Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

DECEMBER 2019 | EARLY VIEW | 13(12):2019 | DOI: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12


A controlled process of corn sowing as a function of of seed dispensation and working speeds

Antonio Tassio Santana Ormond*, Elizabeth Haruna Kazama, Lucas Augusto da Silva Gírio, Franciele Morlin Carneiro, Murilo Aparecido Voltarelli, Carlos Eduardo Angeli Furlani

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Laboratory of Agricultural Machinery and Mechanization, São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
Federal University of São Carlos, Lagoa do Sino Campus, Buri, SP, Brazil


Abstract
An appropriate sowing process is one of the steps that need immediate attention in crop sciences, because it may compromise the profitability of crops. An effective sowing process requires correctly spaced seedlings with the right depth in order to obtain an appropriate and uniform stand. In this context, statistical control is an option that allows evaluation of the agricultural process. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the quality of maize sowing as a function of planting density and working speeds. The statistical design used was based on the methodology of statistical quality control, corresponding to 4 seed dispensers from different manufacturers denoted DA, DB, DC, and DD with two speeds for each (V1 = 7.0 km h-1 and V2 = 11.5 km h-1). Data were collected from 10 replicates for each of the 4 seed dispensers, totaling 40 samples, at each working speed. The following parameters were evaluated: Sowing depth, longitudinal distribution of seedlings, initial and final plant population, and corn grain yield for the hybrid 30F35YH variety. The statistical process control offers an interesting and reliable mean of evaluating the quality of the sowing process. The seed dispenser, DC, exhibited a better quality of sowing as compared to others. The highest percentage of normal spacing was observed at the lower displacement speed for the seed dispensers, DB, DC, and DD. These seed dispensers also showed higher productivity as compared to other seed dispensers.

Pages 1914-1919 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p1125
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Breeding and genetic management of drought in cowpea: Progress and technologies

Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Kingstone Mashingaidze

Agricultural Research Council, Grain Crops, Private Bag X 1251, Potchefstroom, 2520, Republic of South Africa

Abstract
Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] is one of the most important leguminous crops grown in tropics and sub-tropics worldwide. It serves as a good source of proteins and minerals for nutritional benefits of both humans and animals. However, its production is hindered by recurrent drought conditions associated with climate changes. Under abnormal conditions, drought alone causes grain and fodder yield losses of about 62% and 56% of realizable yield, respectively in cowpea. Numerous efforts to mitigate drought through breeding resilient cultivars are underway in many countries. Progress is hampered due to the fact that drought is a complex trait controlled by many genes that is affected by the environment. Consequently, breeding for drought tolerance requires an integration of various knowledge systems and methodologies from multiple plant science disciplines. The success of drought tolerance depends on the accumulation of additive genes, accurate control of stress environments and the use of high throughput selection methods to maximise selection gains. This review aimed at providing perspectives on the status of the progress made thus far on cowpea drought tolerance improvement and the technologies used for genetic management of drought tolerance in cowpea in order to reduce losses incurred due to moisture stress.

Pages 1920-1926 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p1289
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Influence of water stress on phenological development, biomass production and yield of Malaysian aerobic and lowland rice

Nadzariah Kamarul Zaman*, Mohd Yusoff Abdullah*, Sariam Othman, Nadzirah Kamarul Zaman

Ecophysiology Res. Group, Fac. Of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), P.O. Box 40450, Shah Alam Selangor, Malaysia
Malaysian Agriculture and Research Development Institute (MARDI), 43400 Serdang Selangor, Malaysia


Abstract
This experiment was conducted to examine the comparative growth performance and yield of the first Malaysian aerobic rice variety, MARDI Aerob 1 (MA1) along with local lowland rice, MR 253 grown under water stress condition at selected growth stages. The experiment consisted of four treatments with three replications arranged in a randomized complete block design. The four treatments consisted of the control with no water stress throughout (T1), and water stress imposition at panicle initiation (T2), flowering (T3) and ripening (T4) stages. Water stress treatments were terminated when water deficit symptoms such as leaf rolling and wilting were detected. The effects of stress were assessed using parameters related to phenology, biomass and yield components. Results showed that both varieties were significantly affected when water stress was imposed at the panicle initiation stage. At this stage, the water stress delayed the phenological development, reduced the panicle dry mass, and severely caused grain yield reduction for both varieties. The MR 253 variety had higher grain yield than MA1 under normal aerobic condition but not under water stress, while MA1 still was able to maintain reasonable high yield even under water stress condition, except when the water stress occurred at the panicle initiation stage. Panicle initiation stage was the most sensitive period for both varieties as water stress at this stage greatly affected the overall growth performance and grain yield for both varieties.

