of lethal doses (LC50 and LC99.9) and their respective confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by Probit analysis. Bioassays showed that EO from leaves killed 40.00% of the females and inhibited 97.06% of egg hatchability at the dose of 500.00 mg/mL, and high activity on larvae, presenting LC50 0.0026 ± 0.0004 mg/mL and LC99.9 of 8.58 ± 0.03 mg/mL. The probable action mechanism of EO and fractions was established by the bio-autographic method, measuring the inhibition potential on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, indicating an inhibition until the concentration of 0.0003 mg/mL. These results allow new perspectives to propose new biomolecules as a way to minimize tick resistance against conventional acaricides.

Pages 1645-1652 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.pne1346
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Cardinal temperatures for the germination of Chorisia speciosa A. St.-Hil.. and parameters of the accelerated aging test for determination of vigor

Luan Danilo Ferreira de Andrade Melo*, João Luciano de Andrade Melo Junior, João Correia de Araújo Neto, Vilma Marques Ferreira, Abraão Cícero da Silva, Vinicius Santos Gomes da Silva, Lívia Francyne Gomes Chaves, Karolyne Priscila Oliveira dos Santos, Aldair de Souza Medeiros, Ivomberg Dourado Magalhães

Department of Agronomy, University Federal of Alagoas – UFAL, Brazil
Department of Agronomy, University Federal Rural of Pernambuco, UFRPE, Brazil


Abstract
Chorisia speciosa A. St.-Hil., popularly known as paineira, barriguda, paineira-branca and paineira-rosa, belongs to the Bombacaceae family, being used to fill mattresses, pillows and cushions. The trees can be used in the construction of boats, boxes and mainly in the recovery of degraded areas. Among the most important tests of vigor, temperature is a factor that can directly interfere with germination and seedling growth. The accelerated aging might be emphasized as the most suitable to estimate seed vigor. The experiment was conducted in a laboratory of the Federal University of Alagoas/UFAL, aiming to determine the cardinal temperatures and to study the influence of accelerated aging on the germination and seed vigor of C. speciosa. The seeds were submitted to temperatures of 20 ºC, 30 ºC, 35 ºC and 40 ºC in paper roll substrate. For the accelerated aging test, temperatures of 41 and 45 ºC were tested during the periods of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The variables analyzed were: first germination count, germination, germination speed index (IVG), dry mass and seedling length. The results showed that temperature of 30 ºC can be indicated as optimum for the germination of the species, since it provided the best values for the evaluated characteristics. Accelerated aging after 24 hours affected the physiological quality of C. speciosa seeds, promoting a reduction in viability and vigor.

Pages 1653-1659 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.pne1362
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Comparative analysis of the Agrobacterium mediated transformation using primary and secondary callus of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) using phosphinothricin as selecting medium

Pravin Kumar, Ishwar Chand and Ram Singh Purty

Pravin Kumar, University School of Biotechnology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Sector-16C, Dwarka, New Delhi-110078, India
Ishwar Chand, Department of Plant Molecular Biology, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi-110021, India


Abstract
Inefficiency of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in indica rice cultivar has been widely reported in the literature. Till date, mature seeds, primary and secondary calli have been the mostly used explants for transformation in indica rice. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to compare the Agrobacterium mediated transformation using primary and secondary callus as explants in the indica rice and testing a herbicide phosphinothricin (PPT) based bar gene selection system. Four different constructs containing the bar gene expression cassette were made. The constructs I and II were transformed with the secondary calli based protocol by three independent experiments. Similarly, constructs III and IV were transformed with the primary calli based protocol by 9 and 20 independent experiments, respectively. The transformation efficiency for the primary and secondary calli based transformation under PPT selection were calculated in the range of 0.13 - 0.26% and 2.0 - 2.66%, respectively. The transgenic escapes were detected by genomic DNA PCR amplification, Southern blot analysis and basta leaf painting assay. It was found that the primary calli based transformation has 46-50% transgenic escapes, whereas secondary calli based transformation have only 20-29% transgenic escapes. The present study reports that secondary calli as explants perform better than primary calli under PPT selection in the Agrobacterium-mediated indica rice transformation.

Pages 1660-1667 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.pne1377
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Effect of different nitrogen sources and time of application on corn grain yield

Jéssica Vettorazzi, Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho, Fernando Shintate Galindo*, Elisângela Dupas, Élcio Hiroyoshi Yano, Salatiér Buzetti

Department of Plant Health, Rural Engineering, and Soils, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Ilha Solteira, Sao Paulo State, Zip Code 15385-000, Brazil

Abstract
Alternatives to reduce N losses in soil and increasing nutrient utilization efficiency are important because of the complex dynamics of nitrogen in the soil. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanized application of N doses, at different times (sowing or top-dressing) and forms (surface or incorporated) using urea to evaluate N leaf concentration, production components and corn grain yield. The study was conducted in Selvíria - MS, Brazil, in an Oxisol with clay texture in Brazilian Cerrado. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replicates, arranged in a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme: 6 doses of N (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 kg ha-1), 2 application times (fully sowing or top-dressing) and 2 application forms in the soil (surface and incorporated). The evaluations were: N leaf concentration, stem diameter, plant height, height of pin insertion, spike length and diameter, number of rows per spike, grains per row, and grains per spike, 100 grains mass and corn grain yield. The N application in surface would be more beneficial due to the greater operational capacity. We recommended the application of 153 kg ha-1 of N in the soil without incorporation at sowing or top-dressing time in a clayey texture soil and with additional irrigation.

