Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

JULY 2019 | EARLY VIEW | 13(07) 2019 | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07


Performance of agricultural tractor consuming diesel and biodiesel derived from babassu (Orbinya martiana)

Thyago Augusto Medeiros Lira*, Ariston Pinto Santos, Thaisa Calvo Fugineri Moreti, Afonso Lopes, Melina Cais Jejcic de Oliveira, Murilo Coelho Theodoro Neves, Priscila Sawasaki Iamaguti, Leomar Paulo de Lima, Gilberto Hirotsugu Azevedo Koike, Rogerio de Abreu Silva

Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP - Campus Jaboticabal/SP – Brazil

Abstract
Biodiesel is an alternative fuel to diesel engines. This study aimed to evaluate fuel consumption and smoke density of agricultural tractors fueled by biodiesel, diesel, and biodiesel/diesel mixtures in a tilled field. Treatments consisted of distilled methyl ester (biodiesel) of babassu (Orbinya martiana) and seven combinations of it with two standard diesel fuels (B S1800 and B S50). The blending ratios were 0, 5, 15, 25, 50, and 100% biodiesel in diesel oil (B0, B5, B15, B25, B50, and B100, respectively). Regarding the results for hourly volumetric consumption, no difference was found between B0 and B100 when using B S1800, whereas an 8% increase was observed when using the S50. The weighted hourly consumption increased by 11.29 and 16.9% from B0 to B100 using B S1800 and B S50, respectively. Similarly, the specific fuel consumption increased by 11.1% and 14.3% from B0 to B100 using B S1800 and B S50, respectively. Yet, when comparing B0 and B S1800, the smoke density reduction was 68.6% and between B S50 and B100 was 58.0%. Our findings show that babassu biodiesel is a suitable substitute for diesel oil, without causing any damage to the tractor's engine.

Pages 1037-1044 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p983
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Evaluation of ethanol preconditioning as a rapid seed vigour and viability test

Jerffeson Araujo Cavalcante*, Gizele Ingrid Gadotti, Ricardo Miotto Ternus, Fernanda da Motta Xavier, Raimunda Nonada Oliveira da Silva, Paulo Eduardo Rocha Eberhardt, Andréa Bicca Noguez Martins, Nander Ferraz Hornke, Alcimar Spindola Mazon, Lilian Vanussa M. Tunes

Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Post Graduate Science and Seed Technology, Federal University of Pelotas, Capão of Leão Campus, P. O. Box 354, ZIP Code 960001-970, Pelotas, RS, Brazil
Universidade Barriga Verde, Orleans, RS, Brazil


Abstract
It is essential that tests for evaluating seed vigour be faster and increasingly efficient to enable precise differentiation among batches. In this way, it is possible to evaluate the quality of seeds based on the anaerobic metabolism of cells when exposed to environments lacking oxygen. Thus, the objective of this study was to establish methodology for evaluating the viability and vigour of 3 lots of cowpea (Amendoim cultivar) seeds using the ethanol test. The treatments were carried out in a completely randomized design with four replications. For the test, 25 seeds were stored in hermetically sealed PET (Polyethylene the Ethylene) bottles containing 40 ml of distilled water and subjected to 3 soaking times in distilled water (6, 24, and 48 h) at a controlled temperature of 40°C in a germinator. The amount of ethanol produced was quantified with the aid of an adapted breath analyser. The results are expressed as mg L-1; these data were then compared with data for the following: germination; the first germination count; the total length, root length and shoot length of the seedling; dry weight of the seedling; emergence in the field; emergence speed index; and electrical conductivity. The experimental design was completely randomised, and the data were subjected to analysis of variance and correlation analysis. The results were compared using the Tukey test at 5% probability. Measurement of ethanol after 6 or 48 h of soaking at 40°C was effective for determining the viability and vigour of cowpea seeds. As ethanol test results have high correlation with germination and vigour test results, this approach is a viable alternative for analysts and seed producers.

Pages 1045-1052 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1148
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Efficiency of DPPH and FRAP assays for estimating antioxidant activity and separation of organic acids and phenolic compounds by liquid chromatography in fresh-cut nectarine

Luciana da Silva Borges*, Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima, Francisco Artés, Manoel Euzébio de Souza, Luís de Souza Freitas, Hanna Ibiapina de Jesus, Núbia de Fátima Alves Santos, Márcio Roberto da Silva Melo

Federal Rural University of Amazonia , Campus Paragominas, CEP 68625-000 Paragominas-PA, Brazil
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Biosciences, Universidade do Estado de Sao Paulo, UNESP, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brasil
Postharvest and Refrigeration Group, Department of Food Engineering, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Cartagena, Murcia, Spain.
4Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso, Campus Nova Xavantina-MT, Brasil
Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus de Areia. Paraíba-Brasil


Abstract
Nectarine contain relevant amounts of antioxidants, including hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, anthocyanins, procyanidins, and carotenoids. The aim of this research was to compare the efficiency of DPPH and FRAP assays to estimate antioxidant activities contents in nectarine minimally processed. Moreover, separation of organic acids, phenolic compounds and carotenoids were done by HPLC. Nectarine fruits ‘R48’ cv. were hand harvested, with 80% of their reddish coloration. The following treatments were applied: Control; 1% citric acid + 1% calcium chloride as anti-browning (AB) agent; 4 KJ m-2 UV-C radiation; 8 KJ m-2 UV-C; 12 KJ m-2 UV-C ; AB +  95 kPa O2 (High O2); AB + 4 KJ m-2 UV-C + High O2; AB + 8 kJ m-2 UV-C + High O2 and AB + 12 KJ m-2 UV-C + High O2. We determined antioxidant activity to DPPH; antioxidant activity to FRAP; total phenols and HPLC-DAD analyses. In general the DPPH showed higher efficiency of antioxidant concentration in comparison with FRAP in minimally processed nectarines. There was clear trend in phenolic content in fresh-cut nectarine the treatment AB + 8 kJ m-2UV-C + High O2. The 22 minimally processed nectarine phenolic compounds were studied and quantified by HPLC, being detected: Hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and anthocyanins. These results allow to conclude that the most abundant compounds found in this study of fresh-cut nectarine were chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and ellagic acid with HPLC chromatograms were recorded at 280 nm, quercentin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3- Xyloside at 340nm and Cyanidin 3- glucoside at 510nm.

