Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

March 2021 | 15(03):2021 | 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03


Impact of phytopathogens on seed quality of tropical grasses in integrated systems

Anne Caroline Dallabrida Avelino, Dayana Aparecida de Faria, Wender Mateus Peixoto, Elisangela Clarete Camili, Virgínia Helena de Azevedo, Arthur Behling Neto, Cárita Rodrigues de Aquino Arantes, Giovani Oliveira de Arieira, Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu

Department of Agronomy and Zootechny, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Institute of Agrarian and Technological Sciences, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil


Abstract
This study aimed to identify the main fungal and phytonematode genotypes associated with the main tropical forage seeds used in integrated systems and to distinguish seeds with high physiological and sanitary quality, for which two experiments were conducted. In year 1 (2017/18 crop year), the first experiment (experiment 1) was conducted with seeds produced in the 2017/18 crop year, in a randomized open design with four configurations and four replications. In year 2 (2018/19 crop year), the study (experiment 2) was replicated with the experimental conditions of the first experiment (randomized automatic design, with four sessions and four replications), but using samples from the 2018/19 crop year. The seeds were produced in the 2017/18 and 2018/19 crop years, with the same origin, and were purchased within commercial packages. The treatments of experiments 1 and 2 were the same and consisted of seeds of Brachiaria ruziziensis and the Brachiaria brizantha cultivars Marandu, Xaraés, and BRS Piatã. The same variables were evaluated for each experiment: water content, physical purity, viability, germination rate index, first germination count, germination percentage, crop value, dormancy, accelerated aging, and incidence of fungi and phytonematodes. Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Meloidogyne sp., Filenchus sp., Aphelenchus sp., Aphelencoides sp., and Rotylenchulus sp. are the main phytopathogens associated with seeds of the main tropical forage species used in integrated systems. The seeds of B. ruziziensis present high physiological quality, whereas the seeds of the B. brizantha cultivar Xaraés grass present high sanitary quality.

Pages 312-318 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2375
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Effect of potassium fertilizers associated with cold storage on peach (Prunus persica L.) quality

Caroline Farias Barreto, Letícia Vanni Ferreira, Renan Navroski, Jorge Atílio Benati, Rufino Fernando Flores Cantillano, Marcia Vizzotto, Gilberto Nava, Luis Eduardo Correa Antunes

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão, RS, Brasil
PhD em Agronomia.
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, Brasil


Abstract
Potassium (K) fertilization may affect peach quality and preservation. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of doses of K on physico-chemical and functional characteristics of ‘Sensação’ peaches in the postharvest period. Mass loss, pulp color, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, pulp and skin firmness, total concentrations of phenolic compounds and carotenoids and antioxidant activity were evaluated in fruits. The experiment was a randomized block design in a 5x3 factorial scheme, five doses of fertilizers (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 Kg ha-1 K2O) and three storage periods (harvest day, 10 days and 20 days in cold storage at 1±1ºC, followed by a day of simulated commercialization at 20±1ºC). Mass loss, pulp firmness, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and carotenoids decreased when fruit underwent cold storage, independent of the dosage of K fertilization. Doses of 40 and 160 kg ha-1 K2O applied to the soil lead to a larger number of phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity in fruits at harvest time. After cold storage, fertilization with 160 kg ha-1 K2O exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and the lowest mass loss in fruits. Increase in doses of K strengthened the color of peach pulp.

Pages 319-324 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2438
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Thermal degradation kinetics and physicochemical analysis of the freeze-dried hibiscus flower extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa)

Auryclennedy Calou de Araújo*, Francislaine Suelia dos Santos, Marylia de Sousa Costa, Karoline Thays Andrade de Araújo, Josivanda Palmeira Gomes, Wilton Pereira da Silva, Alexandre José de Melo Queiroz, Geovani Soares de Lima, Lauriane Almeida dos Anjos Soares, Ângela Maria Santiago

Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazil
Estate University of Paraíba, Department of Industrial Chemistry, Campina Grande, 58101-001, Brazil


Abstract
The goal of this research was to evaluate the kinetics of thermal degradation of the hibiscus extracts powder at different temperatures and to characterize physicochemically the freeze-dried aqueous extract of the hibiscus flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa) with different concentrations of maltodextrin (0, 5, 10 and 15%). The analyzed parameters were: water content, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, ash, solubility, hygroscopicity, bulk and tapped density, the flowability (Carr index) and cohesiveness (Hausner ratio), lightness (L*) and intensity of red (a*) and yellow (b*). The degradation kinetics was analyzed by the determination of bioactive compounds of flavonoids, anthocyanins and color appearance parameters (lightness, intensity of red and yellow, chroma and hue angle). The increase in maltodextrin concentration resulted in increases of solubility, soluble solids content, pH and color appearance parameters; as the parameters of bulk and tapped density, hygroscopicity, water content, ash and acidity presented decreases as the proportion of additive increased, showing good flowability and low to medium cohesion. Regarding the degradation kinetics, the maltodextrin was effective in the preservation of anthocyanins and flavonoids of the freeze-dried hibiscus flower up to the temperature of 50 °C. Therefore, this work resulted in the preparation of a product derived from the freeze-drying process with and without additives and with preserved sensory attributes of high quality.

