Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

JUNE 2019 | EARLY VIEW | 13(06) 2019 | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06


Biological control of white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in lettuce using Brazilian Trichoderma spp. strains

Gerarda Beatriz Pinto da Silva*, Leise Inês Heckler, Miria Durigon, Ricardo Feliciano dos Santos, Elena Blume

Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Fitotecnia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 7712, 91540-000, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Passo Fundo University, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, FAMV, BR 285, 99052-900, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil
University of São Paulo – ESALQ, Departamento de Fitopatologia, Av, Pádua Dias, 11, 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
Federal University of Santa Maria, Departamento de Defesa Fitossanitária, Av. Roraima, 1000, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil


Abstract
Widely consumed by the Brazilian, lettuce has a cultivated area of 35,000 ha. Among the diseases that might infect this crop, white mold causes major concerns for producers. Mold is caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bar. It can lead to losses of up to 100% in lettuce. The objectives of this study were assessment of antagonistic effect of Trichoderma spp. isolates, grown and prepared on rice grain, on white mold of lettuce (S. sclerotiorum). The assay was conducted using 12 Trichoderma spp. isolates, four of which came from at least a year of storage at 4ºC, four from areas with a history of the disease and four from areas without a history of the disease. Both fungi were grown on wet rice grains and only Trichoderma strains was dried and ground to be used in the next assay. The experiment was completely randomized in a factorial 12x2 design (Trichoderma spp. × substrate inoculated or not with S. sclerotiorum) and control plants without any of the fungi. The percentage of survived plants was analyzed using AUDPC, number of leaves, stem diameter, length of root system, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, and total dry matter. The results showed that all Trichoderma spp. were capable of lettuce growth promotion in the presence and absence of S. sclerotiorum. The isolates that showed the best biocontrol of S. sclerotiorum were TC1.15 and WM-13. To promote growth, the best isolates were UFSMT15.1 and WM-13, suggesting that the latter presents desirable characteristics for biocontrol, including excellent feasibility for large-scale production, good antagonistic activity to S. sclerotiorum and the ability to stimulate growth promotion in lettuce.


Pages 803-809 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1214
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Drought and salinity stresses in barley: Consequences and mitigation strategies

Ayman EL Sabagh*, Akbar Hossain*, Md. Shohidul Islam, Celaleddin Barutcular, Saddam Hussain, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Tauseef Akram, Muhammad Mubeen, Wajid Nasim, Shah Fahad, Narendra Kumar, Ram Swaroop Meena, Ferhat Kızılgeçi, Mehmet Yıldırım, Disna Ratnasekera, Hirofumi Saneoka


Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt
Wheat Research Center, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh
Department of Agronomy, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Bangladesh
Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Cukurova University, Turkey
Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh
Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, Pakistan-61100
The University of Swabi, Anbar, District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
College of Life Science, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong, China 276000
Division of Crop Production, ICAR-Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, India
Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences (BHU) Varanasi, India
Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Şırnak University, Şırnak, Turkey
Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, Turkey
Department of Agricultural Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka
Plant Nutritional Physiology Laboratory, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Japan


Abstract
Recent trends show reductions in crop productivity worldwide due to severe climatic change. Different abiotic stresses significantly affect the growth and development of plants, leading to decreased crop yields. Salinity and drought stresses are the most common abiotic stresses, especially in arid and semi–arid regions, and are major constraints for barley production. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information related to barley plant responses and adaptations to drought and salinity stresses, including physiological and agronomic, in order to alleviate the adverse effect of stresses in barley. These stresses reduce assimilation rates, as they decrease stomatal conductance, disrupt photosynthetic pigments, reduce gas exchange, enhance production of reactive oxygen species, and lead to decreased plant growth and productivity. This review focuses on the strategies plants use to respond and adapt to drought and salinity stress. Plants utilize a range of physiological and biochemical mechanisms such as adaptation strategies, through which the adverse effects can be mitigated. These include soil management practices, crop establishment, as well as foliar application of anti-oxidants and growth regulators that maintain an appropriate level of water in the leaves to facilitate adjustment of osmotic and stomatal performance. The present review highlighted the adverse effect of drought and salinity stresses barley and their mitigation strategies for sustainable barley production under changing climate. They review also underscored that exogenous application of different antioxidants could play a significant role in the alleviation of salinity and drought stress in plant systems.


Pages 810-820 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1286
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Effect of different proportions of urban organic compost on Conilon coffee (Coffea canephora) propagation

Waylson Zancanella Quartezani*, Ramon Amaro de Sales, Talita Aparecida Pletsch, Sávio da Silva Berilli, Euzileni Mantoanelli, Leonardo Raasch Hell, Evandro Chaves de Oliveira, Felipe Lopes Neves, Juliane Damasceno de Carvalho Neves


Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Espírito Santo / Mountain Campus, Highway ES 130, km 01, Palhinha Neighborhood, CEP: 29890-000, Mountain, ES, Brazil
Federal University of Espírito Santo, Brazil
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Espírito Santo / Itapina Campus, Rodovia BR 259, km 70, Rural Area, CEP: 29700-970, Colatina, ES, Brazil
Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa, Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural-INCAPER, Av Presidente Kennedy S/N Sala 05 Ginásio de Esportes – Centro, CEP: 29880-000, Mucurici – ES, Brasil
Sindicato dos trabalhadores rurais de Mucurici - ES – STR. Rua Bahia nº 294 Centro CEP: 29880-000, Mucurici – ES, Brasil


Abstract
Brazil is the largest producer of Conilon coffee (Coffea canephora) in the world. The use of organic matter in substrates for clonal plant propagation is essential to promote favorable conditions for the development of both shoots and roots. Therefore, it is important for production systems to test new sources of organic matter such as solid urban waste. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different proportions of composted urban waste on the propagation of Conilon coffee plants. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with five replications and seven treatments. The treatments consisted of different proportions of composted urban waste (0, 15, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 100%), and biometric and quality characteristics of the clonal plants were evaluated. The results showed that proportions of composted urban waste higher than 50% added to the soil substrate promoted the highest plant growth rates, and even the lowest proportion of organic matter (15%) showed better results for all characteristics than the treatment without organic matter.