Pages 1053-1060 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1368
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Growth and yield of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) plants cultivated in different spacing and treated with kinetin

Patrícia Souza da Silveira, Leandro Mariano da Silva, Ivan Carneiro Custódio, Ricardo Felício, Alainy Carla de Souza Nascente, Priscilla Gomes de Freitas Santos, Camila Lariane Amaro, Fabio Santos Matos*

Research Group on Plant Production Physiology, State University of Goiás, Brazil

Abstract
Recommendations for J. curcas plants were studied for adequate crop spacing, and to increase the number of female and hermaphrodite flowers and fruit yields. The study was carried out in an experimental field in Brazil,using four-year-old adult plants in a 5 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments included five doses of the growth regulator kinetin (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mg L-1 at the volume of 330 ml per plant) in a single application to six plants and three planting spaces (3×3, 3×2, 3×1 m). The results showed that the applied kinetin doses did not interfere in the production index of J. curcas, but population density exerted a significant influence on the vegetative and reproductive development of the J. curcas plants in the 3x3 spacing, where competition for essential growth resources (water, light and nutrients) seems to have been less intense and the plants were more vigorous. Cropping J. curcas plants in 3 × 3 spacing is recommended to obtain vigorous plants with a high number of branches, inflorescences and high grain yield. Applying kinetin at concentrations lower than 12 mg L-1 did not interfere in the sexual expression of J. curcas flowers. Further studies with higher kinetin doses in 3 × 3 m spacing are necessary to elucidate and recommend new management practices.

Pages 1061-1066 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1479
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Effect of planting pattern and season on some agronomic performances and yield of sweet potato cv. Japanese Orange

Darika Bunphan*, William F. Anderson

Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Technology Mahasarakham University, Kantarawichai Distrct, Mahasarakham 44150, Thailand
USDA/ARS Crop Genetics and Breeding Unit, 115 Coastal Way, Tifton GA 31793, USA


Abstract
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) is one of the most important root crops in the world. It is primarily grown as a second crop during the dry season in Thailand. Several cultivars are produced with some being imported from Japan, especially cv. Japanese Orange, Yellow and Purple which are popular because they have high value and are rich in phytochemicals. Thai farmers use only one planting pattern for production although there are five recommended patterns available. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different planting patterns on yield, agronomic traits, and determine associations among agronomic traits of sweet potato cv. Japanese Orange. The experiments were conducted during the rainy and dry seasons of 2017. An RCBD with 5 planting patterns and 3 replications were used. Tuber yield, no. of tuber/plant, no. of tuber/ha, no. branch/plant, tuber diameter and tuber fresh weight were measured. The results revealed that during the rainy season, pattern 5 (three vines per hole) had highest tuber yield (11.7 ton/ha), no. of tubers/plant (7.7) and number of tubers/ha (408.9×103) whereas pattern 3 (one vine) had highest no of branches/plant (4.7) and tuber diameter (36.9 mm). In the dry season, patterns 1, 5 and 3 had the highest yields (7.13, 6.71 and 6.48 ton/ha, respectively) pattern 1 had significantly higher tuber fresh weight (84.17 g) than the other four patterns. Pattern 5 had the highest number of tubers/plant and number of tubers/ha during the dry season. We found positive correlations between tuber yield and number of tuber per plant, number of tuber per ha, vine length, vine girth, number of nodes per plant at 60 and 75 DAP.

Pages 1067-1073 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1522
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Control of thrips (Enneothrips flavens Moulton.) with synthetic and biological insecticides in different peanut genotypes

Marcos Doniseti Michelotto, Willians César Carrega, Melina Zacarelli Pirotta, Ignácio José de Godoy, André Luiz Lourenção, Antonio Lúcio Mello Martins

Laboratory of Entomology, APTA North Center, Pindorama, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Crop Production, FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
Grain and Fiber Center, Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC), São Paulo, Brazil
Plant Protection Center, Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC), São Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
In peanut, pests are controlled by application of insecticides throughout the crop cycle, boosting production costs. This study compared the control of thrips (Enneotrhips flavens Moulton) in 10 peanut genotypes by biological and synthetic insecticides in the field in tropical area in Southeastern Brazil (21°13’29.9’’S 48°54’33.0’’W). The experiment was arranged in a randomized block, 10 x 3 factorial design with three replications. The first factor corresponded to 10 peanut genotypes and the second to different insecticides (synthetic, biological and control). The plants were evaluated 36, 44, 51, 59, 65, 72, and 79 days after sowing to determine the number of thrips individuals and the damage on leaflets caused by E. flavens. The plant height (cm), branch length (cm) and pod yield (kg ha-1) were also determined. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and averages compared by Tukey’s test. In prior evaluation carried out before the start of the applications of insecticides (25 DAS), natural infestation of thrips was observed in all genotypes. The genetic variability of lines L. 386 and L. 314 and cultivar IAC 113 was not significant, whereas yield difference was not observed among treatments of insecticides and control, showing tolerance to E. flavens. The synthetic insecticide Engeo PlenoTM showed of 39% higher efficiency (as average) for controlling thrips in peanut. The insecticides Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) (AUIN®) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch.) (GR-INN®) have potential to control E. flavens in peanut, but further studies are needed to better define the application date and products doses.