Pages 325-333 | | Full Text PDFdoi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2503
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Contribution of nitrogen on industrial quality of oat grain components and the dynamics of relations with yield

Rubia Diana Mantai*, José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Francine Lautenchleger, Roberto Carbonera, Luiz Antônio Rasia, Adriana Roselia Kraisig, Vanessa Pansera, Odenis Alessi, Juliana Aozane da Rosa, Eduarda Warmbier, Natiane Carolina Ferrari Basso, Ester Mafalda Matter

Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missões
Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul
Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste


Abstract
Understanding the magnitude of contribution and relationships of industrial quality components to yield by nitrogen stimulation can drive strategies with benefits to the food industry. The objective of this study is to measure and interpret the contribution and relationship dynamics of the components of oat industrial quality with grain and industry yield by nitrogen stimulation, partitioning the correlation values in direct and indirect effects by path diagnosis, in proposing strategies that promote benefits to the food industry. The study was conducted from 2011 to 2016, in a randomized block design with four replications in 4x2 factorial for nitrogen rates (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1) and oat cultivars (Barbarasul and Brisasul) in separate environments soybean/oat and corn/oat succession system. The increase of nitrogen promoted greater change in the mass of caryopsis in soybean/oat system and the thousand grain mass and number of grains greater than 2 mm in corn/oat system, with a tendency of reduction. In soybean/oat system, grain and industry yields can be simultaneously incremented by direct increase via one thousand grain mass and indirect increase by caryopsis mass. In corn/oat system the grain yield does not show any relationship with industrial quality variables. However, the industral productivity is benefited by the increase of the number of grains larger than 2 mm. The management proposition in the improvement of the grain and industry productivity characteristics by nitrogen is dependent on the high succession and reduced N-residual release systems.

Pages 334-342 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2592
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Influence of application of nitrogen doses on the post-harvest quality of cucumber

Adriane Cristina Pereira, Danielle Godinho de Araújo Perfeito, Gabriel Pereira de Souza, Natália Arruda, Cleiton Gredson Sabin Benett, Luciana Maria da Silva

Goiano Federal Institute (Instituto Federal Goiano), Urutaí Campus, Urutaí-GO, Brazil
Maringá State University (Universidade Estadual de Maringá), Umuarama Campus, Umuarama-PR, Brazil
Goiás State University (Universidade Estadual de Goiás), Ipameri Campus, Ipameri-GO, Brazil


Abstract
The conditions of cultivation and the management of fertilization influence the productivity and the post-harvest quality of cucumbers in an expressive way. In this sense, the aim of this study is to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensorial post-harvest quality of cucumbers for canning purposes submitted to different doses of nitrogen fertilization. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the Goiano Federal Institute (IF Goiano), campus Urutaí and After harvest, the material was sent to the food technology laboratory located in the campus. The soil of the area is classified as Red Latosol according he cucumber cultivar used was the Cucumis sativus L. Kybria F1 hybrid, most suitable for the processing of canned foods. The experimental design was randomized blocks and five treatments (nitrogen doses 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1), and four replications. The physical parameters fruit length and diameter, fruit fresh matter, production per plant, titratable acidity (TA), pH, soluble solids (SS), moisture, ash content, and SS/TA ratio were evaluated. A sensory analysis was performed using acceptance and ordering-preference tests, in addition to an instrumental evaluation of texture. The application of different doses of nitrogen to cucumber in a protected environment influenced the production per plant and the physical-chemical characteristics of the fruits. However, the sensory quality was not affected. The doses 100 and 150 kg ha-1 of nitrogen is recommended for the production of canned cucumber.

Pages 343-347 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2600
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Morphophysiology of Jatropha curcas L. plants under different water regimes

Thiago Souza Campos, Westefann dos Santos Sousa, Alan Abadio da Silva, Valdivino Domingos de Oliveira Júnior, Walter Pires Júnior, Thaís Fernandes de Jesus, Larissa Pacheco Borges, Fábio Santos Matos

Plant Production of UEG, Ipameri University Unit, Brazil
State University of Goiás (UEG), Ipameri University Unit, Brazil
Graduate Program in Plant Production of UEG, Ipameri University Unit, GO 330, Km 241, ring road, university sector, 75780-000-Ipameri, Brazil


