Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

MAY 2019 | EARLY VIEW | 13(05) 2019 | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05

Genetic parameters and performance of papaya genotypes to black spot resistance (Asperisporium caricae)

Ramon Moraes, Marcelo Vivas, Janieli Maganha Silva Vivas, Rogério Figueiredo Daher, Geraldo Amaral Gravina, Helenilson de Oliveira Francelino, Derivaldo Pureza da Cruz, Gleyce Kelly de Sousa Ramos, Messias Gonzaga Pereira

Agricultural Engineering Laboratory, State University of North Fluminense-UENF, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil
Entomology and Phytopathology Laboratory, State University of North Fluminense-UENF, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil
Plant Breeding Laboratory, Agricultural Science and Technology Center, State University of North Fluminense-UENF, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil


Abstract
Estimation of genetic parameters such as genetic variability of germplasm allows inferring genotype-enviromental interaction for a given variable. The information is important for the process of choosing the variables to be applied to the superior genotype selection. This study aimed at evaluating characteristics related to genetic resistance of papaya to black spot during time testing, as well as estimating genetic parameters associated with some characteristics. The experiment was carried out in RCBD design at Agua Limpa farm, Espirito Santo state, Brazil, using six genotypes: ‘STZ-03’, ‘SS-PT’, ‘Golden’ (‘Solo’ group) ‘Maradol’ (‘Formosa’ group) ‘STA-04’ ‘STA-10’ (landraces), and four repetitions. The 6 treatments were arranged in single row, spacing 2 m between rows and 1.5 m within plants. Nine evaluations were performed during 9 months. We quantified plants on a monthly basis for the characters such as symptom appearance of black spot (FS) on leaves; the incidence of leaves with black spot symptoms (IBS); the severity of black spot on the fifth leaf (SBS5F) and on the leaf with axil attached to the first open flower (SBSFO). By means of the evaluation values, we built a Boxplot graphic to characterize the magnitude of the variables and to describe the dispersion of the data set throughout the evaluations. Analysis of variance, genetic parameter estimate and comparative test of mean were also conducted. The Boxplot graphic allowed classification and magnitude of the variables and described the dispersion of the data set during evaluations. The results showed that SBS5F and the SBSFO were the characteristics that generated reliable results to select genotypes in all evaluations. They showed high H² (Coefficient of genotypic determination), CVg (Coefficient of genotypic variance), CVr (Coefficient of relative variance) and AS (Selective accuracy). The months July, August, September and October showed higher representativeness to evaluate attributes related to resistance to black spot in papaya leaves.

Pages 649-655 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1097
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Variability of physical attributes in tropical weathered soil cultivated with irrigated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Guilherme Adalberto Ferreira Castioni*, Zigomar Menezes de Souza, Aline Azevedo Nazário, Bernardo Melo Montes Nogueira Borges, José Luiz Rodrigues Torres, Marcelo Rodrigues Soares Dayron, Milton César Costa Campos

Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, University of Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP) - Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE/CNPEM) - Campinas/SP, Brazil
Federal Institute of Mining Triangle (IFTM) – Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Federal University of Amazonas, Humaita, Amazonas, Brazil


Abstract
Soil physical attributes are affected by several events. The ability to identify the variation of those attributes can be used to decide the best crop management. Although it is known that smaller grids are more representative, predicting the least number of points while maintaining accuracy is a tool that might reflect a gain in yield and time. The aims of this study were to evaluate the spatial physical variability and to define the minimum sampling density in a tropical Typic Haplustults soil using a scaled semivariogram in a central pivot area with pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) after the eighth bean harvest in Cristalina, Goias State. Soil samples were collected at a regular grid of 10-m intervals, totaling 180 points, and at depths of 0.00–0.10 m, 0.10–0.20 m, and 0.20–0.30 m to determine total sand content (TS), silt (SIL), clay (CL), water-dispersed clay (WDC), mean weight diameter of soil aggregates (MWD), soil penetration resistance (PR), soil macroporosity (Ma), soil microporosity (Mi), and soil bulk density (BD). The results demonstrated that management promoted superficial soil compaction with increasing BD and Mi and decreasing Ma and TP. The scaled semivariogram demonstrated similarity between attributes in the three studied soil layers, evidencing strong spatial dependency. The sample density showed a strong influence of WDC in the irrigated soil properties. Adoption of a scaled semivariogram is a strategy that can be used to determine a minimum number of points that represents the spatial variability of soil physical attributes and to assist the best management in irrigated soils.