Pages 1074-1082 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1532
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Genetic diversity in passion fruit plants at different altitudes

Khétrin Silva Maciel*, Paula Aparecida Muniz de Lima, Fernando Zanotti Madalon, Márcia Flores da Silva Ferreira, Rodrigo Sobreira Alexandre, José Carlos Lopes

Center for Agroforestry Sciences, Federal University of Southern Bahia, (Universidade Federal do Sul da Bahia), Ilhéus, BA, Brazil
Postgraduate of Plant Production, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo), Alegre, Espírito Santo, Brazil
Postgraduate School of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz" University of Sao Paulo, (Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Universidade de São Paulo), Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
Department of Plant Production, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo), Alegre, Espírito Santo, Brazil
Department of Forest Sciences, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo), Alegre, Espírito Santo, Brazil


Abstract
Passion fruit belongs to the Passifloraceae family and to the genus Passiflora, which is economically relevant. This genus is originated from Brazil, which has the greatest genetic diversity. The altitudinal gradient may influence the distribution of genetic variation in and between plant populations and genetic diversity may change according to the altitude. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in passion fruit in different altitudes of Espírito Santo, using microsatellite markers (SSR) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR). Five matrixes plants of each species of Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, P. edulis Sims and P. alata Curtis were studied at three altitudes (low, medium and high) in the state of Espírito Santo. For each sample, 13 microsatellite markers developed for Passiflora edulis and 14 ISSR primers were amplified according to the greatest number of polymorphic fragments and amplification quality. Low values of alleles were found (1-3), and low heterozygosity was expected and slight PIC values were found, while for the ISSR analysis a large number of bands per primer were detected and high polymorphism. The P. alata Curtis species was the most divergent to P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. and P. edulis Sims. The SSR and ISSR markers enabled us to indicate differences among the species, but they did not always show variation between and within similar species. The populations of low altitude are different from the others, independent of the species and the marker used. The habitat has a highly important influence on genetic diversity.

Pages 1083-1093 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1545
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Assessment of empirical methods for estimation of reference evapotranspiration in the Brazilian Savannah

Lucas da Costa Santos*, Guilherme Henrique Terra Cruz, Frank Freire Capuchinho, Jeffersom Vieira José, Elton Fialho dos Reis

Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Goiás, Anápolis, Goiás, Brazil
Institute of Agricultural and Technological Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil


Abstract
Evapotranspiration can be sufficiently estimated when meteorological data are available to implement robust models such as Penman-Monteith (PM). However, due to data scarcity, alternative approaches are necessary. In this context, this study aims to compare the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) obtained from the PM standard method with eight empirical equations to identify the simplest method that can be alternative to the reference method (Penman Monteith method) for ten places in state of Goiás (located in west-central Brazil, Brazilian Savanna). To estimate the ETo, air temperature and relative humidity air, wind speed, sunshine and solar radiation data, which were obtained from the data platform National Institute of Meteorology and the Meteorological and Hydrological System of the State of Goiás, were used. For comparison of empirical methods with PM standard method, we used the following statistical indicators: slope and intercept coefficients (β0 and β1) of regressions equations, the coefficient of determination (r²), Pearson's correlation (r), mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) concordance index refined (dr) and performance index (Pi). Our results indicated that the Turc method is the best option for the state of Goiás when meteorological data are not suffeciently available to use the standard PM method. On the other hand, the method of Romanenko did not present acceptable performance in nine of the ten studied localities. Therefore, its use is advised only in the municipality of the Itumbiara. Among evaluated methods the Hargreaves-Samani method is the best alternative, when there is only air temperature data.

Pages 1094-1104 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1569
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Performance of the AquaCrop model in the climate risk analysis and yield prediction of cowpea (Vigna Unguiculatta L. Walp)

Hildo Giuseppe Garcia Caldas Nunes*, Denis de Pinho Sousa, Vandeilson Belfort Moura, Denilson Pontes Ferreira, João Vitor de Nóvoa Pinto, Igor Cristian de Oliveira Vieira, Vivian Dielly da Silva Farias, Evandro Chaves de Oliveira, Paulo Jorge de Oliveira Ponte de Souza

Federal Rural University of Amazon – UFRA, Program of Post Graduate in Agronomy, Avenida Presidente Tancredo Neves 2501, Montese, CEP 66077-530, Belém-PA, Brazil
Federal University of West Pará - UFOPA, Rua Arnaldo Pinheiro, Maracanã, CEP 68170-000, Juruti-PA, Brazil
Federal Institute of Espirito Santo - IFES, Rodovia BR-259 s/n°, Zona Rural, CEP 29709-910, Colatina-ES, Brazil


Abstract
The present work evaluated the Aquacrop model as a tool for climate risk analysis and yield prediction of cowpea, cultivated in a dystrophic yellow oxisol. The model was previously calibrated and validated for two harvests, in order to simulate the biomass and yield of cowpea, considering four applied water blades over its reproductive period. The good achieved results prove the model’s efficiency for this kind of simulation. After validation, the yield simulation of cowpea based on the meteorological data (2003 to 2014), soil and crop management of 12 harvests was performed. Two scenarios were given: the potential yield without water restrictions; and the actual yield, considering to pluvial availability conditions of the inserted series. The results suggested that the optimum sowing dates are between April 1st and 20th, in which there was a low yield loss (< 10 %) considering the potential yield, high probability (> 90 %) of achieving high yields (above 1300 kg ha-1) and a low risk of getting crop harvesting in the rainy period. After all, the model proved to be a feasible tool for predicting cowpea yield in the region and also over regions with similar characteristics.