Pages 1668-1675 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.pne1394
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Pre-germination treatments in four prickly pear cactus (Opuntia sp.) species from Northeastern Mexico

Areli Gonzalez-Cortés, M. Humberto Reyes-Valdés, Valentín Robledo-Torres, José A. Villarreal- Quintanilla, Francisca Ramírez-Godina*

Programa de Doctorado en Recursos Fitogenéticos para Zonas Áridas (Ph.D. Program in Plant Genetic Resources for Arid Lands), Mexico
Departamento de Horticultura (Horticultural Department) and Departamento de Botánica (Botanical Department), Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro. Calzada Antonio Narro 1923, Buenavista, C.P. 25315 Saltillo, Coahuila, México


Abstract
Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia sp.) is a major plant genus in arid and semiarid lands, due to its abundance, valuable contribution to human diet and use in animal feed. It also has a role in desertification control. Physiological assays on Opuntia seedlings and comparison among species are limited due to the lack of germination and seedling development methodologies. The purpose of this research was to assess the seed germination and the speed of emergence in four species: O. engelmannii, O. microdasys, O. rastrera and O. megacantha, distributed around Coahuila’s Southeastern region in Mexico. We used a completely random experimental design with 23 pre-germination treatments and 4 replications. Seeds of 16 treatments were sown in Peat Moss and Perlite; while the seeds of seven treatments were placed at in vitro culture. We monitored the emergence of seedlings during 23 days. We observed highly significant differences among species and treatments. O. engelmannii and O. microdasys seeds had germination percentages of 82.5% and 67.5%, respectively, by sanding then soaking in 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 24 hours; while O. rastrera reached a cumulative germination percentage of 72.5% with sanded seeds. O. megacantha had the highest germination percentage (100%) after soaking the seeds in 3% H2O2 for 24 hours. Scarifying treatments for six days of incubation resulted in faster seed emergence in the four assessed species. The results show that the most effective methodologies for seed germination and seedling development in Opuntias are manual and chemical scarification, since scuffing the seed coat can interrupt dormancy.

Pages 1676-1684 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.pne1430
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Rehabilitation of pasture fertilized with wood ash and its application management in the Brazilian Cerrado

Éllen Souza do Espírito Santo, Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva*, Helon Hébano de Freitas Sousa, Tonny José Araújo da Silva, Adriano Bicioni Pacheco, William Fenner

Federal University of Mato Grosso - UFMT, Institute of Agricultural and Technological Sciences, 5055 Students Avenue Rondonópolis, 78.735-901, Brazil
Federal University of Mato Grosso - UFMT, Faculty of Agronomy and Zootechnic, 2367 Fernando Corrêa da Costa Avenue, Cuiabá, 78060-900, Brazil


Abstract
The degradation of pastures generates economic, social, and especially environmental damages, as it increases the need for the opening of new areas. In addition, the destination of the residue from the combustion of vegetal biomass is becoming a problem in areas of great industrial production. This study aimed to evaluate biometric parameters and chlorophyll index of Marandu grass pasture under rehabilitation using wood ash doses and application managements. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks, in a 6 x 2 factorial arrangement in strip plots, consisting of six doses of wood ash (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 Mg ha-1) and two application managements (incorporated to the soil with light-duty disc harrow and not incorporated), with four replicates. To standardize the initial experimental conditions, the pasture was cut at average height of 0.15 m using a mechanical mower, followed by manual removal of the cut material. The biometric parameters evaluated were plant height, number of leaves and number of tillers, besides chlorophyll index. In general, when significant difference was found for wood ash doses, the best results of biometric parameters and chlorophyll index were observed between the doses of 8 and 15 Mg ha-1. Regarding wood ash application management, highest values of plant height were found in the management with incorporation, whereas the management without incorporation was responsible for highest numbers of leaves and tillers.

Pages 1685-1694 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.pne1440
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Microbial biofertilizer increases nutrient uptake on grape (Vitis labrusca L) grown in an alkaline soil reclaimed by sulfur and Acidithiobacillus

Sebastião da Silva Júnior, Newton Pereira Stamford, Wagner Silva Oliveira, Emmanuella Vila Nova Silva, Carolina Etienne de Rosália e Silva Santos, Ana Dolores Santiago de Freitas, Vinicius Santos Gomes da Silva*

Post-Graduate Program in Soil Science at the Department of Agronomy, University Federal Rural of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
Center of Agricultural Sciences, University Federal of Alagoas, Rio Largo, Alagoas, Brazil


Abstract
Saline soils require application of gypsum or organic matter for improvement. The reclamation of alkaline soil may be more effective when elemental sulfur is applied and soil inoculated with Acidithiobacillus. This study has focused to evaluate the effects of biofertilizer with interactive microorganisms on nutrient status of grape (Vitis labrusca cv. Isabel) grown in a reclaimed alkaline soils in semiarid region by application of S and inoculation with Acidithiobacillus in two consecutive years. The plants were harvested 110-120 days after pruning and samples were used to determine the nutrient status in the two consecutive cycles. Organic Biofertilizers inoculated with Beijerinckia indica and Cunninghamella elegans were applied at different rates (B1.0, B1.5 and B2.0), at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm). This is the first time that the interactive effects of biofertilizer favoring nutrient uptake in grape (Vitis labrusca cv. Isabel) in reclaimed alkaline soil by utilising sulfur inoculated with Acidithiobacillus is reported. The results showed that biofertilizer applied in higher rate at 0-20 cm depth increases the nutrients status in the leaves. The organic biofertilizer produced from rocks mixed with organic matter inoculated with Beijerinckia indica and Cunninghamella elegans may be alternative to soluble conventional fertilizers.

Pages 1695-1701 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.10.pne1454



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