Pages 656-661 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1115
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Efficacy of organomineral fertilizers derived from biosolid or filter cake on early maize development

Mara Lúcia Martins Magela*, Reginaldo de Camargo*, Regina Maria Quintão Lana, Melissa Cristina de Carvalho Miranda, Raquel Pinheiro da Mota

Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), Campus Umuarama, Agrarian Science Institute (ICIAG). Address: Av. Amazônas, n/n, build 2E-150. Uberlândia, MG state, Brazil

Abstract
In the current world scenario of agriculture it is necessary to find technologies to reach high productivity that are effective in providing soil conditioning improvement for the plants. Thus, this study analyzed the efficacy of organomineral fertilizers formulated with different organic matter sources on growth factors of maize. The experiment was done in a greenhouse at Campus Umuarama, Federal University of Uberlândia-MG, in a randomized block design, as a 2 x 5 + 2 factorial, containing two sources of organic matter, biosolid and filter cake, five doses of P2O5 recommendation for the crop and two additional treatments: mineral fertilization (100% of P2O5 of the recommended dose) and a control (no fertilizer), with four replications. Plant height, stalk diameter, and chlorophyll a and b were determined at 35 days after sowing (DAS); plant height, stalk diameter, shoot and root fresh and dry matter were determined at 65 DAS. The organomineral sources with biosolid and filter cake yielded greater height and diameter at 35 DAS than those of mineral fertilization. Regardless of the fertilizer organic matter source, stalk diameter at 35 DAS presented linear increase with increasing doses of the fertilizer sources. The use of fertilizer based on biosolid resulted in greater shoot fresh matter than the filter cake source, regardless of dose applied. In general, greater results were obtained for root fresh and dry matter at the greater fertilizer doses in comparison with the mineral fertilization. Organomineral fertilizers can be a viable alternative for partial or total substitution of mineral fertilization, since similar or better results were found for maize growth characteristics.

Pages 662-670 | Full Text PDF| 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1132 |
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Physico-chemical and sensory properties of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) grown in conventional and hydroponic systems

Maria Lucilania Bezerra Almeida*, Carlos Farley Herbster Moura, Renato Innecco, Deborah dos Santos Garruti, Fábio Rodrigues de Miranda, Márcia Régia Souza da Silveira

Federal University of Ceará, Department of Plant Science, Av. Mister Hull, bloco 805, 60.356-000, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil
Embrapa Tropical Agroindustry, Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, 2270, 60511-110, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil


Abstract
Strawberry is considered a fruit of great commercial interest in many countries due to its color, aroma, flavor, and nutritional properties. However, it is possible that the differences among the cultivation systems could affect the production of photoassimilates in the plant and, consequently, their partitioning into the fruits composition, influencing its quality. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the cultivation systems (hydroponics in gutters and slabs, and conventional) and genotype on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant and sensory activity in strawberry fruits. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design in a factorial 4 × 3 scheme with four replications, represented by trays of approximately 200 g of fruit. In the Laboratory, the strawberries (cv. Oso Grande, Festival, Camarosa, and Albion) were analyzed for their physicochemical properties and sensory variables: titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids (SS), SS/TA ratio, soluble sugars, vitamin C, polyphenol, and antioxidant activity. It was observed that cultivation systems and genotype studied influence the antioxidant activity, physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberries. The conventional system shows higher values for physicochemical variables and antioxidant activity, with cultivar variation within each system. The antioxidant activity attributed to strawberry is strongly related to the content of extractable polyphenols and vitamin C. Regarding the sensory properties, cultivars show good overall acceptability in all production systems studied, no presenting difference among systems.

Pages 671-677 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1229
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Plant growth and physiological quality of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) seeds grown in Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Rafael De Oliveira Vergara*, Andréa Bicca Noguez Martins, Tiago Pedó, Aline Klug Radke, Gizele Ingrid Gadotti, Francisco Amaral Villela, Fernanda da Motta Xavier, Paulo Eduardo Rocha Eberhardt, Jerfferson Araújo Cavalcante, Michele Renata Revers Meneguzzo

Departamento de Fitotecnia, Programa de Pós- Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Sementes, Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, Universidade Federal de Pelotas. FAEM/UFPel, Caixa postal 354, 96010-900 - Pelotas, RS, Brasil

Abstract
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) an annual grain crop belonging to the Amaranthacea family is the only vegetable food that contains all essential amino acids, micronutrients and vitamins. The study aimed to evaluate the performance, growth and seed physiological quality of two genotypes of quinoa in Southern Rio Grande do Sul region. The cultivar BRS Piabiru and one breeding line were grown at green house. The design was completely randomized with four replications and five harvest times during the vegetative stage of the crop. The variables were shoot length, number of leaves, leaf area index, dry matter of aerial parts, dry matter of root and total dry matter of plant. It was concluded that the line and BRS Piabiru have slow initial growth in the first 30 days and strong growth up to 120 days. The breeding line and commercial cultivar showed the same potential for seed production in the temperate climate of this region.