Pages 1105-1112 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1590
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Genetic diversity analysis of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes making use of SSR markers

Keitumetse Kujane*, Moosa M Sedibe, Alina Mofokeng

Central University of Technology, Free State, Department of Agriculture, Private Bag x20539, Bloemfontein 9301, South Africa
Agricultural Research Council-Grain Crops, Private Bag x1251, Potchefstroom, South Africa


Abstract
In this study, we aimed to investigate the genetic diversity and polymorphism among 30 soybean genotypes maintained by the ARC using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Soybean genotypes were characterized using 20 SSR primers. DNA was extracted using the standard cetyl trimethylammonium bromide method and amplified using PCR. Allele size was determined via comparison with a 100 base pair (bp) DNA ladder. Molecular data were analyzed, and a dendrogram and matrix were generated using GGT 2.0 software. A total of 216 alleles with an average of 10.8 alleles per locus were detected. The allele sizes ranged between 2 and 33 bp with an average of 18.7 bp. The polymorphic information content among genotypes varied from 0.85 (Satt001) to 0.75 (Satt43) with an average of 0.716, and heterozygosity ranged from 0.87 to 0.78 with an average of 0.7485. The most diverse genotypes were B 66 S 31, 69S 7, and R5-4-2 M, which indicated the efficiency of the SSR markers for the detection of genetic diversity. The results of the current study revealed the diversity among the soybean genotypes tested, which might aid breeders in the future in the selection of parents for breeding.

Pages 1113-1119 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1638
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Characterization of nitrate reductase activity (NR) in foliar and radicular tissues of Physalis angulata L.: diurnal variations and protocol optimization

Tamara Torres Tanan*, Marilza Neves do Nascimento, Alismário Leite da Silva, David Santana Guimarães, Romeu da Silva Leite, Larissa de Souza Pereira, Francisco dos Santos Neto

Postgraduate Program in Plant Genetic Resources, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Brazil
Department of Biological Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Brazil
Agronomy course, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Brazil


Abstract
Nitrate reductase (NR) is the first enzyme in the nitrogen assimilation pathway. The determination of its activity requires modifications for each plant species. The goal of this work was to evaluate the variation of NR activity throughout the day and the optimization of assay conditions in foliar and radicular tissues of Physalis angulata. The analysis was done in plants cultivated in a hydroponic system at two months of age. The NR activity was based on the in vivo assay method. Enzyme activity was observed on leaf and root, indicating two sites of nitrate assimilation with a higher activity in the daylight in leaf. The NR activity in leaf was increased after 4h of luminosity. In the root, we observed a high activity during most of the day, especially in periods of higher solar radiation and temperature. To obtain the highest activity of NR in both tissues we suggest 1% n-propanol, 50mM of KNO3- in pH=7 phosphate buffer for 75 min incubation in water bath.

Pages 1120-1125 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1644
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Miscible displacement of copper in soil columns using increasing doses of bentonite

Gilvanise Alves Tito, Lucia Helena Garófalo Chaves*, Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra, Josely Dantas Fernandes, Jacqueline da Silva Mendes, Iêde de Brito Chaves

Technology Center and Natural Resources, Federal University of Campina Grande, Av. Aprigio Veloso, 882, Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil

Abstract
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of applying increasing doses of bentonite to the soil on the miscible displacement of copper, quantifying copper retention in the soil and elimination by leachate, in order to prevent potential risks for environmental contamination. The experiment was conducted on a laboratory using leaching columns filled by a sandy texture soil contaminated with 250 mg kg-1 of copper each. The experimental design was a completely randomized with four doses of bentonite, 0; 30; 60 and 90 t ha-1, and three replications totalizing 12 experimental units. The leaching columns were made with PVC tubes constituted by three rings, overlaid and joined with silicone glue. Each column was filled with 4 kg of Cu contaminated soil, mixed with the doses of bentonite specified by the treatments (0; 45; 90 and 135 g). After the filling of the columns, each one received five pore volumes of distillated water, and left to percolation under a steady state flux. After percolation, the Cu concentrations in the soil and in the percolate, the breakthrough curves of the flux density and the percolation velocity were determined. The results were submitted to variance analyses using the F test and regressions. The increasing doses of bentonite until 90 t ha-1 increased the adsorption of copper by the soil, reducing the percolation of this element around 72%. Bentonite application to the soil decreased the flux density and flux velocity of the copper percolation, diminishing the potential risks for the environment contamination.

Pages 1126-1130 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1645
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In vitro organogenesis and growth of Ocimum basilicum ‘Genovese’ (basil) cultivated with growth regulators

Jéssica Rezende Trettel, Andressa Bezerra Nascimento, Letícia Neris Barbosa, Hélida Mara Magalhães

DSc Student Postgraduate Programs in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture - Paranaense University, Brazil
Agronomist - Paranaense University, Brazil
3Postgraduate Programs in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture - Paranaense University, Brazil


Abstract
Genovese basil is a medicinal plant broadly used in medicine, perfumery, and cooking. In this study, the in vitro organogenesis and growth of Genovese basil seedlings are evaluated through the effect of growth regulators applied in different doses. Eight treatments were performed combining different concentrations of auxins and cytokinins, plus one control. At the end of the trial, growth characteristics of the seedlings were measured, and anatomical sections of the leaves and stems of the basil were prepared. The results demonstrated the need for cytokinins to increase the number and length of shoots and the length of roots. The treatment with 0.2 mgL-1 benzyl aminopurine (BAP) mgL-1 demonstrated the best result. The combined action of auxins and cytokinins increased fresh and dry masses of roots (0.3 mgL-1 BAP + 0.6 mgL-1naphthaleneacetic acid [NAA]). Partial changes in the leaf architecture as well as a reduction in the thickness of the palisade and lacunar parenchyma were observed, especially in treatment T8 (0.4 mgL-1 BAP+ 0.2 mgL-1NAA). In addition, all treatments with regulators presented adventitious roots in the stem, originating from inner-stem cells or vascular tissues. The formation of callus at the base of the plants and the occurrence of abnormal seedlings indicate that Genovese basil was responsive to the action of the growth regulators, although other factors regarding the medium could influence such responses. The growth regulators also function in the expression of genes linked to the stretching process (auxins) and cell proliferation (cytokinin).