Pages 821-827 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1313
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Environmental variables contributing to differential performance of tropical maize hybrids across heat stress environments in South Asia

Vinayan MT, Zaidi PH, Seetharam K., Ashraful Alam Md., Salahuddin Ahmed, Koirala KB, Arshad Md., Prakash Kuchanur, Ayyanagouda Patil, Shyam S. Mandal


International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, c/o ICRISAT, Patancheru-502324, Hyderabad India
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh
National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Nepal
Maize and Millets Research Centre, Sahiwal, Pakistan
University of Agricultural Sciences Raichur, Karnataka, India
Bihar Agriculture University, Bhagalpur, Sabour, Bihar, India


Abstract
Heat stress resilience in maize hybrids is emerging as an important trait in germplasm targeted for cultivation in the post-rainy season spring in South Asia. One of the major challenges in targeted breeding for these agro-ecologies is the differential response of maize genotypes to heat stress across locations during the spring season. This study is targeted at identifying the major environmental variables that contributed to the genotype × environment (GEI) yield variations among genotypes grown in response to heat stress. The trial dataset used for this study constitutes 46 trials × location combinations spread over a period of three years (2013-2015). Partial least square (PLS) regression analysis was implemented to decipher the important environmental variables contributing to the observed yield variation among maize trials planted during spring across locations of South Asia. The first two factors from the PLS study explained the 30 per cent yield variation across trials. The largest contributor of this variation was relative humidity (RH) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) estimated during the flowering stage of the crop across the years.


Pages 828-836 | Full Text PDF| 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1326
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Selection for salinity tolerance in an international rice collection at vegetative stage


Leila Nayyeripasand, Ghasem Ali Garosi, Asadollah Ahmadikhah*


Agricultural Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Department of Plant Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shahid Beheshi University, G.C. Velenjak, Tehran, Iran


Abstract
Water and soil salinity as the main abiotic stresses decrease crop yield and restrict the use of agricultural lands. In order to assess salt stress effect on seedling growth of rice and to select more tolerant rice genotypes, a factorial experiment was performed at two levels of NaCl namely non-stress (EC 1.2 dS m−1) and salt-stress (EC 10 dS m−1) in hydroponics with an international rice collection consisted of 155 varieties. Seven stress tolerance indices including STI, SSI, HM, RDI, SSPI, ATI and TOL were used to identify salt tolerant genotypes. The results of variance analysis showed that the effect of genotypes (G), Salt treatment (T) and G×T interaction were significant for all investigated traits (except for the effect of genotypes on shoot length). Under salt stress most genotypes showed similar trend of salt response, i.e. reduction in all traits. The results also revealed that dry weight (DW) was less affected than fresh weight (FW), and the shoot weight (SW) was affected more than the root weight (RW), indicating that shoot growth is more sensitive than root growth to salt stress. The Na+, K+ and Na+:K+ ratio were increased more than 713%, reduced 22% and increased more than 996% under salt stress, respectively. Four stress tolerance indices including MP, HM, GMP and STI showed highest correlation with each other and also with plant performance (Z-scores) under both normal and stress conditions; thus each of these indices can be used as the suitable indicators for screening salt tolerant genotypes. Based on the results, genotypes #84, #30 and #48 showed the highest performance and STI under salinity condition, so they have considerable potential to improve salt tolerance in rice breeding programs. In addition, genotypes #178, #198 and #6 with the lowest values of STI were found to be intolerant genotypes to salt stress.


Pages 837-846 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1327
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Evaluation of agronomic traits and assessment of genetic variability in some popular wheat genotypes cultivated in Saudi Arabia


Soleman M. Al-Otayk


Plant Production and Protection Dept., College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia


Abstract
The present study was carried out to evaluate agronomic traits and assessment of genetic variability of some wheat genotypes at Qassim region, Saudi Arabia, during 2010/11 and 2011/12 seasons. Fourteen wheat genotypes including five bread wheat and nine durum wheat genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications. The genotypes were evaluated for ten different yield contributing characters viz., days to heading, days to maturity, grain filling period, grain filling rate, plant height, number of spikes m-2, kernels spike-1, 1000-kernel weight, grain yield and straw yield. The combined analysis of variance indicated the presence of significant differences between years for most characters. The genotypes exhibited significant variation for all the characters studied, indicating considerable amount of variation among genotypes for each character. Maximum coefficient of variation was observed for number of spikes m-2 (17%), while minimum value was found for days to maturity. Four genotypes produced statistically similar maximum grain yield, out of them two bread wheat genotypes (AC-3 and SD12) and the other two were durum wheat (AC-5 and BS-1). The genotypes AC-3, AC-5 and BS-1 had higher grain yield and stable in performance across seasons. The estimation of phenotypic coefficient of variation in all the traits studied was greater than those of the genotypic coefficient of variation. High heritability estimates (> 0.5) were observed for days to heading, days to maturity and plant height, while the other characters recorded low to moderate heritability. The high GA % for plant height and days to heading (day) was accompanied by high heritability estimates, which indicated that heritability is mainly due to genetic variance. Comparatively high expected genetic advances were observed for grain yield components such as number of kernels spike-1 and 1000-kernel weight. Grain yield had the low heritability estimate with a relatively intermediate value for expected genetic advance. The results of principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that the superior durum wheat genotypes for grain yield in the two seasons (AC-5 and BS-1) are clustered in group II (Fig. 2). Also, the superior two bread wheat genotypes (AC-3 and SD12) were in group I. 


Pages 847-856 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1329
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Multiple linear and spatial regressions to estimate the influence of Latosol properties on black pepper productivity


Waylson Zancanella Quartezani, Julião Soares de Souza Lima, Talita Aparecida Pletsch, Evandro Chaves de Oliveira, Sávio da Silva Berilli, Euzileni Mantoanelli, Robson Prucoli Posse, Luana Mendes Suci

Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo – IFES campus Montanha, Rodovia ES 130, km 01 - Bairro Palhinha, Montanha – ES, CEP 29890-000, Brasil
Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo – UFES, campus Alegre, Alto Universitário, s/nº, Guararema, Cx. postal 16, Alegre - ES, CEP 29500-000, Brasil
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo / Campus Itapina, Rodovia BR 259, km 70, Zona Rural, CEP: 29700-970, Colatina, ES, Brasil


Abstract
There is little knowledge available on the best techniques for transferring spatial information such as stochastic interpolation and multivariate analyses for black pepper. This study applies multiple linear and spatial regression to estimate black pepper productivity based on physical and chemical properties of the soil. A multiple linear regression including all properties of a Latosol was performed and followed by variance analysis to verify the validity of the model. The adjusted variograms and data interpolation by kriging allowed the use of spatial multiple regression with the properties that were significant in the multiple linear regression. The forward stepwise method was used and the model was validated by the F-test. The influence of the Latosol properties was greater than the residual on the prediction of productivity. The model was composed by the physical properties fine sand (FS), penetration resistance (PR), and Bulk density (BD), and by the chemical properties K, Ca, and Mg (except for Mg in the spatial regression). The physical properties were of greater relevance in determining productivity, and the maps estimated by ordinary kriging and predicted by the spatial multiple regression were very similar in shape.