Pages 678-682 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1240
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Resistance to red mite in Coffea arabica genotype introgressed with Coffea racemosa genes

Fernando Cesar Carducci, Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca, Willian Gabriel dos Santos, Carlos Theodoro Motta Pereira, Valdir Mariucci Junior, Tumoru Sera, Gustavo Hiroshi Sera*

Instituto Agronômico do Paraná (IAPAR), Plant Breeding Department, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, km 375, 86047-902, Londrina-PR, Brazil
Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), Agronomy Department, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, km 380, 86057-970, Londrina-PR, Brazil


Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the resistance to red mite (Oligonychus ilicis) in Coffea arabica genotypes with introgression of genes from a different species (Coffea racemosa). The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at IAPAR (Londrina, PR, Brazil), between January 2016 and January 2017. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with five genotypes, 12 replications of one plant per plot. The C. arabica cultivars IPR 100, IPR 99 and IPR 103 were evaluated as well as an F4 Arabica coffee line IAPAR H0113-40-26-10 with introgressed C. racemosa genes. Catuaí Vermelho IAC 99 cultivar, which is a pure C. arabica, was used as a susceptible control. In conditions of high natural infestation of red mite, the resistance of coffee genotypes was evaluated using a standard visual evaluation in January 2017. This evaluation was based on the percentage of leaf area with typical symptoms caused by this mite. Only one genotype, the F4 line IAPAR H0113-40-26-10 showed resistance to the red mite because present less leaf area with symptoms compared to other genotypes. The Arabica coffee cultivars IPR 99, IPR 100 and IPR 103 are as susceptible to red mite as to the susceptible control Catuaí Vermelho IAC 99.

Pages 683-686 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1254
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Production of hybrid potatoes: Are heterozygosity and ploidy levels important?

Jane Muthoni, Hussein Shimelis, Rob Melis

Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Kenya
African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Private Bag X01, Scottsxille 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa


Abstract
It has been proposed that maximizing heterosis for yield in potato may be achieved by maximizing heterozygosity and associated intra and interlocus interactions. Tetraploids offer more opportunities to create such interactions than diploids hence the general observations that tetraploids are higher yielding than diploids. Consequently, efforts have been made to increase heterozygosity in tetraploids by introgressing allelic diversity from other Solanum species into cultivated potato. However, conventional potato breeding is difficult because the cultivated potato is an autotetraploid with tetrasomic inheritance and it comprises highly heterozygous individuals which suffer inbreeding depression upon selfing; breeding at the tetraploid level is slow and less efficient than at diploid level. At the diploid level, it is possible to breed for and fix traits under recessive genetic control; it is nearly impossible to do so at the tetraploid level. There is also rapid response to selection due to greater variation in diploids than tetraploids. Consequently, there have been efforts to convert potato from an asexually propagated tetraploid crop into an inbred seed-propagated diploid; this is by production of inbred lines through selfing of the tetraploids to assemble desirable combinations of genes in the inbreds. These efforts are at the experimental stages and a lot of research needs to be done before they are confirmed. Because currently there is little experimental evidence to support superiority of the inbred seed-propagated diploid strategy, it appears the theory that heterosis for yield in potato may be achieved by maximizing heterozygosity and associated intra and interlocus interactions remain unchallenged; these interactions are more in tetraplods than in diploids. This paper therefore looks at genetic basis of yield heterosis in cultivated potato and the role of heterozygosity and ploidy level in production of hybrid potatoes.

Pages 687-694 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1280

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Initial growth of carnauba (Copernicia prunifera) progenies under saline water

Emanuel Lucas Bezerra Rocha, Poliana Coqueiro Dias Araujo*

Federal University of the Semi-Arid, Department of Agronomy and Forestry Sciences, Street Francisco Mota, 572, Costa and Silva, CEP 59625-900, Mossoró, RN, Brazil

Abstract
The carnauba (Copernicia prunifera [Miller] H. E. Moore) is a palm tree that has multiple uses and is of great economic and social importance for extractive families in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this work is to analyze the effect of saline water on the production of different progenies of carnauba. The experiment is arranged in a 5 x 36 factorial scheme in a randomized complete block design, with five replications and five plants per replication. The treatments consist of five levels of irrigation water salinity (with commercial NaCl levels, free of iodine: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mM) and 36 free-pollination progenies. The following characteristics are evaluated: foliar length (H), collecting diameter (DC), survival rate (TS), number of leaves (NF), dry shoot mass (MSPA), dry mass of the root system (MSSR), and dry mass ratio of the root system to the shoot. The results reveal similar behavior among the progenies for the evaluated characteristics. However, significance is observed for the parameters leaf length, collection diameter, and survival rate when the progenies are subjected to salinity above 9.6 dS m-1. Another significant factor is the accumulation of Na+ in the aerial and radicular parts in salinity levels of 7.1, 9.6, and 12.0 dS m-1, with the root system being the most affected site. Thus, the tested progenies exhibit similar behaviors in tolerance to irrigation water salinity. Since the carnauba can produce seedlings in water with electrical conductivity of up to 9.6 dS m-1, this species is characterized as a bioindicator of saline soils and is recommended for planting in degraded areas.

Pages 695-700 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1340
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In vitro regeneration and induction of mutation in Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica L.)