Pages 1131-1140 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1649
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Physiological indices of West Indian cherry (Malpighia emarginata) irrigated with saline water under nitrogen and phosphorus doses

Francisco Vanies da Silva Sá*, Hans Raj Gheiy, Geovani Soares de Lima, Romulo Carantino Lucena Moreira, Adaan Sudário Dias, Luderlândio de Andrade Silva, Lauriane Almeida dos Anjos Soares, Alberto Soares de Melo, Miguel Ferreira Neto

Federal Rural University of Semi-Arid, Center of Agricultural Sciences, Mossoró, 59.625-000, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
Federal University of Recôncavo of Bahia, Nucleus of Soil and Water Engineering, Cruz das Almas, 44.380-000, Bahia, Brazil
Federal University of Campina Grande, of Agri-Food Science and Technology, Pombal, 58.840-000, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazil
State University of Paraíba, Department of Biological Science, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazil
Fellow of CNPq Research Productivity, level 1A, Brazil
Fellow of CNPq Reseach Productivity, level 2, Brazil


Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization and irrigation with saline water on the absolute and relative growth of West Indian cherry plant in vegetative phase. The research was carried out in protected environment, using lysimeters filled with clay loam Regolithic Neosol, with low P content. The experiment was set up in randomized block design arranged in a factorial scheme with five levels of irrigation water electrical conductivity (0.6; 1.4; 2.2; 3.0 and 3.8 dS m-1) and four managements of P and N fertilization – P/N (100:100; 140:100; 100:140 and 140:140% P/N) with three replicates and one plant per plot. Seedlings of West Indian cherry, cultivars BRS 366-Jaburu, was cleft-grafted on a local rootstock cultivar, from the Seed Garden of EMBRAPA Tropical Agroindustry. The plants were evaluated for absolute and relative growth of the rootstock and graft. The results showed that 40% increase in nitrogen and/or phosphorus supply can increase growth, chlorophyll content and reduced salt stress damage due to saline water in plants up to ECw = 3.0 dS m-1. The combined increase in nitrogen and phosphorus doses, 140:140% P/N, reduced the deleterious effects of saline stress on growth, chloroplastin pigments and membrane damage of the leaf cells of the West Indian cherry plants.

Pages 1141-1148 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1650
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Phytomass accumulation and mineral composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) under salt stress and phosphate fertilization

Francisco Vanies da Silva Sá*, Miguel Ferreira Neto, Yuri Bezerra de Lima, Emanoela Pereira de Paiva, Ana Cláudia da Silva, Nildo da Silva Dias, Francisco Marto de Souza, Alberto Soares de Melo, Romulo Carantino Lucena Moreira, Luderlândio de Andrade Silva

Federal Rural University of Semi-Arid, Center of Agricultural Sciences, Mossoró, 59.625-000, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
Federal University of Paraíba, Center of Agricultural Sciences, Areia, 58397-000, Paraiba, Brazil
State University of Paraíba, Department of Biological Science, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazil
Fellow of CNPq Research Productivity, level 1D, Brazil
Fellow of CNPq Reseach Productivity, level 2, Brazil


Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of irrigation with saline water and phosphate fertilization on phytomass accumulation and tissue mineral composition of cowpea shoots. The research was carried out in a greenhouse utilizing randomized block design in a 5 x 3 factorial scheme consisting of five levels salinity of irrigation water (0.5 as control, 1.5, 2.5 3.5 and 4.5 dS m-1) and three doses of P2O5- (60, 100 and 140% from a recommended dose of 60 kg P2O5- ha-1), with 5 replicates. The plants were grown in pots up to flowering and then phytomass accumulation and mineral composition of cowpea (indicate cultivar name) shoot were measured. Irrigation with saline water from 0.8 dS m-1 reduced phytomass accumulation and mineral composition of cowpea plants, making the plants to be considered moderately tolerant up to EC 2.5 dS m-1. The 40% increase in recommended phosphorus dose promotes high iron and copper accumulations and, less sodium accumulation into tissues of cowpea shoot as influenced by saline stress. 60% reduction of the recommended dose of phosphate fertilizer increased the manganese and zinc accumulation of tissues of cowpea shoot under salt stress.