Pages 857-862 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1424
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Application of organomineral fertilizers sourced from filter cake and sewage sludge can affect nutrients and heavy metals in soil during early development of maize


Mara Lúcia Martins Magela*, Reginaldo de Camargo*, Regina Maria Quintão Lana, Melissa Cristina de Carvalho Miranda


Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), Campus Umuarama, Av. Amazônas, n/n, build 2E-150. Uberlândia, MG state, Brazil


Abstract
This study determined the changes in soil nutrients, organic carbon, organic matter and heavy metals during the early development stages of maize fertilized with different sources and doses. Also, this study confirmed that the used biosolid in the formulation of organomineral fertilizer makes greater efficacy than the effects promoted by mineral or filter cake organomineral fertilizers already used in agricultural. The experiment was done in a greenhouse at the Federal University of de Uberlândia - Campus Umuarama. The experimental design was randomized block design, as a 2 x 5 + 2 factorial, containing two sources of organomineral fertilizer consisting of organic residues (biosolid and filter cake), five doses of organomineral fertilizer (60, 80, 100, 120 and 140% of P2O5 recommendation for maize crop), a positive control with mineral fertilization (100%) and a negative one with no fertilization with four replications. The soil pH and contents of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium base saturation, base sum, micronutrients, organic carbon, organic matter and heavy metals were determined subsequently after plant removal, 65 days after sowing. The organomineral fertilizers based on biosolid and filter cake yielded increases in phosphorus, boron and manganese in the soil, especially the biosolid source. Regardless of the fertilizer organic matter source, soil phosphorus increased linearly with increasing doses of the sources. Doses equal or below the recommendation for maize (100% P2O5) were less effective in supplying potassium. The organomineral sources did not add heavy metals to the soil. Fertilizers based on biosolid can supply nutrients, such as phosphorus, boron and manganese at high doses, replacing mineral fertilization, while maintaining and improving soil fertility with no contamination by heavy metals.


Pages 863-873 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1538
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Flowering gene expression in Indonesian long harvest black rice (Oryza sativa L. ‘Cempo Ireng’)


Yekti Asih Purwestri*, Febri Adi Susanto, Anisa Nazera Fauzia


Research Center for Biotechnology, Graduate School, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Teknika Utara, Barek, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia


Abstract
Many studies have reported the great potency of black rice as functional food for human diet. Cempo Ireng is one of Indonesian black rice cultivars with the highest content of anthocyanin. However, it also suffers from long harvest period. This experiment aims at investigating the behavior of the flowering genes in order to gain basic information to develop this cultivar. We sampled the leaves’ blades of Blac Rice ‘Cempo Ireng’ at 48, 55, 68, 81, and 90 DAP then performed RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis, amplification of targeted flowering genes, and a semi-quantitative analysis to see the expression of flowering genes. Our results showed that the flowering genes Hd3a and RFT1 were redundantly up-regulated to induce flowering in black rice Cempo Ireng under a neutral day condition in a tropical region. We also noted that the patterns of FT-like genes and flowering regulatory genes including FT-L5, FT-L6, FT-L9, FT-L10 and Hd1, OsCOL4 were expressed together with two major flowering genes. FT-like genes were temporally co-expressed with two flowering genes Hd3a and RFT1, whereas the Hd1 had a unique expression pattern. Meanwhile, OsCOL4 as the flowering repressor was only detected in the early stage when the flowering gene Hd3a began to express. The results suggest that black rice Cempo Ireng has similar and conserved flowering pathway under a neutral day condition as indicated in the common rice flowering models.


Pages 874-880 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1588
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Assessment of cold stress in avocado cultivars based on visual, physiological and biochemical criteria


Geovanna C. Zaro*, Paulo H. Caramori**, Carolina M. Gaspar de Oliveira, Getúlio T. Nagashima, Juliandra R. Rosisca, Cássio E. Cavenaghi Prete


Londrina State University – UEL, Agricultural Science Center, Londrina-PR, Brazil
Agronomic Institute of Parana – IAPAR, Agrometeorology and Plant Physiology Section, Londrina-PR, Brazil


Abstract
Low temperatures affect avocado plants and their response varies across genetic variants. The objective of this study was to assess cold stress of avocado cultivars based on visual, physiological, and biochemical criteria for evaluating freezing injury in these plants. The avocado cultivars ‘Geada,’ ‘Fortuna,’ ‘Fuerte,’ ‘Quintal,’ ‘Margarida,’ and ‘Primavera’ were subjected to temperatures of −2.5, −4.0, −5.0, and −6.0 °C for 1 h in a growth chamber. Their responses to cold stress were evaluated on the basis of visual damage score, photosynthetic rate, water pressure potential, protein content and enzymatic activity. Moreover, the experimental design was factorial and completely randomized with four replicates of each cultivar. An analysis of variance of the results was performed and the means were compared using Tukey’s post-hoc test (p <0.05). Evaluations based on the plants water pressure potential, total protein content, catalase activity, photosynthetic rate, and visual damage score were efficient in estimating the effects of cold stress in avocado plants. Additionally, photosynthesis and visual damage score were significantly correlated in all evaluations, enabling classification of the cultivars in terms of response to cold stress. We found that Fuerte was the most tolerant cultivar followed by Geada. The Primavera was the most sensitive cultivar.