Muhammad Imam Surya, Lily Ismaini, Intani Quarta Lailaty

Cibodas Botanical Garden – Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jalan Kebun Raya Cibodas, PO Box 19 Sindanglaya, Cipanas-Cianjur, West Java 43253, Indonesia

Abstract
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica L.) is a potential fruit crop in Indonesia. The experiments were carried out to study the effect of gamma rays as in vitro mutagenesis agent and also the regeneration of mutant explants of loquat on different media. The experiment used two media (MS and WPM) containing BA and NAA, three type of explants (apical shoot, stem, cotyledon), and four doses of gamma rays (0, 10, 30, 50 Gy). The results showed that MS media was better than WPM media in term of callus production. Moreover, explants of loquat showed a different response to gamma irradiation and the highest response on number of shoots, number of leaves and plant height was found at a dose of 10 Gy. On the other hand, the explants of cotyledon were only able to produce callus. The explants of the apical shoot were able to produce the highest number of leaves and shoots than the explants of the stem. However, the combination of MS media, apical shoot explants and 10 Gy of gamma rays irradiation showed a better response in the growth traits of callus diameter, callus height, number of shoots, number of leaves and plantlet height. Overall, the results of this study showed that in vitro culture in combination with induced mutations can speed up breeding programmes.

Pages 701-708 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1351
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Productivity of soybean crop after fertilization with normal and polymer-coated potassium sources

Jéssica Caroline Coppo, Maria Do Carmo Lana, Jussara Carla Conti Friedrich, Alfredo José Alves Neto, Diego August Fatecha Foiz, Jucenei Fernando Frandoloso, Leandro Rampim, Bruna Broti Rissato

State University of Maringá- UEM, Campus Maringá, Colombo Avenue, 5790, Centro, CEP: 87020900, Maringá, Paraná State Brazil
West of Paraná State University- Unioeste, Campus Marechal Cândido Rondon, Street Pernambuco, 1777, Postal Code 1008, centro, CEP:85960-000, Marechal Candido Rondon, Paraná State, Brazil
Central Western Paraná State University- UNICENTRO, Campus Guarapuava, Street Salvatore Renna, 875, CEP: 85015430, Garapuava, Paraná State Brazil


Abstract
The adoption of different fertilizer application methods should consider the operational, agronomic and economic aspects. The objective of this work was to study the fertilization response with potassium in the soybean crop at different times of application and different potassium sources in an Eutroferric Red Latosol. The experiment was carried out in the municipality of Formosa do Oeste-PR. The design was in a randomized block in a factorial scheme (2 × 5) +1, with 2 potassium sources: normal KCl (KCl) and polymer-coated KCl (KCl-polymer), the KCl doses were adjusted to 40 kg ha -1 of K2O, the second factor refers to the splitting of K2O dose in five application times: T1, application of K2O was nine days before sowing, T2 application split up being ½ of the dose nine days before sowing + ½ of the dose of K2O at sowing, T3 application of the total dose of K2O at sowing, T4 ½ of the dose at sowing + ½ at the V3 phenological stage of the crop, T5 application of K2O was total at the V3 stage of the crop. And an additional witness, without K2O application. KCl-polymer was more efficient for application to the haul before sowing the crop. The fertilization with KCl was better when applied at the V3 stage of the crop. Fertilization with KCl-polymer resulted in higher K content in the leaf, higher efficiency of fertilizer use reflecting in higher productivity.

Pages 709-716 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1373
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Long-term conservation of potato genetic resources: Methods and status of conservation

Jane Muthoni*, Hussein Shimelis, Rob Melis

Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Kenya
African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Private Bag X01, Scottsxille 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

Abstract
Plant genetic resources (PGRs) play an important role in agriculture, environment protection, cultural property and trade; they need to be conserved. There are two fundamental approaches for the conservation of PGRs: in situ and ex situ. In situ conservation is the conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings. Ex situ preservation is the storage of seeds or plant materials under artificial conditions to maintain their long term viability and availability for use. Genebanks employ seed storage, field collections of living plants and in vitro storage (tissue culture or cryopreservation) for ex situ preservation of PGR. Storage of orthodox seeds, which are tolerant to low moisture content and low temperatures at appropriate temperature and humidity, is the most convenient ex situ conservation method. Plants that produce recalcitrant seeds or non-viable seeds are conserved in field genebanks as well as in-vitro in slow growth media for short-to-medium term and cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen at -1960C for long-term periods. Cryopreservation is very expensive and needs trained personnel; this could explain why this method is rarely used for conservation of plant genetic resources in most developing countries. Potato tubers are bulky and highly perishable; the crop is generally conserved as clones either in field genebanks (with annual replanting), in-vitro conservation in slow growth media for short-to-medium term and cryopreservation for long term. Field genebanks are expensive to maintain and the crop is exposed to many dangers; hence, cryopreservation is the only feasible method for long term conservation. However, given the high cost of cryopreservation, long-term conservation of potato genetic resources is poorly developed in most resource-poor countries leading to high rates of genetic erosion. This paper looks into the various methods that that can be applied to conserve potato genetic resources and the status of conservation of potatoes in major genebanks and some countries.