Pages 1149-1154 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1662
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Productive potential and seed quality of soybean genotypes with different maturity groups

Jonas Estevon Cover, Cibele Divino Aguiar, Antônio Veimar da Silva*, Carla Michelle da Silva, Fabio Mielezrski

Federal University of Piauí, Departamento of Plant Science, Bom Jesus – PI, Brazil
Federal University of Viçosa, Departamento of Plant Science, Viçosa – MG, Brazil
Federal University of Paraíba, Agronomy Departament, Areia – PB, Brazil


Abstract
Soybean has economically stood out worldwide. In MATOPIBA region of Brazil (Maranhão, Tocantins, Paiuí e Bahia) it is the most economically important crop with participation in the country’s GDP growth. Due to this great growth economic and the incentive to the production of this oilseed, this study aimed to understand the behavior and physiological quality of soybean genotypes and to determine the productive potential of soybean seeds of different cultivars in the Cerrado of the State of Piauí. To this end, an experiment was carried out at Celeiro Farm, located in Serra do Quilombo, municipality of Monte Alegre do Piauí. Sowing followed the usual standards and was carried out on January 10, 2016. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The treatments consisted of five cultivars of INTACTA RR2 PRO soybean, with different maturity groups: C1: MG 8.6, C2: MG 8.3, C3: MG 8.6.1, C4: MG 7.9 and C5: MG 8.5. The analyzed variables were: plant height, number of nodes, internode length, pod length, number of grains per pod, number of grains per plant, one thousand seed weight, productivity, first germination count, germination, seedling length, germination speed index and seedling dry mass. The results indicated that the best cultivars were: C5:TMG 2185 IPRO for plant height, internode length and pod length, and C4: BÔNUS IPRO for number of grains per pod, number of grains per plant, one thousand seed weight, and productivity. Considering the first count, germination, and germination speed index, the best cultivar was C5.

Pages 1155-1161 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1674
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Levels and times of artificial defoliation on performance of second cycle cassava

Martios Ecco*, Antonio Carlos Torres da Costa, José Barbosa Duarte Junior, Paulo Ricardo Lima, Vandeir Francisco Guimarães

Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, PUCPR, curso de Agronomia da Escola de Ciências da Vida, Av. da União 500, Jardim Coopagro, CEP 85902-532, Toledo, Paraná, Brasil.
Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, UNIOESTE, pós-graduação em agronomia, campus Marechal Cândido Rondon, Rua Pernambuco, 91, 85960-000, Paraná, Brasil
Faculdade Assis Gurgacz, FAG, curso de agronomia, Av. das Torres, 500 - Loteamento FAG, CEP 85806-095, Cascavel, Paraná, Brasil


Abstract
The information on behavior of crop linked to defoliation is essential to determine the management of herbivore pests. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of cassava as a function of the time and level of defoliation applied in the second cycle of cultivation, that is, after the first year of cultivation in which the crop was naturally submitted to the physiological rest period, caused by low temperatures and pluviometric precipitation typical of the southern Brazilian region. We used a randomized block design in factorial 5 x 5.in which 5 levels of defoliation (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of defoliation) were applied at 5 different times of 45, 90, 135, 180, or 225 days after sprouting (DAS) of the stems. The following variables were measured: plant height, stem diameter, number of roots per plant, root mass and amount of starch in the roots. The means were submitted to the F test at 5% of probability and analyzed by the regression test using the Sisvar software. Plant height and diameter were inversely proportional to the degree of defoliation when subjected to treatments, especially when subjected to 100% defoliation at 90 DAS. For the root mass, the more drastic defoliation treatments (100 %), when applied at 132 DAS, led to a low production, whereas only the defoliation levels induced a meaningful reduction in the deposition of starch in roots, showing a linear effect and decreasing according to the increase in defoliation. It can be concluded that defoliation between 90 and 135 DAS at the more drastic levels resulted in a greater root mass loss, regardless of the time of defoliation, caused the greatest losses in the amount of starch, therefore, it is recommended to the producer to control this pest before the 90 days of sprouting of the stems at the beginning of the defoliation.

Pages 1162-1168 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1681
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Saline water irrigation in semiarid region: I – effects on soil chemical properties

Luiz Guilherme Medeiros Pessoa*, Maria Betânia Galvão dos Santos Freire, Renato Lemos dos Santos, Fernando José Freire, Márcio Fléquisson Alves Miranda, Patrícia Ribeiro dos Santos

Rural Federal University of Pernambuco, Department of Plant Production, Serra Talhada – PE, Brazil
Rural Federal University of Pernambuco, Department of Agronomy, Recife – PE, Brazil
Federal Institute of Pernambuco, Vitória de Santo Antão – PE, Brazil
Federal Institute of Pernambuco, Barreiros – PE, Brazil


Abstract
The use of saline water for crop irrigation is a commonly adopted practice among the farmers in the semiarid regions around the world, but the magnitude of soil salinization resulting from the use of these waters is currently insufficiently understood. This work aims to evaluate the chemical attribute changes of two Fluvisols cultivated with onion and subjected to irrigation with increasing levels of salinity, expressed by electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Sandy loam and silty clay loam soils were irrigated with three different levels of saline waters with electrical conductivity (EC - 200, 700 and 2,000 μS cm-1) and six levels of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR - 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 (mmolc L-1)0.5). Thus, the experiment consisted of a complete factorial arrangement 2 x 3 x 6 (two soils, three EC levels and six SAR levels), in four replicates. The soils were cultivated with onion and pH levels of the soil were measured at 90 days after transplanting, as were the contents of exchangeable and soluble cations. ESP and SAR values were then calculated. This study revealed that the use of water with salinity at or above 700 μS cm-1 is capable of promoting changes in the chemical properties of soils and the continuous use of irrigation water with high EC and high SAR values may promote salinization and sodification of Fluvisols in a semiarid environment. These changes were found to be more severe in silty clay loam soils than in sandy loam soils.