Pages 881-888 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1593
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Short-term effects of liming on chemical attributes of tropical sandy soil and soybean (Glycine max L.) yield


M. Esper Neto, C. F. Coneglian, A. C. S. Costa, T. T. Inoue, M. A. Batista*


Universidade Estadual de Maringá, UEM – PR – Av. Colombo, 5790, Zona 7, CEP 87020-900 Maringá – PR, Brasil


Abstract
Lime application is the most appropriate technique to raise soil pH, decrease Al3+ toxicity and increase Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents in acidic tropical and subtropical moist soils. The objective of this research is to evaluate changes in chemical attributes and soybean yield in sandy soil after lime incorporation. The soil was classified as a typical Quartzipsamments cultivated with (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf) pasture, and its degradation state was classified as strong. The experimental design was a randomized block with six replicates and four lime doses (0, 2, 4 and 8 Mg ha-1). The soil in the area was prepared with one plowing and two harrowings, followed by lime application and two more harrowings to incorporate the lime up to 0.2 m depth. The dependent variables analyzed were soybean yield; numbers of pods filled, pods not filled, and total pods and soil pH in water, CaCl2 and KCl. All parameters were measured at depth of 0.0-0.1, 0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.3 m. The increase of soil pH by the different lime rates were observed just in 0.0-0.1 and 0.1-0.2 m layers. After 6 months no changes in soil pH were observed in subsoil (0.2-0.3 m). With lower H+ and Al3+ activity and higher basic cation availability, soybean yield was also changed. The maximum soybean yield of 2,929 kg ha-1 was observed with 4.6 Mg ha-1 lime application, although pod number per plant remained constant, independent of limestone dose.


Pages 889-894 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1614
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Influence of bunch bagging on the development of banana Prata (AAB) and prevention of chilling injury in the field


Juliana Domingues Lima*, Danilo Eduardo Rozane, Eduardo Nardini Gomes, Silvia Helena Modenese Gorla da Silva, Wilson da Silva Moraes, Ricardo Alfredo Kluge


São Paulo State University, UNESP, Registro, São Paulo, Brazil
Agency Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, APTA, Registro, Brazil
University of São Paulo, USP, Department of Biological Sciences, Piracicaba, Brazil


Abstract
Banana is extremely sensitive to chilling injury (CI). It shows symptoms of peel browning at approximately 12°C and severe symptoms at 6°C. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different bagging materials on development of banana bunch (Musa spp. AAB cv. Prata) and preventing CI in field. The study was carried in Jacupiranga, São Paulo, Brazil, in a completely randomized design in 2 × 9 factorial, in which treatments were two years of formation of bunch and nine bagging materials, with eight replicates. Bagging was performed in the autumn and winter to ensure the occurrence of CI in the field, and the evaluations after harvesting and fruit maturation. The bagging materials consisted of blue transparent polyethylene, white non-woven fabric, white opaque polyethylene, bubble wrap, white laminated non-woven fabric, double paper, blue transparent polyethylene plus kraft paper, blue transparent polyethylene plus white non-woven fabric and non-bagged. In 2013, the bunches of were exposed to 182.02 h of temperatures lower than 12C and 5.25 h of temperatures lower than 5C, while in 2014, only 70.76 h of temperatures lower than 12C was provided. Bunches formed in 2013 had longer exposure periods between flowering and harvest due to the low temperatures, but exhibited higher mass than those formed in 2014. The CI index was only 1.38 in 2013 and 1.00 in 2014 (p<0.05). On the colder days of 2013 and 2014, bagging raised peel temperature 1.91 and 3.17°C, respectively. The bagging material influenced yield, the accumulation of nutrients in fruits and the hue angle of peel. Double paper promoted fruits with more yellow peel.


Pages 895-902 | Full Text PDF| 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1641
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Control of bovine tick [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus] with Brunfelsia uniflora leaf extract


Elaine Yae Yamashita Sugauara, ElisângelaYumi Sugauara, Rosangela Rumi Sugauara, Wanessa de Campos Bortolucci, Herika Line Marko de Oliveira, Eloísa Schneider Silva, Caio Franco de Araújo Almeida Campos, José Eduardo Gonçalves, Nelson Barros Colauto, Zilda Cristiani Gazim*, Giani Andrea Linde


Graduate Program in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture. Paranaense University, Umuarama-PR, Brazil
Graduate Program in Clean Technologies, Cesumar University, Maringá-PR, Brazil
Cesumar Institute of Science, Technology and Innovation – ICETI, Maringá-PR, Brazil


Abstract
Bovine tick has caused losses in livestock production profitability in Brazil. However, tick control has caused resistance of these ectoparasites against utilized acaricides. Alternative tick controls have been utilizing plants as sources of effective botanical acaricides. Brunfelsia uniflora is a Brazilian plant with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity; however, there are no reports on its acaricidal activity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of B. uniflora leaf ethanolic extract and its efficiency to control bovine tick in vitro and free-living stage ex situ. The crude leaf extract was analyzed by gas chromatographer coupled to mass spectrometer (GC-MS) with identification of 17 compounds. The major compounds were phytol (22.96%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, ethyl ester (Z,Z,Z) (21.18%), hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (12.74%) and vitamin E (8.77%). The crude extract presented acaricidal activity in vitro against ingurgitated adult females, larvae and eggs of bovine tick. The LC99.9 for larvae was 103.21 mg mL-1 in in vitro tests and was 100% efficient for ex situ larva test (free-living stage). B. uniflora leaf extract is an alternative for the control of the bovine tick cycle, mainly in the free-living stage (non-parasitic stage) under field conditions.


Pages 903-910 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1653
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Cultivation of low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Cannabis sativa L. cultivation in Victoria, Australia: Do we know enough?


Talia Humphries, Singarayer Florentine 


Centre for Environmental Management, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federation University Australia, Mount Helen, Victoria, Australia


Abstract
Late 2017, the ban on the cultivation and consumption of low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Cannabis sativa L. in Victoria, was lifted by the Federal Government of Australia. Its legalization presents the opportunity for Victoria to become a leading producer and distributer of these economically valuable hemp products. However, as a novel crop to Victoria, there is little information available for obtaining economically viable yields. Therefore, the objectives of this review were to firstly, develop an understanding of the environmental requirements shared by C. sativa cultivars, and what conditions promote fibre and grain yields. Secondly, it seeks to identify what farming practices have been conducted throughout Europe, Canada and China, and to explore whether these practices could be adapted to Victoria. Thirdly, the review will assist in making recommendations regarding which cultivars would be ‘potential’ candidates for commencing trials under Victorian climates so to find out the varieties that can provide high yields for fibre, grain and dual-purpose production. This review notes that Victoria shares a similar climate to central Europe, and has an ideal climate for the development of a successful hemp industry, as it has suitable lengths of daylight throughout spring and summer months and meets the precipitation requirements. This review has thus strongly suggested that the properties and attributes of European varieties of C. sativa should be further researched for site-specific cultivation in Victoria for fibre, grain and dual-purpose production in order to maximise harvest yields.