Pages 717-725 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1400
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Initial growth and agronomic performance of some important North American safflower cultivars

Claudia Luiza Maziero*, Reginaldo Ferreira Santos, Doglas Bassegio, Cristiano Fernando Lewandoski, Paulo de Lima Bueno, Tiago Roque Benetoli, Deonir Secco, Samuel Nelson Melegari de Souza, Diane Maschio de Souza, Ricielly Eloyze Rosseto

Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, UNIOESTE, CEP 85819-130, Cascavel, PR, Brazil
Universidade Estadual de Maringá, UEM, Campus Avançado de Umuarama, CEP 87020-900, Maringá, PR, Brazil

Abstract
North American safflower cultivars can be considered as alternatives for cultivation in light of the limited improvement in the commercially grown and registered cultivars in Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the initial growth and agronomic performance of North American safflower cultivars in Brazil. The experimental design for North American cultivars included random blocks with six cultivars (S-351, 3307, 8311, 0260, 0210 and S-323) and six replicates. The emergence percentage, emergence speed index, average emergence time, and average emergence speed were determined at 15 days after emergence (DAE). Plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves per plant, fresh plant mass, and dry plant mass were determined at 30 DAE. Plant height, stem diameter, number of branches, number of chapters, number of leaves, fresh plant mass, dry plant mass, fresh root mass, and dry root mass were determined at the flowering stage. The final plant density, number of chapters per plant, 100-grain weight, grain yield, oil content, and protein content were determined at the harvest stage. Cultivar S-351 had the greatest initial growth and exhibited greater emergence and emergence speed index. At 30 DAE, the cultivars did not differ with respect to the accumulation of dry mass and number of leaves. During flowering, cultivars S-323 and 8311 had greater accumulation of plant and root dry mass, as well as a greater number of leaves, branches, and chapters. Cultivars 210 and 260 had higher grain yield, whereas cultivars 3307 and S-323 had higher oil content, and cultivar S-351 had higher protein content.

Pages 726-731 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1414
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Seeding densities of the oat crop and the amount of grazing on the physical property and soil carbon

Jeferson Tiago Piano*, Jonas Francisco Egewarth, Aline Vanessa Egewarth, Paulo Sérgio Rabello de Oliveira, Jean Sérgio Rosset, Carlos Augusto Rocha de Moraes Rego, Juan López de Herrera

Center of Agrarian Sciences, Parana Western State University (UNIOESTE), Street Pernambuco, 1777 - Center, Zip Code: 85960-000, Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR, Brazil
State University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), BR 163 km 20.2, Zip Code: 79980-000, Mundo Novo - MS, Brazil
Higher Technical School of Agricultural Engineers, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avenue Puerta de Hierro, 2, Zip Code: 28040, Madrid, Spain


Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sowing densities of oat crop, managed in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS), or the use of fallow during the winter period, on the soil physical properties, total carbon and soil carbon stock, in two years. A split-plot in a randomized block design, with additional treatment was used. It was found that the number of grazing in the year 2014 adversely affected the values of macroporosity and microporosity in the layer 0-0.05 m, besides the microporosity in the 0.1-0.2 m layer. The total porosity in the 0.1-0.2 m layer was positively influenced by the sowing density of oats only in the year 2014. The soil penetrometer resistance (SPR) had changes after winter 2015, at 0-0.05 m due to the number of grazing. During 2014, there were no changes in the total carbon and carbon storage of the soil. In 2015, the amount of grazing used, negatively affected the total carbon in layers 0-0.05 and 0.1-0.2 m. However, it positively affected the storage of carbon in soil in the layer 0.05-0.1 m. The adoption of the lower density of the oat crop with realization of a grazing tends to improve the physical properties, total carbon and soil carbon stocks.

Pages 732-738 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1467
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Decomposition and nutrients cycling of residual biomass from integrated crop-livestock system

Jeferson Tiago Piano*, Jonas Francisco Egewarth, Jucenei Fernando Frandoloso, Eloisa Mattei, Paulo Sérgio Rabello de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Rocha de Moraes Rego, Juan López de Herrera

Center of Agrarian Sciences, Parana Western State University (UNIOESTE), Street Pernambuco, 1777 - Center, Zip Code: 85960-000, Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR, Brazil
Higher Technical School of Agricultural Engineers, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avenue Puerta de Hierro, 2, Zip Code: 28040, Madrid, Spain


Abstract
The objective was to evaluate the decomposition and nutrient release of biomass from maintenance of fallow or oat crop (IPR 126), managed in integrated crop-livestock, during the soybean crop cycle (85 days) in no tillage system in two years (2014 and 2015). The design was a randomized complete block in a subdivided plot scheme, with the parcel consisting of four plots (four straws, from fallow or oat cultivation) and the subplots (evaluation periods 0, 10, 35, 60 and 85 DAS) with the evaluation times throughout the crop cultivation soybean. The amount of biomass and the content of C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn were calculated. The amount of biomass and nutrients presents a similar pattern of decrease in their values; however, the climatic conditions and the C/N ratio play an important role in the decomposition and mineralization of nutrients. The mineralized amount of N, K, P, Ca, Mg and Zn is directly proportional to their initial content in the biomass, and K nutrient is quickly released from crop residues. Most of the nutrients studied were released during the soybean crop development cycle, favoring its development, this can provide a reduction of external inputs in the property.