Abstract
The effect of different water regimes on Jatropha curcas seedling growth was investigated. The study was carried out in a greenhouse covered with transparent plastic. Seeds were sown in five liter recipients containing substrate consisting of 3:1:0.5 soil, sand and manure, respectively. A completely randomized plot design was used with seven treatments and five replications. The plants were irrigated with 100% substrate retention capacity until 30 days of age when they were submitted to water volumes of 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, 125%, 150% and 175% substrate retention capacity for 30 days. The short duration of the research explains the slight decreases in the RMR and TRA but they were sufficient to support the assertion that excess water may have inhibited aquaporin activity and partially reduced soil solution absorption and TRA. Thus, both water deficit and excess water inhibited the growth of J. curcas plants, however, the water deficit inhibited more strongly the development of the species at the initial stages of the restriction, while excess water only caused damage after a longer period of exposure. The assessments were made when the plants were 60 days old. The J. curcas plants showed an isohydric mechanism of stomatal control and maintained turgidity under water shortage, and, under excess water, the alterations in the root system and relative water content preceded reduction in stomatal conductance. The initial growth of J. curcas plants was shown to be sensitive to water shortage and but not very vulnerable to water excess.

Pages 348-353 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2705
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Effects of wood ash and soil water potential on vegetative development of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.)

Luana Glaup Araujo Dourado, Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Tonny José Araújo da Silva, Everton Alves Rodrigues Pinheiro, William Fenner

Faculty of Agronomy and Zootechnic, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Brazil
Institute of Agricultural and Technological Sciences, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Rondonópolis, Brazil


Abstract
This research aimed to evaluate the amending potential of eucalyptus’s wood ash on soil chemical properties and soil-water potential. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, campus in Rondonópolis. The experimental design was composed of randomized blocks in a 5x5 factorial scheme, including five soil-water potentials (‒4, ‒8, ‒16, ‒32 and ‒64 kPa), and five wood ash doses (0; 8; 16; 24 and 32 g dm-3). The soil samples were collected from the top layer of an Oxisol under natural Cerrado vegetation. Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) growth variables (plant height, numbers of leaves, stem diameter, and SPAD index) were analyzed at three different phenological periods. In general, the wood ash doses increased soil pH, eliminated the exchangeable aluminum, and improved soil essential nutrients availability. As a result, mung bean plants responded positively to wood ash, achieving superior results at doses ranging from 24 to 26 g dm-3. The interaction between wood ash doses and soil water potential was not significant. However, drier soil conditions constrained plant growth severely. According to our experimental conditions, plant growth variables achieved higher performance at soil water potential of -4 kPa.

Pages 354-361 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2710
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Cordia americana: Evaluation of in vitro anti-herpes simplex virus activity and in vivo toxicity of leaf extracts

Gislaine Franco de Moura-Costa*, Gean Pier Panizzon, Thalita Zago Oliveira, Marco Antonio Costa, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Edilson Nobuyoshi Kaneshima, Benedito Prado Dias Filho, Tania Ueda-Nakamura

Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences – State University of Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil
Departament of Pharmacy - State University of Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil
Departament of Basic Health Sciences - State University of Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil
Departament of Medicine – State University of Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil


Abstract
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2 are responsible for causing infections whose symptoms can vary from subclinical to severe manifestations. Cordia americana is a plant used by traditional communities for the treatment of wounds and diarrhoea, as well as infections like flu and syphilis. Scientific evidence has shown that, among other biological activities, the plant possesses antiviral properties; however, the evaluation of the in vivo toxicity of preparations of this plant is still lacking. This study assessed the in vitro anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity of a crude extract (CE) obtained from the leaves of C. americana, as well as its aqueous (FAq) and ethyl-acetate fractions (FAc). In addition, the in vivo toxicity of the FAq was assessed. The sulforhodamine B method was performed to determine the antiviral activity and the in vivo toxicity was evaluated according to Brazilian federal regulations. The CE, FAq, and FAc demonstrated antiviral activity against HSV-1 in vitro, presenting EC50 values of 7.0±1.4, 1.5±0.35, and 7.5±3.8, respectively. The FAq also had activity against HSV-2 with an EC50 of 11.8±1.02. The toxicological study of FAq in animals showed that it had very low toxicity. No death occurred during acute or subchronic experiments, where up to 5000 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg FAq were tested respectively; and there were no signs of toxicity in the subchronic test. The results of this study, in conjunction with further studies, pave the way for a potential topical treatment for skin and mucosal diseases, such as HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections.