Pages 911-919 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1669
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Evaluation of antagonistic activities against Pythium myriotylum and plant growth promoting traits of Streptomyces isolated from Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott) rhizosphere

Peguy Flora Djuidje Kouomou, Cécile Annie Ewane, Sylvain Lerat, Denis Omokolo Ndoumou, Carole Beaulieu, Thaddée Boudjeko

Laboratory of Phytoprotection and Valorization of Plants Resources, Biotechnology Centre-Nkolbisson, P.O. Box 3851, Messa, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O BOX 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Centre SEVE, Département de Biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec J1K2R1, Canada
Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Higher Teacher’s Training College, P.O BOX 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon


Abstract
The focus of this study was to isolate, evaluate and characterize cocoyam rhizospheric actinobacteria collected from Mount Cameroon for their potential antagonistic activities against Pythium myriotylum, the causative agent of cocoyam root rot disease, and/or their ability to promote plant growth. Actinobacteria were isolated from soil samples by using serial dilution method. Dual culture assay was used to screen the isolates against fungal phytopathogens including P. myriotylum. The selected isolates were characterized morphologically, physiologically, biochemically and genetically. Furthermore, these isolates were subjected to in vitro production of various plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. Among the 287 isolates distributed into 12 distinct groups, PFK4, PFBOT7 and PFEL2 had high antagonistic effects against P. myriotylum and they were regarded as promising candidates for further study of their biocontrol ability. The identification of actinobacterial isolates was done using universal PCR of partial 16S rRNA sequences combined with bioinformatics and phylogenetic procedures. The results revealed that all these isolates belong to the genus Streptomyces spp. The isolate PFK4 showed 99% similarity with Streptomyces albulus while PFBOT7 showed 99% similarity with Streptomyces albus and PFEL2 showed 98% similarity with Streptomyces gandoceansis based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. In this study for the first time, we report S. gandocaensis strain for the biological control of Pythium myriotylum. The role of these isolates in Plant Growth Promotion (PGP) by in vitro production of PGP traits such as phosphate solubilisation, siderophore, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ACC deaminase and cell wall degrading enzymes production were also evaluated and showed as potential PGP agents. Concurrent production of PGP substances coupled with broad spectrum of antifungal and antibacterial activities of these three strains suggest their potential use as promising biocontrol and PGP tools for the development of an alternative control method for cocoyam cultivation.


Pages 920-933 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1670
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Evaluation of vitamin C, nitrate and chlorophyll content determined in lettuce (Thaís, Vanda, Verônica) cultivated in hydroponic system using wastewater

Josilda de França Xavier*, Carlos Alberto Vieira de Azevedo, Márcia Rejane de Queiroz Almeida Azevedo, Jacqueline da Silva Mendes, Josely Dantas Fernandes, Antonio Fernandes Monteiro Filho


Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.429-140, Paraíba, Brazil
Fellow of CNPq Reseach Productivity, level 1B, Brazil
State University of Paraíba, Center of Environmental and Agrarian Sciences, Lagoa Seca, 58.117-000, Paraíba, Brazil


Abstract
The objective of this work was to determine the levels of vitamin C, nitrate and chlorophyll in three lettuce cultivars in a hydroponic system using waste- and well-water. The experiment was conducted in a hydroponic system using laminar flow technique and nutrients in a protected environment. The experimental design was randomized blocks with treatments set up in split-plots with three replications, whose main plots devoted to lettuce cultivars and sub-plots to hydroponic solutions. The experimental solutions consisted of 7 nutrients (S): S1=Furlani solution, S2=domestic wastewater, S3=optimized domestic wastewater, S4 =well water S5 =optimized well water; S6 = reactor wastewater solution and S7 =optimized reactor wastewater solution and the subplot for the three cultivars of iceberg lettuce (Verônica, Vanda, and Thais). The following variables were determined: nitrate, vitamin C and chlorophyll content using the method described by Lichtenthaler. The results indicated that highest content of vitamin C was found in the Vanda cultivar using the S1 solution. For Veronica cultivar, the highest levels of vitamin C were observed at solutions S1, S2, S3, S4, and S7. The solutions S2 and S3 did not differ from one another in all three cultivars. For the Vanda cultivar, solutions S1, S4 and S7 were the ones that promoted the highest levels of nitrate, 4.61; 3, 32 and 2.64 g kg-1, respectively. Evaluating the effect of the solution within the cultivars, we verified that the highest nitrate values obtained from S2 nutrition for cultivars Thais and Verônica. Regarding the S5 solution, the Verônica cultivar presented the highest concentration of this nutrient. The cultivate Thaís, the highest contents of chlorophyll b were found in solutions S7, S6, S4, S3 and S2, where they did not differ significantly. Regarding to Vanda cultivar the highest values of chlorophyll b were present in solutions S2 and S5. The Verônica cultivar independent of the solution used presented the same values of this pigment.


Pages 934-943 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1682
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Upland rice gas exchange, nutrient uptake and grain yield as affected by potassium fertilization and inoculation of the diazotrophic bacteria Serratia spp.


Adriano S. Nascente*, Marta Cristina C. Filippi, Thatyane P. Sousa, Amanda A. Chaibub, Alan Carlos A. Souza, Anna Cristina Lanna


Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), Rice and Beans Research Center, P.O. Box 179, Highway 462, km 12, Santo Antônio de Goiás, State of Goiás, 75.375-000, Brazil
Escola de Agronomia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia - GO, Brazil. 74.690-900
Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília - DF, Brazil. 70.910-900
Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras - MG, Brazil. 37200-000


Abstract
Potassium (K) is the second most uptaken nutrient by upland rice crops. Beneficial microorganisms, such as Rhizobacteria participate in different processes that affect transformation of soil nutrients, making them available to plants. However, there are no information about the use of Rhizobacteria and different rates of K fertilization in this crop. To elucidate this interaction, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of the rhizobacteria Serratia spp. strain BRM 32114 and doses of K at sowing fertilization on upland rice development. The experimental design was a complete randomized block in a factorial 4 × 2 scheme with four replications, under no-tillage systems conducted in the Brazilian Cerrado during 2015/16 and 2016/17 growing season. The treatments consisted of four K2O doses (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1) without or with rhizobacteria applied three times in the field (on the seeds, sprayed over the soil, seven days after sowing and sprayed on the plants, 14 days after sowing). Biomass production, gas exchange, nutrient content in leaves and grain, yield components and grain yield were evaluated. The use of BRM 32114 applied in soil with high levels of K provided increase in the contents of P, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn in rice leaves. The results showed enhances in plant biomass (7.2%), the number of panicles per plant (10%), and the grain yield of upland rice (16.3%). Therefore, our results allow inferring that the use of microorganism BRM 32114 provided significant improvements in rice growth/development, which resulted in higher grain yield over two consecutive growing seasons under field conditions. It showed that the bioagent Serratia spp. is promising to be incorporated into crop systems.