Pages 739-745 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1488
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Juice technological quality, lignocellulosic physical-chemical attributes and biomass yield from energy cane clones

Ronaldo da Silva Viana*, Bruno Rafael de Almeida Moreira, André May, Celso Tadao Miasaki, José Claudio Caraschi, Maria Gabriela de Oliveira Andrade

São Paulo State University (Unesp), College of Agricultural and Technological Sciences (FCAT), Câmpus of Dracena, Brazil
Agricultural Research Company - Embrapa- Jaguariúna, Brazil
São Paulo State University (Unesp), Campus of Itapeva, Brazil
São Paulo State University (Unesp), Campus of Ilha Solteira (Feis), Brazil


Abstract
Originating from backcrossing generations between wild and commercial sugarcane varieties, “energy cane” technology promises to revolutionize global energetic scenario, once full use of feedstock is allowed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess juice technological quality, lignocellulosic physical-chemical composition, and biomass yield of nine energy cane. The experiment had a randomized block design with five replications for each clone (treatment) (VX12-1659, VX12-1658, VX12-1356, VX12-1191, VX12-1022, VX12-0277, VX12-0201, VX12-0180, and VX12-0046) with five replicates. Following to tillage harvest, stalk samples were assessed for total soluble solids (ºBrix; % juice), sucrose (Pol; % juice), purity (Prt; % juice), reducing sugars (RS; % juice), theoretical sugars recoverable (TSR; kg t-1 stalks), Pol (% cane), RS (% cane), moisture (% cane), fibers (Fib; % cane), and dry biomass yield (DBY; t ha-1). The obtained data was subjected to the following statistical tests (p < 0.05): Shapiro–Wilk, Fisher, Tukey, and Pearson’s linear correlation. Findings revealed null hypothesis rejection, suggesting the clones significantly affected all assessed traits. The individuals VX12-1659, VX12-1658, VX12-1356, VX12-1191, VX12-1022, and VX12-0277 exhibited the highest °Brix (% juice), Pol (% juice), Prt (% juice), TSR, Pol (% cane), moisture (% cane), and Fib (% cane) values. In addition, the clones VX12-1659, VX12-1658, and VX12-1356 resulted in DBY averages higher than other individuals of the population. In fact, all clones showed Type II energy cane typical characteristics due to a low sucrose/fiber ratio. Thus, the energy cane clones are suitable for bioelectricity co-generation.

Pages 746-752 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1490
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Effects of planting beds, nutrient treatment and drought stress on biochemical properties and vegetative traits of common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.) seeds

Robabeh Asghari

Plant Production Department, Imam Khomeini Higher Education Center, Agricultural Research, Iran

Abstract
Oenothera biennis (Common Evening-Primrose, Evening Star, or Sun Drop) is an ornamental plant with medicinal properties belonging to the Onagraceae-Oenotheraceae family and native to North America. Evening primrose seed oil is used to deal with fat accumulation in the body, diabetes, premenstrual syndrome and other diseases, including eczema, mastalgia, cancer, multiple sclerosis and rheumatism. Recent studies have confirmed the presence of antioxidant activity in the polyphenols in evening primrose seeds. In order to evaluate the effect of different planting beds, organic fertilizers and drought stress, as the evening primrose’s environmental and nutritional factors in growth and phytochemical properties, this experiment was carried out at the department of plant products research greenhouse in 2017. The experiment was performed using a completely randomized design in 4 treatments and with three replications. Seeds were planted in the prepared beds. Seedlings resulted from seeding and germination of seeds were transferred to different planting media. Growth characteristics were studied at the end of the plant growth period and before their flowering, and the ripe seeds after harvesting were used to measure 100 seed weight and biochemical traits. The results were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA. Also, simple correlation coefficients were calculated to obtain the ratio of characteristics with each other by Duncan's method.

Pages 753-760 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1491
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Effect of indol-3-butiric acid (IBA) on rooting of cuttings of Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) Barneby

Clenes Cunha Lima, Selma Toyoko Ohashi, Pedro H. O. Simões, Gladis Oliveira Jucoski, Priscilla Andrade Silva, Josiane Pereira da Silva, Claudete Rosa da Silva, Glauco A. S. Nogueira, Vitor R. Nascimento, Ana Ecídia de Araújo Brito, Lenilson F. Palheta, Cândido F. de Oliveira Neto

Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Campus Parauapebas, Rodovia PA 275, s/n, CEP 68515-000, Zona Rural, Parauapebas, Pará, Brasil
Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Campus Belém, Avenida Presidente Tancredo Neves, 2501, CEP 66077-830, Terra Firme, Belém, Pará, Brasil


Abstract
The propagation of S. amazonicum by seeds can result in uneven seedlings that are subject to poor quality, which is detrimental to uniformity and productivity. The absence of an efficient method of vegetative propagation of the species may be a limitation for genetic improvement, and consequently the increase in productivity in plantations. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in the rooting of cuttings of paricá - Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) Barneby. The cuttings obtained from the stems of the seedlings were treated with IBA in the hydro-alcoholic solutions at 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 ppm; commercial product with 2000 ppm IBA powder; commercial product composed by IBA and nutrients; and treatment control (0 ppm). The cuttings were planted in plastic trays with vermiculite and coconut fiber (1:1 v/v) and placed in a box lined with plastic to control moisture. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replications and 10 cuttings per plot. After 60 days, the percentage of rooted cuttings, living and dead, and number and length of roots were analyzed. The analysis of variance indicated statistical difference at 5% of probability for all variables. The best results was observed when IBA at 2000 and 3000 ppm diluted in hydro-alcoholic solutions were used, which were statistically equal, with the highest percentage of rooting, average number and length of roots and lowest percentage of dead cuttings. The polynomial regression analysis indicated that higher rooting rates can be obtained in the concentration 2550 ppm of IBA diluted in hydro-alcoholic solutions.