Pages 362-368 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2729
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Importance of brassinosteroids in activating the antioxidant system and growth in Jatropha curcas L. plants under water deficit

Diego Braga de Oliveira, Camila Lariane Amaro, Liana Verônica Amaro, Larissa Pacheco Borges, Victor Alves Amorim, Fábio Santos Matos

Post-Graduate in Plant Production of UEG, Ipameri University Unit, Brazil
Graduate Program in Plant Production of UEG, Ipameri University Unit, GO 330, Km 241, ring road, university sector, 75780-000-Ipameri, GO, Brazil


Abstract
Climatic changes and drought reduced plant growth and development. Brassinosteroids act in maintaining turgor and plant growth, increasing tolerance to water stress. The objective of the present study was to identify the effect of brassinosteroids in reducing stresses caused by water deficit in Jatropha curcas L. plants. The study was carried out in a greenhouse at the State University of Goiás, in a completely randomized block design in a factorial 2 × 5 arrangement (plants submitted to five brassinosteroids concentrations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg L-1) and two levels of daily water supply (50% and 100% evapotranspiration) six replications and the plot consisted of one useful plant. A 10 mL volume of the hormone was applied 30 days after emergence and 20 mL at 60 days after emergence, totaling 30 ml. The water deficit was imposed at 70 days after emergence and the evaluations were made at 100 d after emergence. Under water deficit, production increased of reactive substances that damage membranes and proteins, but brassinosteroids played an important role in mitigating the deleterious effects of water deficit on J. curcas plants by acting as an elicitor in activating photoprotection mechanisms that increased vegetative growth and maintained membrane integrity. The antioxidant and growth machinery activation reached maximum points at the 8 mg L-1 brassinosteroids concentration and even higher concentrations.

Pages 369-376 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2730
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Cultivation of ruziziensis grass (Urochloa ruziziensis) using swine liquid manure fertilization

Marinho Rocho da Silva, Joadil Gonçalves Abreu, Oscarlina Lucia dos Santos Weber, Livia Vieira de Barros, Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Ana Paula Alves Barreto Damasceno, Wlly Cristiny Mendes de Oliveira

Federal University of Mato Grosso - UFMT, Faculty of Agronomy and Zootechny, 2367 Fernando Corrêa da Costa Avenue, Cuiabá, 78060-900, Brazil
Federal University of Rondonópolis - UFR, Institute of Agricultural and Technological Sciences, 5055 Students Avenue Rondonópolis, 78.735-901, Brazil


Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of liquid swine manure (LSM) as fertilization in the implantation of Urochloa ruziziensis. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments and four replications, with the treatments being four doses of LSM (0; 100; 200 and 300 m3 ha-1) and one dose of mineral fertilization. Seven cuts were carried out uniformly, after which plant height (PH), total dry mass yield (TDMY), crude protein content (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), macromineral extraction (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S) and microminerals (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) of plants were evaluated every 30 days. Mineral fertilization provided higher PH, CP content and extraction of N and S, but lower NDF content. For ADF variable, there was no difference between treatments. The results of dry mass yield (DMY) and extractions of P, K, Ca and Mn showed that the effect of 300 m3 ha-1 LSM was statistically equal to mineral fertilization. For extractions of Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu doses of 200 and 300 m3 ha-1 did not differ statistically from mineral fertilization. Among the doses of LSM, there was increasing linear effect, with increases in the variables DMY (30.89%), PH (14.94%), CP (17%), N (53.01%), P (40.79%), K (27.84%), Ca (35.17%), Mg (29.6%), S (47.13%), Fe (31.2%), Zn (31.6%) and Mn (23.04%). For Cu extraction, there was a quadratic effect with the highest extraction in the dose of 26.36 m3, obtaining an increase of 19.94% in relation to treatment without application. It is important to study different LSM dosages to avoid risk of heavy metal toxicity. The LSM is an alternative in place of mineral fertilization for Urochloa ruziziensis grass.

Pages 377-386 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2751
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Preharvest spray application of methyl jasmonate promotes fruit colour and regulates quality in M7 Navel orange grown in a Mediterranean climate

Muneer Rehman*, Zora Singh, Tahir Khurshid, Rahil Malekipoor, Vijay Yadav Tokala

School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, WA, Australia
The University of Swabi, Anbar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 94640, Pakistan
Horticulture, School of Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, 6027, Australia
NSW Department of Primary Industries, Dareton, Australia
Amity Institute of Horticulture Studies & Research, Amity University, Noida 201313, India


Abstract
Poor rind colour in cv. M7 Navel (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) at harvest time severely affects the profits of the growers in Western Australia. The effects of the preharvest spray application of different concentrations (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mM) of methyl jasmonate (MJ) on the rind colour development and fruit quality of M7 Navel was investigated at 6 or 3 weeks before anticipated harvest (WBAH) during 2015 and 2016. The preharvest spray application of MJ (5.0 or 7.5 mM) resulted in enhanced rind colour, reduced h° angle (55.7, 54.3) as well as increased citrus colour index (CCI) (11.0, 12.0) and total carotenoid levels (35.3, 58.3 mg kg-1) of flavedo, respectively in M7 Navel, during 2015 and 2016. During 2015, comparatively higher levels of total carotenoid (40.4 mg kg-1) were recorded when MJ was applied at 3 WBAH as a single spray. However, the time of MJ application did not influence hue angle (h°) and CCI. In 2015, all the preharvest MJ treatments except (1.25 mM) exhibited reduced fruit firmness. Furthermore, soluble solids concentration (SSC) in the fruit juice was reduced after MJ treatment. All the MJ treatments showed reduced levels of total sugars and organic acids in the juice, during 2015. In conclusion, MJ (5.0 or 7.5 mM) reduced h° but increased the total carotenoids levels and CCI in the flavedo of M7 Navel orange, when applied as a preharvest spray at 3 WBAH.