Pages 1169-1176 | Full Text PDF| Supplemenary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1686
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Saline water irrigation in semiarid region: II – effects on growth and nutritional status of onions

Luiz Guilherme Medeiros Pessoa*, Maria Betânia Galvão dos Santos Freire, Renato Lemos dos Santos, Fernando José Freire, Patrícia Ribeiro dos Santos, Márcio Fléquisson Alves Miranda

Rural Federal University of Pernambuco, Department of Plant Production, Serra Talhada – PE, Brazil
Rural Federal University of Pernambuco, Department of Agronomy, Recife – PE, Brazil
Federal Institute of Pernambuco, Vitória de Santo Antão – PE, Brazil
Federal Institute of Pernambuco, Barreiros – PE, Brazil


Abstract
The use of saline waters for the irrigation of crops such as onion is a common practice in the Brazilian semiarid region. However, the effect of the use of these waters on onion nutrition and growth has been underappreciated. This work aims to evaluate Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and Cl- levels and onion growth in two Fluvisols under irrigation with waters of variable electrical conductivity and increasing values of sodium adsorption ratio. A greenhouse experiment was conducted in two Fluvisols cultivated with onion. After transplanting each plant was irrigated with saline waters, in a factorial arrangement 2 x 3 x 6, corresponding to two soils (sandy loam and silt clay loam), three values of electrical conductivity (EC - 200, 700 and 2,000 μS cm-1) and six levels of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR - 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 (mmolc L-1)0.5). Plants were collected at 90 days after transplanting and onion growth parameters as well Ca, Mg, K, Na and Cl levels were each measured. The SAR of the irrigation waters and the soil did not show any significant influence on the onion growth variables or on the levels of the evaluated elements. The increase in salinity of the irrigation water promoted a reduction in the growth variables of the evaluated onion cultivar. Increases in the levels of Ca, Na and Cl as well as a reduction in the level of K in the onion plant dry matter were all observed with increasing salinity of the irrigation water; however, the Mg content level was not affected. As the salinity of the irrigation water was the main factor affecting onion growth, an EC of 200 µS cm-1 is the limit to promote the best onion growth cultivated in both sandy and silt clay soils.

Pages 1177-1182 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1687
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The synergistic effect of sewage sludge biochar and Trichoderma harzianum on soybean yield

Alyson Silva de Araujo, Luiz Eduardo Bassay Blum, Cícero Célio de Figueiredo*

Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, University of Brasília, 70910970 Brasília, DF, Brazil
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Brasília, 70910970 Brasília, DF, Brazil


Abstract
The use of sewage sludge to produce biochar is one of the best alternatives for the final destination of this material, allowing for reuse of nutrients and reducing the dependence on mineral fertilizers. Sewage sludge biochar (SSB) stands out as an enhancer of the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. The use of beneficial microorganisms such as Trichoderma spp. in combination with biochar may have a synergistic effect on the development of different plants and needs to be better studied. The SSB was produced from sewage sludge biomass (SS) obtained from the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the Federal District Environmental Sanitation Company (CAESB), Brasilia, DF, Brazil. The SSB was produced in an electric tubular furnace at 500 °C and showed the following characteristics: carbon (19%), nitrogen (2.3%), hydrogen (1.7%), specific surface area (52.5 m2 g-1), pore volume (0.053 ml g-1). An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the synergistic effect of SSB application (0.5% w/w) in combination with T. harzianum (TH) on soybean development. The treatments adopted were: (1) control – autoclaved soil, (2) TH, (3) SSB and (4) SSB + TH. The SSB was applied 15 days before soybean planting and the TH was applied to the soil two times, once at eight days before planting and the other at the time of planting. The SSB resulted in a 200% increase in the number of pods when compared to the exclusive application of T. harzianum. Application of SSB with T. harzianum increased germination by 20%, as well as a 70% increase in fresh and dry soybean mass in relation to the control. The agronomic indices evaluated in this study demonstrated that the use of SSB in conjunction with T. harzianum presents a synergistic effect, allowing for better development of the soybean plants.

Pages 1183-1187 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1779
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Performance of the Aquacrop model for bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under irrigation condition

Ivomberg Dourado Magalhães*, Guilherme Bastos Lyra, José Leonaldo de Souza, Iêdo Teodoro, Adolpho Emanuel Quintela da Rocha, Constantino Antônio Cavalcante Júnior, Gustavo Bastos Lyra, Ricardo Araújo Ferreira Junior, André Luiz de Carvalho, Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz

Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), Av. Lourival Melo Mota, s/n - Tabuleiro dos Martins, Maceió – AL – Brazil - CEP: 57072-900
Federal University of Viçosa (UFV), Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n, Campus Universitário, Viçosa – MG - Brazil CEP: 36570-900
Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande –PB- Brazil- CEP: 58429-140
Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), BR-465, Km 7, Seropédica – RJ – Brasil - CEP: 23897-000


Abstract
With the evident climatic threats and the limitation of agronomic information for the bean crop, the use of agricultural models is necessary to broaden and disseminate technical knowledge of crop forecasting. The aim of this work was to evaluate the FAO AquaCrop model for bean crop under different levels of irrigation water in agrometeorological conditions of Northeastern Brazil at megatheramal and humid climate. The research was conducted in the period from 11/17/2015 to 02/01/2016. The experimental design was randomized block with four replicates. Treatments were composed of six levels of irrigation on the basis of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) fractions (25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150% of ETc). The irrigation effect was evaluated from biomass, dry matter and grain yield data that were observed and simulated using Aquacrop model. One linear meter of plants was collected every 10 days for biometric and destructive analyses. In addition, the soil water content simulated from model was compared with measurements performed by time domain reflectometry. The AquaCrop model was calibrated for common bean during the dry season (October to March) for the region in the 2015/2016 harvest season using experimental data for 100% of ETc. The accuracy of the calibration and validation model was evaluated based on the root mean square error (RMSE), Willmott’s index of agreement (d), correlation coefficient (r) and percentage deviation (D). The model showed good performance between observed and simulated values for soil water content, dry biomass accumulation and grain yield in several water conditions and can assist decision making and water management in irrigated crops.