Pages 944-953 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1682
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Response surface methodology optimization of oil extraction from oil palm meal (OPM) with hydrous ethanol and its pilot-scale application with recirculation of extraction solvent


Krit Somnuk*, Jarernporn Thawornprasert, Pin Chanjula, Gumpon Prateepchaikul


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand, 90112
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Natural and Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand, 90112


Abstract
In the small-scale dry oil extraction from palm fruit used by palm oil mills, mixed crude palm oil (MCPO) is extracted using a single screw press. The oil palm meal (OPM) by-product can be used as alternative feed for ruminants. Three parameters in further solvent extraction of oil are the ethanol-to-dried oil palm meal (DOPM) ratio (4.9–30.1 g.g-1), the extraction time (0.2–18.8 min), and the speed of stirrer (48–552 rpm). These parameters were optimized to for maximum oil yield by response surface methodology (RSM) while employing hydrous ethanol as the solvent. In our laboratory-scale oil extraction, the maximal experimental yield was 10.27 wt.% under the recommend condition: 20.1 g.g-1 ethanol-to-DOPM ratio, 11 min extraction time, and 300 rpm speed of stirrer. Moreover, prototype-scale oil extraction was tested with recirculated miscella for effects of the number of cycles on oil extraction from fresh DOPM. The results showed approximately 17.4 wt.% oil yield from 5000 g DOPM at the conditions recommended based on laboratory-scale experiments. In this study, recirculated miscella was used to extract oil from fresh DOPM. The first four cycles of oil extraction were almost as efficient as with fresh ethanol. Moreover, the protein content in the defatted oil palm meal (DFOPM) improved with oil extraction, because residual oil in DOPM was removed. The DFOPM should have less rancidity and longer shelf-life than DOPM.


Pages 954-965 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1705
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Concentration of macronutrients in degraded tropical pasture in recovery rainy periods using wood


Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva*, Alessana F. Schlichting, Tonny José Araújo da Silva


Federal University of Mato Grosso, UFMT, Institute of Agricultural and Technological Sciences, 5055 Students Avenue Rondonópolis, 78.735-901, Brazil
Federal University of Mato Grosso - UFMT, Faculty of Agronomy and Zootechnic, 2367 Fernando Corrêa da Costa Avenue, Cuiabá, 78060-900, Brazil


Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the average concentration of macronutrients in the rainy periods in Urochloa brizantha pasture fertilized with doses of wood ash associated with application management. Experiment was carried out in the field condition in two years at a degraded pasture in the Brazilian Cerrado (Tropical savanna). Experimental design was a 6x2 factorial scheme, corresponding to six doses of plant ash (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 t ha-1) associated with two treatments of wood ash: light application and superficial grade (without incorporation) with four replicates. The wood ash was derived from the industrial boiler combustion of plant materials. Average concentration of the macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur) were measured in plants. The analyzes of Marandu grass during the rainy season was evaluated from each evaluation year. The mean nutrient concentrations per year were calculated after the nutritional evaluation of four pasture cuttings. It was verified that the wood ash improves the nutritional quality of the recovering pasture. the wood ash doses between 9 and 12 t ha-1 presented greater nutrient concentration in plants. The incorporation of the wood ash in the soil assisted to better nutrient availability to the Marandu grass. The nutritive value of pasture depends on the applied ash quality as an alternative fertilizer.


Pages 966-975 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1710
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Physiological tolerance to drought under high temperature in soybean cultivars


Jônatas Neves de Castro, Caroline Müller, Gabriel Martins Almeida, Alan Carlos Costa*


Ecophysiology and Plant Productivity Laboratory, Goiano Federal Institute of Science and Technology– Campus Rio Verde, P.O. box 66, 75901-970, Rio Verde, GO, Brazil


Abstract
Soybean is one of the most economically important crops and has experienced adverse physiological and biochemical effects when subjected to drought stress and heat, resulting in lost productivity. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological, metabolic and growth responses of well-watered and drought-treated soybean cultivars under high temperature. The experimental design was set up in randomized blocks, in a factorial scheme with three soybean cultivars (7739 M, Anta 82 and Desafio) and two water levels (100% and 40% field capacity). The experiment was conducted in a controlled growth chamber with a gradual rise in temperature at 41°C for 5 hours daily. Morpho-physiological and metabolic analyses were performed 12 days after the treatments imposition. The parameters of water and osmotic potentials, relative water content, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiratory rate, electron flux for the carboxylation and oxygenation of RuBisCO were decreased for all cultivars under water deficit and high temperature. The results showed that the photorespiration and the rate of electrolyte leakage were increased as well. These results showed that these physiological behaviors are standard for soybean plants under water deficit, regardless of cultivars. The cultivars 7739 M and Desafio showed lower performance than the cultivar Anta 82 for the parameters of total electron flow and effective quantum yield of PS II. The 7739 M and Anta 82 were the only cultivars to show increased non-photochemical quenching dissipation and total soluble sugar content, respectively, under stress conditions. Desafio cultivar demonstrated greater physiological and growth traits stability, which could potentially indicate double tolerance to these stresses.