Pages 387-393 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2812
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Physiological and oxidative defense responses of local rice cultivars “Nusa Tenggara Timur-Indonesia” during vegetative drought stress

Yustina Carolina Febrianti Salsinha, Didik Indradewa, Yekti A. Purwestri, Diah Rachmawati*

Department of Tropical Biology, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Research Center for Biotechnology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Abstract
Drought is the main abiotic factor that reduces productivity of crops such as rice in the suboptimum area. This study aimed to identify drought-tolerance of local rice cultivars “Nusa Tenggara Timur-Indonesia” through their oxidative defense mechanism. In this study, 17 local rice cultivars and two control cultivars (Ciherang and Situ Bagendit) were used. Drought was imposed by using three levels of FTSW: FTSW 1 (control), 0.5 (moderate drought), and 0.2 (severe drought) during the vegetative stage. Growth parameters such as plant height, number of tillers, number of leaves, and total dry weight were higher in Boawae 100 Malam, Hare Tora, and Padi Putih Kuatnana than other cultivars. The analysis of relative water content, chlorophyll, carotenoid, and proline content also indicated that the Boawae 100 Malam, Gogo Sikka, and Hare Tora cultivar showed a higher result compared to control and other cultivars. Thess characters tend to correlate with the higher activity of antioxidant enzymes in Boawae 100 Malam and Gogo Sikka, when exposed to severe drought conditions. Based on principal component analysis of the physiological changes and enzymatic antioxidant activity, the Gogo Sikka, Boawae 100 Malam, and Hare Tora cultivars were classified as rice cultivars with higher drought tolerance.

Pages 394-400 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2851
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Late summer organic tomato production with heat tolerant tomato cultivars

Samantha Hilborn, Michael Petersen, Richard C. Pratt

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences (PES) New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003 USA
Present address: University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, 95616 USA

Abstract
Field production of organic fresh-market tomatoes in the U.S. Desert Southwest is desired by local producers and consumers. Tomato yield and fruit quality can be seriously impacted by heat stress (HS) and beet curly top virus (BCTV) infection of the main-season crop. We examined delayed planting of HS tolerant cultivars as a strategy for avoiding and mitigating these abiotic and biotic stressors. In 2016, seven putative HS tolerant cultivars, and one considered to be heat susceptible, were transplanted to the field in mid-summer to avoid peak populations of beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus), the vector of BCTV. In 2017, seven HS tolerant cultivars, one heat-susceptible, and two hot-set hybrid cultivars were transplanted in mid-summer. Fruit set was above 75% for most entries, including the heat-susceptible checks. Open-pollinated (OP) and hybrid cultivars exhibited a range of yields from 21.3 to 148.6 Mg/ha and fruit quality ratings from poor to excellent. The OP check ‘Super Sioux’ displayed consistently good yield and quality across years. The correlation between fruit set and yield was low (R2 = 0.29) and significant only at the 0.10 level (P<0.09). The incidence of curly top (incited by BCTV infection) was less than 10% in both years, indicating mid-summer planting aided disease avoidance. ‘Flamenco’, the earliest variety, and two later maturing varieties ‘Florida 91’ and ‘Skyway 687’, are recommended for further evaluation. Mid-summer planting of small and medium-fruited tomato cultivars appears to be a viable option for organic fresh-market tomato production for the fall market in the Southwest USA.

Pages 401-408 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2892
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Decomposed babassu biomass residue enhances the initial development of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Hosana Aguiar Freitas de Andrade, Raissa Rachel Salustriano da Silva-Matos, Nitalo André Farias Machado*, Analya Roberta Fernandes Oliveira, Valdryckson Costa Garreto, Marcos Renan Lima Leite, Samuel Ferreira Pontes, Alineaurea Florentino Silva, Francisca Gislene Albano-Machado, Paulo Roberto Coelho Lopes

Center of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Ceará (UFC), Fortaleza, Brazil
Center of Agrarian Sciences and Environmental, Federal University of Maranhão (UFMA), Chapadinha, Brazil
Center of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Teresina, Brazil
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Embrapa Semiárido, Petrolina, Brazil