Pages 1188-1196 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1790
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Production of mint under planting densities of mung bean (Vigna radiata) in loam argisol yellow red latosol

Ariana Morais Neves, Paulo César Ferreira Linhares*, Lunara de Sousa Alves, Roberto Pequeno de Sousa, Janilson Pinheiro de Assis, Maria Francisca Soares Pereira, Rogério Alexandrino da Silva, Rita Ianáskara Gomes da Silva, Jordany Ramalho Silveira Farias, Eudes de Almeida Cardoso

Federal Rural Semi-Arid University, Department of Agronomic and Forestry Sciences, Jitirana Research Group, Mossoró-RN, 59625-900, Brazil
Federal University of Paraiba, Campus Areia, Areia-PB, 58397-000, Brazil
Process Engineering (CCT), Federal University of Campina Grande, Brazil


Abstract
The use of legumes as fertilizer haqs been a viable option for the farmers who work in the production of medicinal plants with agroecological management. In this sense, the objective was to evaluate the production of mint under planting densities of mung bean in loam argisol yellow red latosol. The experiment was conducted at the Rafael Fernandes Experimental Farm, in the Alagoinha district, rural area of Mossoró, RN, Brazil, from August 2016 to March 2017. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with the treatments arranged in 4 x 2 factorial scheme with three replicates. The first factor consisted of sowing densities (50; 100; 150 and 200 plants m-2) and the second factor was management systems such as incorporation and permanence (covered) of mung bean biomass on the soil surface. The cultivar "Mentha piperita" was used for the mint crop. The evaluated characteristics were the following: biomass height, green mass production, number of bunches, dry mass production, oil content and oil production of mint. The sowing density of 150 plants m-2 of mung bean provided production and number of mint bunches of 2.63 kg m-2 and 26.3 units m-2, respectively. For the forms of biomass management (incorporated and covered), no statistical difference was observed for the characteristics of the production of green mass, number of bunches, content and oil production of mint. The use of mung bean as a green manure for mint production is feasible to be used by farmers in northeastern Brazil.

Pages 1197-1202 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1806
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The water footprint of the sugarcane agro-industry in the Northeast region of Brazil

Gabrielle de Araújo Ribeiro*, José Dantas Neto, Marcos Ferreira de Mendonça

Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Department of Natural Resources, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil
Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Department of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil


Abstract
The water footprint (WF) is an important indicator for water management, as it identifies the amount of water used directly and indirectly by a consumer or a product. The objective of this study is to analyze the sugarcane industry's WF in Brazil's Northeast region for the 2016/17 and 2017/18 harvest seasons. The blue, green and grey WFs of sugarcane were quantified, as well as the blue WFs of the production processes of ethanol and sugar, the main subproducts of sugarcane for both harvests. The work was carried out in an area with 18.42 hectares of sugarcane crops under sprinkler irrigation. The process of sugarcane production and use of pesticides was surveyed and meteorological data for the production period was collected. Right after, mathematical models were used to estimate the blue, green and grey WFs. The WF of the sugarcane was found to be 2,364.87 m³ t-1 and 1,043.92 m³ t-1 for the first and second harvest, respectively. The grey WF made up the largest part of this value, mostly due to use of the pesticides Diuron 800 and Imazapic. The processes of ethanol and sugar production, meanwhile, were found to have a blue WF of approximately 10 m³ t-1 and 5 m³ t-1, respectively. From these results, we can conclude that the WF is an effective indicator for monitoring water use in the production cycle of sugarcane and its subproducts, and that the use of fewer polluting pesticides would aid in reducing the WF of this cycle.

Pages 1203-1210 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p1832
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The influences of rootstock and pruning seasons on productive and physicochemical traits of ‘Niagara Rosada’ grape

Marco Antonio Tecchio, Marlon Jocimar Rodrigues da Silva, Camilo André Pereira Contreras Sánchez*, Charles Yukihiro Watanabe, Mara Fernandes Moura, Sarita Leonel, Adilson Pimentel Junior

Sao Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Agriculture, Botucatu, Universitaria Avenue, Post Code 18610-307, Botucatu, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC), APTA Fruit centre, 1500 Luiz Pereira do Santos Avenue, Post Code 13.214-820, Jundiaí, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of different rootstocks (‘IAC 766’, ‘IAC 572’, ‘IAC 313’, ‘IAC 571-6’ and ‘106-8 Mgt’) on the physicochemical quality of ‘Niagara Rosada’ grape under Brazilian subtropical climate. In this study, a vineyard trellising system supported three years old vines at a density of 6536 plants ha-1. Therefore, evaluations consisted of three pruning seasons: two winter pruning (August 2011 and September 2012) and a summer pruning (January 2012). A complete randomized block design was conducted, subdivided into plots, with five replicates, the plots represented by 5 rootstocks and subplots by pruning seasons. We evaluated bunch number per plant; bunch, berry and rachis fresh mass; berries number per bunch; soluble solid, pH and titratable acidity content in the grape must. Results showed that ‘Niagara Rosada’ grafted onto ‘IAC 572’, presented the highest bunch mass (227g), rachis fresh mass (7.5g) and berries number per bunch (66); while ‘IAC 313’ rootstock performed the lowest values. Moreover, ‘IAC 766’ and ‘106-8 Mgt’ rootstocks presented the highest soluble solid and titratable acidity content, due to these rootstock’s precocity. Furthermore, the highest ratio between soluble solid and titratable acidity was found in ‘Niagara Rosada’ grafted onto ‘IAC 313’ and ‘IAC 571-6’ rootstock.

Pages 1211-1214 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.07.p2044