Pages 976- 987 | Full Text PDF| Supplementarty PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1767
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Effect of tear/crack on soybean (Glycine max) seed coat, physiological quality and pathology of the seed


Bruna Ribeiro Machado, Caio Cesar de Oliveira Pereira, Élida Priscila Bogéa Carvalho, Juliana Oliveira da Silva, Letícia Maria de Oliveira Mendes, Milton Luiz da Paz Lima, Jakelinny Martins Silva, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto de Menezes*


Programa de Pós-Graduação em Proteção de Plantas, Instituto Federal Goiano, Urutaí, CEP: 75790-000, GO, Brazil
Laboratório de Microbiologia, Instituto Federal Goiano, Urutaí, CEP: 75790-000, GO, Brazil


Abstract
Seed coat tear is frequently occurs in some soybean cultivars. The impact of seed coat tear on seed physiology and sanitation is uncertain. Our objective was to analyze the physiological and pathological effect of tear on soybean (Glycine max) seed coat. The cultivars NS-8338-IPRO (with high incidence of tear) and NS-6906-IPRO (with low incidence of tear) were used. A tetrazolium test was used to assess the physiological quality of the seed coat before and after storage. The sanitary quality was assessed through the "Blotter Test". For each storage period, we evaluated seeds with 0% coat tear, up to 10%, and above 10%. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design using the methodologies proposed by RAS. The coat tear on soybean seed positively contributed to the moisture damage affecting the inner part of the seed. Incidences of Fusarium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were frequently observed in torn seeds and in seeds without tear (around 9-10%) but did not interfere with seed quality. The appearance of coat tear on soybean seed is increased by moisture damage and do not serve as a gateway for the fungi to cause damage during seed emergence.


Pages 988-994 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1780
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Physiological maturation and postharvest resting of papaya fruits and seeds in agroecological transition


João Luciano de Andrade Melo Junior*, Luan Danilo Ferreira de Andrade Melo, Leila de Paula Rezende, Vilma Marques Ferreira, João Correia de Araújo Neto, Vinicius Santos Gomes da Silva, Reinaldo de Alencar Paes, Lívia Francyne Gomes Chaves, Priscila Cordeiro Souto, Rafael José Navas da Silva


Department of Plant science, Center of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Alagoas, Rio Largo, AL, Brazil


Abstract
This study aimed to characterize the maturation stages of the papaya fruits and to evaluate the physiological quality of papaya seeds produced in an agroforestry system as a function of postharvest maturation. Papaya fruits were used (Carica papaya L.) from two groups, Formosa Tainung 1 and Solo Sunrise Solo, harvested at maturation stage I (up to 15% of the yellow bark). The seeds were obtained, without sarcotesta: soon after harvest (T1); 14 days after standing at room temperature (T2); and 14 days after standing at 10 °C (T3). The variables analyzed included: germination, first count, speed, and mean germination time and length of seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 2 × 3 factorial scheme (2 groups and 3 rest periods), with 4 replicates of 50 seeds for each treatment. The papaya fruits produced maximum germinating seed in a less average time at room temperature and maturation stage V and the final stage (76%–100% of the yellow bark), allowing maximum number of seedlings with greater vigor. Fruits in stage I impaired the physiological quality of the seeds. The agroecological production presented a systemic approach in the management of papaya.


Pages 995-1000 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1799
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Resistance elicitors and defense response enhancers of maize to Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Janaina Marques Mondego, Raimunda Nonata Santos de Lemos*, Jacinto de Luna Bastista, Daniele Lavra Vieira, Kedma Maria Pinto, Antônia Alice Costa Rodrigues, Paulo Alexandre Fernandes Rodrigues de Melo, Elizabeth Araújo Costa, Mario Luiz Ribeiro Mesquita, Adriano Soares Rêgo


Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agroecologia, CP 65.055-098, São Luís, MA, Brasil
Universidade Federal da Paraíba/ Campus Areia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agronomia, Brasil
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Maranhão, Barreirinhas, MA, Brasil
4Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco/Campus Garanhuns, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Produção Agrícola, Brasil
Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agricultura e Ambiente, Brasil


Abstract
The objective of this research was to assess the potential of abiotic compounds as defense response enhancers in maize using enzymatic quantification and their efficiency in reduction of damages caused by S. frugiperda. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with six treatments and five replications. The treatments were: T1: positive control (distilled water + infestation); T2: negative control (without product application, uninfested); T3: biofertilizer; T4: acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM); T5: potassium silicate; T6: potassium silicate + ASM. The treatments were applied in V6 stage of maize plants. After five days, the plants were artificially infested with 2nd instar caterpillars of S. frugiperda. Damage assessments were carried out at 4, 8, 16 and 22 days after infestation using a scale of notes. To evaluate the enzymatic activity, one leaf of each plant was removed at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 22 days after infestation. The largest peroxidase activities were observed at two DAI (days after infestation) using the potassium silicate + ASM (2,344.12 UAE.mg-1 of proteína.min-1) treatment, while the larger polyphenol oxidase activity peaks were observed after treatment with ASM at 22 DAI. The application of potassium silicate + ASM in corn plants can promote peroxidase activity. The polyphenol oxidase activity was increased after application of ASM, whereas the presence of the pest (on positive control) could potentially increase the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. The applications of ASM alone and potassium silicate + ASM contributed to reduction of the foliar damage level caused by S. frugiperda in corn plants.


Pages 1001-1008 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1945
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Adaptation and stability of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) bean cultivars in the tropical dry forest of Colombia

Hermes Araméndiz-Tatis*, Miguel Espitia-Camacho, Carlos Cardona-Ayala

Universidad de Córdoba, Carrera 6 No. 76-103, Montería, Colombia, Grupo de Investigación Cultivos Tropicales de Clima Cálido [Research Group on Tropical Crops of Warm Climates], Colombia


Abstract
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is a source of low cost protein for food, and is currently used in family farming in northern Colombia. The aim of this study was to estimate the adaptability and phenotypic stability of the grain yield (per hectare) of nine advanced lines (plus control) of cowpea and a commercial control in eight contrasting environments of the tropical dry forest of the Colombian Caribbean region. We employed five analysis methods: Eberhart and Russell, Lin and Binns, Annichiarico, Carneiro, and Nascimento et al. A completely randomized block design was used with 9 genotypes +1 control and four repetitions per environment. The analysis of variance detected significant differences in environments, genotypes and in the genotype x environment interaction, confirming that the crops have become sensitive to differences of the environments. At the same time, we forced to consider adaptability and stability for the selection of the best genotype. The five methods of analysis coincided with identification of line L-019 as the best genotype due to its grain yield, adaptability and phenotypic stability. Therefore, L-019 is a new planting alternative for family agriculture of cowpea producers in the Colombian Caribbean.