Abstract
Cassava is a tuber of significant cultural and economic importance for family farming. However, cultivation in the northeastern region of Brazil is characterized by low productivity, resulting from cultivation in naturally marginal soil, which can cause food insecurity to farmers in the region. The objective was to evaluate the initial development of cassava using substrates derived from decomposed residue from babassu biomass, as a supplement to the soils with low natural fertility. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in the municipality of Chapadinha, state of Maranhão, Brazil. The treatments consisted of six inclusion levels of babassu biomass (BB) in the substrates: S0, 100% soil; S20, 20% BB + 80% soil; S40, 40% BB + 60% soil; S60, 60% BB + 40% soil; S80, 80% BB + 20% soil; and S100, 100% BB. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The soil used in the experiment is classified as dystrophic Yellow Oxisol. At the end of the experiment, the following were evaluated: percentage of cuttings survival, leaf area, shoot length, shoot diameter, root length, root volume, aerial part dry mass and root dry mass. With the exception of the sprout diameter, the inclusion of BB in the substrates provided a significant positive effect for all analyzed variables, which demonstrates the early response capacity of cassava seedlings to the use of organic waste associated with the soil low fertility. The use of babassu biomass as an organic fertilizer improves soil fertility, stimulating the growth and development of cassava seedlings in a sustainable production system.

Pages 409-415 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2904
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Interaction between mycorrhizal fungi and Meloidogyne javanica on the growth and essential oil composition of basil (Ocimum basilicum)

Beatriz De Almeida E Silva, Rayane Monique Sete Da Cruz, Angélica Miamoto, Odair Alberton, Camila Da Silva, Claudia Regina Dias-Arieira

State University of Maringá, Agronomic Science Department, Umuarama, PR, Brazil
State University of Maringá, Post-Graduate in Agronomy, Maringá, PR, Brazil
Paranaense University, Post-Graduate Program in Medicinal Plants and Phytotherapics in Primary Care, Umuarama, PR, Brazil
State Universtiy of Maringá, Post-Graduate in Agrarian Sciences, Umuarama, PR, Brazil

Abstract
Plant-parasitic nematodes and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been reported to alter the yield and chemical composition of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of AMF to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica in basil and to investigate the effects of nematode-AMF interactions on plant growth, phosphorus (P) absorption, and essential oil composition. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions following a completely randomized 3 × 2 factorial (two fungal species and an uninoculated control × inoculated and uninoculated seedlings) arrangement with 10 replicates. Plant substrates were inoculated with Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Rhizophagus clarus, or no fungi (control) and sown with basil seeds. After 20 days, some seedlings were inoculated with 4,000 M. javanica eggs. After 60 days, the vegetative parameters, P absorption, essential oil composition, nematode population density, AMF root-colonization efficiency, and AMF spore density were determined. The presence of AMF increased the basil’s fresh weight and ability to absorb P, while reducing the M. javanica count. In total, 21 compounds were identified in basil essential oil, the concentrations of which varied according to the treatments. The major components were eucalyptol, linalool, eugenol, β-elemene, trans-α-bergamotene, and τ-cadinol. Inoculation with AMF decreased the linalool levels but increased the amount of eucalyptol. Mycorrhizal plants showed increased shoot height, P uptake, and essential oil yield and a decreased nematode population density in their roots.

Pages 416-421 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2926
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Dynamics of initial spacing on the diameter of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in a systematic design

Mirella Basileu de Oliveira Lima, Mauro Eloi Nappo, Kálita Luis Soares, Renato Vinícius Oliveira Castro, Eder Pereira Miguel, Thelma Shirlen Soares, Ricardo de Oliveira Gaspar, Priscila Sales Rodrigues Aquino, Renan Augusto Miranda Matias

Federal University of Paraná, Department of Forest Sciences, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil
University of Brasilia, Department of Forest Science, Brasília, Brazil
University of São Paulo, School of the Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz, Department of Forest Resource, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil
Federal University of São João Del Rei, Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Federal University of Jataí, Jataí, Goiás, Brazil


Abstract
We evaluated the effect of initial spacing on the distribution of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla tree diameters in a Nelder wheel design. The study area was in west-central Brazil. A Nelder wheel design with three repetitions was used. This design provides 432 planting spots per plot/repetition. Planting density varied from 0.50 m² to 41.25 m². The diameter at breast height was measured for all plants every four months until 36 months of age, totaling eight measurements. The description of the diameter distribution was developed by fitting probability density functions for each spacing and age. The quality of fit was evaluated using the root mean square error percentage, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (α < 0.05). The spacings up to 1.17 m² must be harvested in less than two years, since it is noted that in the third year the increment in diameter is static and the mortality rate increases. The spacing highly affects the diameter structure of the population, impelling the forester to consider different uses for the wood. For wood requiring larger diameters, spacing above 8.69 m² per tree is recommended.