Pages 761-766 | Full Text PDF| 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1543
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Floristic composition of weeds in a dystrophic Red-Yellow Argisol under the cultivation of cowpea, cv. BRS Novaera

Francisco de Alcântara Neto*, José Oscar Lustosa de Oliveira Júnior, Antônio Aécio de Carvalho Bezerra, Gabriel Barbosa da Silva Júnior, José de Anchieta Alves de Albuquerque, Alan Mario Zuffo, João Pedro Alves de Aquino, Abel Ferreira Borges

Federal University of Piauí, 64049-550, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil
Embrapa Mid-North, 64006-220, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil
Federal University of Roraima, 69304-000, Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil
State University of Mato Grosso, 79540-000, Cassilândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil


Abstract
Among the several factors that negatively influence cowpea culture, weeds have been responsible for the reduction of growth, development and productive performance of the crop, making it necessary to establish management strategies based on phytosociological studies of weed species in growing areas. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the floristic composition of weeds, aiming to identify the main species and their dynamics, and to consider their distribution in time and space as pertaining to the cultivation of a modern variety of cowpea, cv. BRS Novaera, in dystrophic Red-Yellow Argisol, in the Midnorth region of the state of Piauí, Brazil. The phytosociological survey of weeds was carried out in three sessions: the first one was immediately before the area was desiccated with glyphosate (15 days before sowing the cowpea), and the others were at 20 and 40 days after sowing (DAS). Following the quantification of species and number of individuals, the following phytosociological parameters were calculated: frequency and relative frequency; density and relative density; abundance and relative abundance; and importance value index. It was concluded that there were few changes in the floristic composition of the weed community according to the epoch of the phytosociological surveys. The main weed plants at 20 DAS of cowpea (vegetative phase) were Chamaesyce hirta, Digitaria insularis, Alternanthera tenella, Cleome affinis, Mollugo verticillata and Portulaca oleracea. At 40 days (reproductive phase), the weed species with a large establishment and acting as potential competitors with cv. BRS Novaera cowpea were Digitaria insularis, Chamaesyce hirta and Mollugo verticillata.

Pages 767-772 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1553
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Agronomic potential of biofortified crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its reaction to Root-knot nematodes

Luciana Alves de Sousa, Ana Carolina Pires Jacinto, Aline José da Silveira, Renata Castoldi*, Gabriel Mascarenhas Maciel, Igor Forigo Beloti

Instituto de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Monte Carmelo, MG, Brasil

Abstract
Lettuce is the most-consumed leafy vegetable in Brazil due to its ease of preparation, nutritional quality, and affordability. Despite these benefits, there are few cultivars of crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa) that possess agronomic potential, high carotenoid content and resistance to nematodes. Therefore, we evaluated the agronomic potential of crisphead lettuce genotypes that are resistant to the root-knot nematode. The experiment was conducted at the Vegetable Experiment Station of the Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), Monte Carmelo Campus. The trial was set up in a randomized block design with 49 treatments (43 genotypes obtained from crosses between Uberlandia 10000 and Belissima and six commercial cultivars) and three replications. After preparing the beds and before transplanting the seedlings, 11 simple samples were taken from each of the three experimental blocks to confirm the presence of nematodes within the experimental area. The following variables were determined 48 days after transplanting: chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, plant diameter, number of leaves per plant, fresh mass and incidence of root gall. The data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an F-test and the means were compared by the Scott-Knott test. Genetic diversity was represented by a dendrogram that was obtained using the hierarchical method of UPGMA and the optimization method of Tocher. We found genetic divergence and agronomic potential among the evaluated genotypes. Specifically, 199#1#1-E, 199#2#1-E, 199#2#2-E, 199#3#1-E, 199#6#1-E and 75#2#2-E presented good agronomic potential, were rich in carotenoids and showed resistance to the root-knot nematode.

Pages 773-779 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1565
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Can sugarcane cope with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration?