Pages 1009-1016 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1965
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Productivity and establishment of DRIS indexes for cultivation of potato cultivar Asterix tubers in a dystrophic Red Latosol


Angélica de Araújo Queiroz, Atalita Francis Cardoso, Carolina Oliveira da Silva, Reginaldo de Camargo, Regina Maria Quintão Lana, José Magno Queiroz Luz


Federal Institute of the Minas Gerais Triangle/IFTM - Campus Uberlândia - Street Blanche Galassi, 150 - Morada da Colina - Uberlândia - MG - Brazil
University Center of the Goiatuba/UNICERRADO - Campus Goiatuba -highway GO-320 - Jardim Santa Paula, Goiatuba - GO - Brazil
Federal University of Uberlândia/UFU - Institute of Agricultural Science - Campus Umuarama Block 2E - Uberlândia - MG - Brazil 


Abstract
The potato culture has the highest relative demand for fertilizers per unit area, around 2.3 to 2.8 t ha-1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the productivity of a potato Asterix cultivar subjected to different doses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and to establish the DRIS index according to productivity results. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with 5 rates and 4 replicates for each nutrient totalizing 20 plots per experiment. The rates of nutrients were: nitrogen (0, 70, 140, 210 and 240 Kg ha-1); phosphorus (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 kg ha-1) and potassium (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg ha-1). For leaf diagnosis by the DRIS index, 10 complete leaves of the third expanded trifoliate were collected. The DRIS standards calculations were based on populations of high productivity (or reference) and low productivity. Plants whose productivities were greater than 22 t ha-1 represented the groups of reference. It was concluded that productivity was not influenced by the P and K doses studied, with an increase in yield of tubers as a function of the N rates applied, up to the dose of 173 kg ha-1 of N. According to the DRIS index, it is possible to establish the order of limiting nutrients for failure in descending order in areas with high productivity Ca> Mn> P> S> Zn = Cu> K> N> B> Fe> Mg, and the order of limiting nutrients in areas of low productivity Ca> Cu> Mg> P> S> Mn> Zn> K> Fe = B> N. The results showed that productions above 22 t ha-1 need adjustments of the soil fertility managements.


Pages 1017-1024 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1381
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Bioecology of Anastrepha alveata Stone (Diptera: Tephritidae) associated with wild plum fruits Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae)


Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo, Raimunda Nonata Santos Lemos*, José Ribamar Gusmão Araújo, Paulo Roberto Ramalho Silva, Solange Maria França, Clarice Diniz Alvarenga Corsato, Janaína Marque Mondego, Gislane da Silva Lopes


State Department of Education and Culture of Piauí (SEDUC), Teresina, PI, Brasil
State University of Maranhão (UEMA), São Luís, MA, Brasil
Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Teresina, PI, Brasil
State University of Montes Claros (UNIMONTES), Janaúba, MG, Brasil


Abstract
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are considered important pests of fruticulture due to considerable losses to production and limitation to free transit of fresh fruits. A generalist species is cresature that can live or feed on a wide variety of environemnts or host plants. Although, Anastrepha is a generalist species but infests a small range of plants. The specificity of this species with host plants is a peculiar characteristic of genus Anastrepha. Therefore, it is important to understand the host species and its feeding behaviour on host plants. This way, we will better know its ecology, biology and evolution for rational control ways and measures. Therefore, this study aimed at understanding the biology of Anastrepha alveata Stone (Diptera: Tephritidae). A study was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions (27 ± 2°C temperature, 70 ± 5% RH, photoperiod 12:00) during the period from November/2015 to October/2017. A. alveata adults were obtained from wild plum fruits Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae), collected from Savanna area in two fructification periods. One-hundred and fifty A. alveata adults were collected (60 females and 90 males) to determine sexual maturity, mating behavior, fecundity and longevity. The sexual maturity for A. alveata was 8-13 days after emergence for females. At this age they emitted signal of acceptance for mating and copulation. For males, 5-7 days after emergence this mating signals was given, which was characterized by the protrusion of the lateral abdominal pleural glands. The mating rhythm of A. alveata was crepuscular/nocturnal, beginning around 06:00 p.m. and extending to/after 09:00 p.m. Anastrepha alveata females did not mate with more than one male but mated more than once. The number of males did not affect significantly the mating time, the number of eggs and the longevity of A. alveata. The mean pupal period for A. alveata was 17.5 days. Two preferential peaks for adult emergence were observed at 10:00 am and 03:00 pm. The longevity of the adult insects was greater than 300 days, surviving until the fructification of its host (wild plum) in the following year. Therefore, A. alveata has a strictly monophagous food habit associated with the Ximenia americana host.


Pages 1025-1030 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1959
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Addition of essential oils and inulin for production of reduced salt and fat ham 


Rosicleide dos Santos Silva, Alcione dos Santos Lima, Leandro Paulo da Silva, Robson do Nascimento Silva, Emmanuel Moreira Pereira, Fernando Luiz Nunes de Oliveira, Geíza Alves Azerêdo


Laboratory of Food Microbiology, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, Vitória de Santo Antão, Brazil
Laboratory of Food Microbiology, Department of Management and Food Technologic, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil
São Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences, Jaboticabal, Brazil


Abstract
It has been estimated that approximately 75% of the human’s sodium intake is added during industrial manufacturing. Processed meats can also contain relatively high amounts of saturated fats, and high levels of fat, associated with increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cancers, especially colon cancers. In contrast, dietary fiber intake (ex. inulin) has been associated with health benefits, including a suggested protective effect against colorectal cancer due to an inverse association with colorectal cancer risk. Nutritional and health concerns indicate that consumption of these two elements should be reduced. This study aimed to develop a ham with reduced levels of salt and fat. We added essential oils of oregano and rosemary to preserve the ham as a substitute for fat, for which inulin was also added. Six ham formulations were prepared (control, fat reduction + inulin, salt reduction, salt reduction + essential oils, salt reduction + no fat, and salt reduction + no fat + essential oils). The physical-chemical and microbiological quality parameters were evaluated. The addition of inulin did not interfere with the chemical composition of the formulated ham, presenting itself as a promising alternative for reducing the addition of fat in baked ham. The administration of essential oils in combination caused a significant decrease in native flora of cooked ham. These results suggest that a combination of essential oils and inulin may be a promising alternative in the production of meat products with lower salt and fat levels.


Pages 1031-1036 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p943