Pages 422-430 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2935
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Development of an efficient regeneration system for mature bombarded calli of Moroccan durum wheat varieties

Senhaji Chaimae*, Ahansal Khadija, Abdelwahed Rabha, Diria Ghizlane, Gaboun Fatima, Udupa Sripada Mahabala, Douira Allal2 and Iraqi Driss

Biotechnology Research Unit, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), B.P. 415, Rabat, Morocco
Laboratory of Botany, Biotechnology and Plant Protection, Faculty of Sciences-University Ibn Tofail, University campus, B.P. 133, 14000 Kénitra, Morocco
ICARDA–INRA Cooperative Research Project, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, B.P. 6299, Rabat, Morocco


Abstract
This study examined the effects of various environmental and genetic factors on callus induction and plant regeneration of bombarded calli from mature embryos of durum wheat using the biolistic method. In this study, three Moroccan durum wheat varieties ('Isly', 'Amria', 'Marouane') were cultivated on two induction media (IM1 and IM2) with different nitrogen sources and contents. After that, each variety cultured on both induction media was transferred in to two regeneration media (RM1 and RM2) with different phytohormones, whereas each variety distributed through four combinations of treatments: IM1RM1, IM1RM2, IM2RM1, and IM2RM2. A completely randomized design with five replications per treatment for each genotype was used. Parameters considered in this study were phytohormones, nitrogen source and its content, plant variety, and their interactions. The study found that variety, medium and variety × medium interactions have a statistically significant effect on callus induction and plantlets regeneration. Prior to bombardment, the maximum percentage of callus induction was obtained under IM1. Conversely, the callus survival rate was not affected by the induction media once bombarded for all three varieties. The induction media had a significant effect on all regeneration parameters (p < 0.01). The variety ‘Isly’ showed the best regeneration efficiency after bombardment, with nearly 80% of plantlets regenerated under IM1 and RM2 combination. These media can be used for genetic transformation of durum wheat.

Pages 431-437 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2976
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Selection of F3 populations of Capsicum annuum for greenhouse production

Laura Raquel Luna García, Valentín Robledo Torres*, Francisca Ramírez Godina, Rosalinda Mendoza Villarreal, Miguel Ángel Pérez Rodríguez

Departamento de Horticultura, de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro. Calzada Antonio Narro 1923, C. P. 25315. Saltillo, Coahuila, México
Departamento de Fitomejoramiento, de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro. Calzada Antonio Narro 1923, C. P. 25315. Saltillo, Coahuila, México
Departamento de Botánica de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro. Calzada Antonio Narro 1923, C. P. 25315. Saltillo, Coahuila, México


Abstract
Capsicum annuum is one of the most important plant species in the world. México has the greatest diversity for this plant. However, its production is limited due to the scarcity of improved varieties for greenhouse production. Therefore, the development of high-yield varieties would be possible through the genetic recombination of native varieties (Creole populations) and superior cultivars. Therefore, the purpose of this research work was to assess and select outstanding F3 populations for greenhouse production. The work was carried out in a greenhouse at Saltillo, Coahuila Mexico in 2018, involving 8 parents, in which 3 varieties were used as female (pollen-receptor plants), 5 varieties as males (pollen-donor plants) and 9 F3 populations derived by selfing from 9 F2 populations. The parents and F3 populations composed 17 treatments that were established in a greenhouse under a randomized block design with three replications. The variables were total fruit yield, average fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant, ascorbic acid content, total capsicinoids, days to flowering, days to harvest, final plant height, and basal stem diameter. Significant differences were found in all variables of F3 populations. The highest RTF (total fruit weight) belonged to P1,4 and P1,6, with1647.0 and 1652.0 g/plant, respectively. In terms of CAA (ascorbic acid content), population P2,4, was significantly superior to the rest of the genotypes and exceeded the best parent by 19.8%. We concluded that populations P1,4, P1,6 and P2,4 may be uased to develop cultivars with high yield and high quality for greenhouse production.

Pages 438-444 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p3046
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Phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of Gynura procumbens in response to shade levels and rates of nitrogen fertilizer

Omar Ali Ahmed, Martini Mohammad Yusoff*, Azizah Misran, Puteri Edaroyati Megat Wahab, Hamid Zentou

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Diyala, Diyala, Iraq
Department of chemical and environmental engineering, Faculty of engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia


Abstract
Gynura procumbens is one of the most common medicinal plants with extensive pharmacological properties. Light intensity and nitrogenous fertilisers are two main limiting factors in primary and secondary metabolism in plants. Information on the effects of shade levels and nitrogenous fertiliser rates on phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of G. procumbens is much scarce. This justifies an in-depth study to determine the effects of phytochemical content and antioxidant activity. This study was conducted with four levels of shade (0, 30, 50, and 70%) and four nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg N ha-1). Data measurements were performed on protein content, C:N ratio, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP) and flavonoid acids. The results showed that decreases in total phenol, flavonoid contents, C:N ratio and antioxidant activity were recorded with increasing shade levels and nitrogen rates. Protein content was increased with increases in shade levels and nitrogen fertilizer supplement. The highest flavonoid acids contents were observed from higher light intensity (no shade) and no nitrogen application. Enhancement in production of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity were associated with high C:N ratio and low protein contents. The study demonstrated that high light intensity (0% shade) with a low N fertilizer rate (0 kg N ha−1) was suitable for both phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity. The present study suggested that G. procumbens can achieve higher production of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity under low nitrogen availability and open field conditions.