Varucha Misra*, A. K. Shrivastava, A. K. Mall, S. Solomon, Akhilesh Kumar Singh, Mohammad Israil Ansari*

ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow-226 002, India
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow-226 010, India
Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India


Abstract
Climate change is the one of the most emerging problem of today’s world. It is the most potent threat to the existence of mankind. These sudden abrupt changes in the climate are affecting all the crops to a great extent. High concentrations of CO2 are one of the leading reasons contributing to climate change due to the increasing level of green-house gases. The elevation in CO2 level is hampering crop production and productivity of different crops by causing effect on different physiological attributes. Unlike other crops, in sugarcane, several beneficial effects have been detected such as escalation in biomass, photosynthesis, leaf area, stalk juice volume, leaf dry weight and stem dry weight under such condition. Sugarcane crop is known to be one among those crops that is able to cope up with the increasing level of CO2 due to four natural endowments it possesses. Very low carbon dioxide compensation point and unique property of sequestering carbon in form of phytolith or planstone is some of the important natural endowment with respect to the rising CO2 concentration in atmosphere. Here, we have discussed the influence of atmospheric rising CO2 concentration on sugarcane crop.

Pages 780-784 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1582
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Sindy cherry tomato: A low potassium (K) demanding, high-quality and highly productive cultivar

Hermínia Emília Prieto Martinez, Janini Tatiane Lima Souza Maia, Carla do Carmo Milagres*, Junia Maria Clemente, Paulo Roberto Cecon

Department of Fitotecnia, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brasil

Abstract
Potassium (K) is one of the most abundant nutrient and has the greatest influence on fruit quality as it regulates the synthesis and translocation of photoassimilates in plants. K deficiency in tomato plants can compromise the quality and flavor of fruits. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of K doses on the production and quality of cherry tomato fruits in a hydroponic system. We cultivated the cherry tomato Hybrid Sindy for 120 days, from June to October, in an expanded clay sub irrigation system. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replicates. The treatments consisted of increasing concentrations of K (6, 8, 10 and 12 mmol L-1) in the nutrient solution provided during the fructification period. It was evaluated production, mean weight of fruits and bunch, total soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, pH, and contents of lycopene, β-carotene, and a chlorophyll. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, copper, boron, iron, zinc, and manganese were also determined in the fruits and in the third leaf above the fourth fruit bunch. Six mmol L-1 of K in the nutrient solution was enough to ensure the production and quality of the Sindy hybrid cherry tomato. Nevertheless, higher K doses improved the contents of the bioactive compounds lycopene and β -carotene in the fruits.

Pages 785-791 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1600
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Leaf characterization of Spermacoce verticillata at three stages of development

Dauri Aparecido Fadin, Patricia Andrea Monquero*

Program in Agriculture and Environment (PPGAA), São Carlos University, Araras, São Paulo State, Brazil

Abstract
Weed control is an essential practice in crop management. However, the use of herbicides may not be effective in certain situations, such as when problems are encountered in the application technology and when tolerant individuals and resistant biotypes are observed. In the cotton producing areas of the state of Bahia, Brazil, Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonweed) is not effectively controlled during burndown applications. During different developmental stages, plants can modify their leaves’ anatomical structures, which may influence herbicide control by modifying the retention, absorption, translocation and final effect of the chemical. This study assessed the morphological and histological differences in Spermacoce verticillata leaves at different stages of development. Leaves were collected from plants at different phenological stages (2-4 leaves, 4-6 leaves and flowering) and subjected to histological and scanning electron microscopy analyses. In the histological analysis, four leaves were collected from the upper nodes. The evaluated characteristics were the total leaf blade thickness, palisade and spongy parenchymal thicknesses, cuticle and epidermal cell thicknesses on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces and midrib height and width. Surface analyses were performed by observing the leaves under a scanning electron microscope. As the developmental stages of Spermacoce verticillata advanced, the plants began to show reduced leaf thickness due to the decreased abaxial epidermal thickness, transport vessel size and parenchymal thickness. At more advanced stages of development (4-6 leaves and flowering), the adaxial leaf surfaces showed fewer stomata and more trichomes.

Pages 792-797 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1663
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Effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment on physicochemical characteristics of tomato fruits during post-harvest storage

Mohamed S. AL-Saikhan, Tarek A. Shalaby

Department of Arid Land Agriculture (Horticulture Program), College of Agricultural and Food Sciences, King Faisal University, 31982 Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, 33516 Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt

Abstract
Tomato is a perishable vegetable crop and it faces several problems during marketing and storage. Postharvest losses during storage of tomato fruits are mainly due to decay. In this study, the effect of postharvest application of hydrogen peroxide on quality and decay of tomato fruits during storage under two storage temperatures (10 ºC and 20 ºC) was studied. Tomato fruits (Red rose cv.) at light red maturity stage were dipped in a solution of hydrogen peroxide (0, 5 and 15 mM) for 30 min, then air-dried at room temperature and stored at room temperature (20ºC) for three weeks in fridge (10ºC) for 4 weeks. A factorial (3 x 2) complete randomized design with three replications was used. The results showed that Hydrogen peroxide treatments reduced weight loss and disease incidence percentage of fruits compared with control treatment (0 mM hydrogen peroxide). Moreover, hydrogen peroxide treatments had slight effect on fruit firmness. Regarding TSS% and ascorbic acid content, there were no significant differences among treatments. In addition, storage temperature affected tomato fruit quality during storage time. Therefore, the use of hydrogen peroxide in postharvest treatments is useful to keep quality of tomato fruits under storage conditions.

Pages 798-802 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.05.p1738


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