Pages 445-454 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p3061
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Growth and production of conilon coffee under fertilization of nitrogen and molybdenum (Mo)

Thiago Lopes Rosado*, Marta Simone Mendonça Freitas, Almy Junior Cordeiro de Carvalho, André Assis Pires, Henrique Duarte Vieira, Gustavo Haddad Souza Vieira, Kariny Nieiro Scopel, Matheus Margon Lopes Rosado

Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Espírito Santo, Campus Santa Teresa, Santa Teresa, ES, Brazil
State University of Northern Rio de Janeiro, Center of Agricultural Science and Technology, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Espírito Santo, Campus Vila Velha, Vila Velha, ES, Brazil

Abstract
Nitrogen is the most applied nutrient in Coffea canephora crops, due to the high requirement of the crop and low availability in most soils. The efficiency of nitrogen fertilization can be maximized by applying molybdenum, due to the role of molybdenum in the nitrate’s metabolism. This study was conducted during two coffee production cycles under field conditions. It aimed to evaluate the effects of applying molybdenum on the growth and production of conilon coffee, subjected to different amounts of nitrogen. The experiment was conducted from June 2018 to May 2020. The experimental design used was in randomized blocks, in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, the first factor being the absence and presence of molybdenum fertilization (4 kg ha-1 year-1) and the second factor, nitrogen doses (300, 500, 700, 900 and 1,100 kg ha-1 year-1) applied in five plots, during fruit development. We evaluated the conilon growth variables in each agricultural year, in addition to the yield of processed coffee and grain yield. The length of plagiotropic branches, number of nodes per side branch, number of rosettes and fruits per productive branch were closely related to the coffee yield and were influenced by the nitrogen fertilization. Increasing doses of nitrogen promoted quadratic increases in coffee yield, with addition of 35.3% and 88.9% for the 2019 and 2020 harvests, respectively, indicating that maximum coffee productivity is genetically defined and affected by environment conditions and management. For the harvest 2020, the application of molybdenum resulted in an increase in the length of the orthotropic stem and plagiotropic branches, in addition to providing increase of 3.7% in the yield of C. canephora. This suggested that there was a reduction in micronutrient availability in the soil, throughout the experimental period, limiting the growth and production of coffee in the second year.

Pages 455-463 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p3130
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Selection of high-performance black-eyed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) through GYT biplot analysis: a new methodology based on multiple characteristics

Kleberson Cordeiro Araújo, Tâmara Rebecca Albuquerque de Oliveira*, Geraldo de Amaral Gravina, Maurisrael de Moura Rocha, Francisco de Alcântara Neto, Gustavo Hugo Ferreira de Oliveira, Derivaldo Pureza da Cruz, Camila Queiroz da Silva Sanfim de Sant’Anna, Lilia Marques Gravina, Richardson Sales Rocha, Israel Martins Pereira

Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Brasil
Campos dos Goytacazes, 28013-602, RJ, Brasil
Embrapa Meio-Norte, Av. Duque de Caxias, 5650 - Buenos Aires, 64006-245, PI, Brasil
Universidade Federal do Piauí, Bairro Ininga, 64049-550, PI, Brasil
Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Campus do Sertão, Nossa Senhora da Glória, 49680-000, SE, Brasil


Abstract
Cowpea bean is a common crop quite appreciated in Brazil. However, it is known that its low yield depending on soil and climatic conditions. The aim of this research is the selection of high-performance black-eyed cowpea through GYT biplot analysis. Twelve (12) cowpea bean strains were assessed between 2016 and. The study followed a randomized complete block design, with four repetitions; two commercial cultivars were used as check. The following variables were assessed: number of days required for flowering, final stand, value for cultivation, pod yield, pod length, mean number of grains per pod and grain weight. The analysis of variance showed genetic variability between strains, differences between the assessed years and different strain-performance in each growing year. Based on the GYT biplot graph, cultivar BRS Itaim, and strains L9 and L7 recorded the best performance for the set of yield characteristics. Variable ‘pod length’ had positive correlation to bedding, number of days required for flowering and number of grains per pod. Variable ‘100-grain weight’ had positive correlation to final stand, pod yield and mean grain weight per pod. Strains L9, L7 and cultivar BRS Itaim recorded the best yield regarding the assessed variables.

Pages 464-469 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.03.p2526