Pages 1927-1935 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p1384
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Application of signal correction for Sphenophorus levis control and higher quality production in mechanized harvesting of sugarcane ratoon

Rafael Henrique de Freitas Noronha*, Mailson Freire de Oliveira, Arthur Laurentiz Mendes, André Ferreira Damasceno, Cristiano Zerbato, Carlos Eduardo Angeli Furlani

Department of Rural Engineering, São Paulo State University, Via de Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane s/n, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
São Paulo State University - UNESP, Agronomist, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil


Abstract
Higher quality mechanized agricultural operations can be achieved with the use of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal positioning tools (correction signals), allowing a higher accuracy, which is extremely important to reduce operating costs and waste of inputs, in addition to allowing a more effective pest control. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of the mean execution error of the positioning and pass-to-pass design in the operation of sugarcane ratoon cutting and insecticide application. Moreover, the efficiency of controlling Sphenophorus levis through non-automatic steering (NS) and use of autopilot (RTX and RTK correction signals), in a sugarcane production plot of an experimental area located in the city of Motuca, SP, Brazil were evaluated for a total of 150 points by means of the statistical process control, analysis of variance, and descriptive statistics. Fipronil was the insecticide used for S. levis control. The evaluations consisted of the measurement of the mean execution error of the project during tractor operation in ten strides and five replications, in addition to the pass-to-pass (parallelism error) error between strides of the tractor-ratoon cutter assembly. In all strides, the mean execution error and mean error of the tractor-seeder assembly were within both the acceptable limit and the stipulated by the signal manufacturer, with values lower than 3.8 cm. The control charts were efficient to evaluate the behavior of RTX signal quality, facilitating the visualization within the limits of the project execution errors and pass-to-pass, in addition to contributing with an S. levis control 27.16% higher than the conventional control in the cutting operation of sugarcane ratoon.

Pages 1936-1942 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p1487
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Dung decomposition of cattles grazing from mixed pastures of Signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.) and tree legumes

Carolina C. Lira, Jose C. B. Dubeux, Jr., Erick R. S. Santos*, Mércia V.F. dos Santos, Erinaldo V. de Freitas

Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, Campus Crateús, Avenue Geraldo Marques Barbosa, 567, Venâncios, Crateús-CE 63700-000, Brazil
North Florida Research and Education Center, 3925 Highway 71, Marianna-FL 32446, The USA
Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, S/N/, Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE, Brazil, 52171-900
Instituto Agronômico de Pernambuco – IPA, Av. Gal. San Martin, 1371, Bongi, Recife, PE, Brazil, 50761-000


Abstract
The mineralization rate of ruminant manure may influence the fertilization management of pastures. This study aimed to evaluate feces decomposition of heifers grazing signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.) fertilized or not with N, or intercropped with legumes in the dry forest region. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was a CRD that evaluated the evolution of CO2 from a mixture of soil and feces (10:1) during 22 days of incubation in a hermetically sealed bucket with a solution of NaOH 0.5 mol L-1. The second one was a RCBD that evaluated the in situ decomposition of feces in nylon bags in time periods 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 and 256 days after incubation above ground. The single negative exponential mathematical model was adequate (P ≤ 0.0001) to quantify the CO2 evolution of the mixture of soil and feces, indicating that 78% of CO2 was released at the beginning of the incubation, especially for the feces collected in the signalgrass pastures intercropped with Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp. (gliricídia). After the first 5 days, CO2 evolution was more stable. Remaining biomass in the litterbag along decomposition fitted the single negative exponential model (P < 0.001). Greater relative decomposition rate (k) of bovine fecal biomass occurred for the N-fertilized signalgrass treatment (k = 0.0031 g g-1 day-1) and a lesser rate for the treatment intercropped with Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (sabiá) (k = 0.0018 g g-1 day-1). Nitrogen fertilization in signalgrass pasture favored the decomposition of bovine feces at the end of 256 days of incubation.

Pages 1943-1949 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p1494
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Additive genetic prediction for F3 families of common black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using linear mixed models

Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Luiz Leonardo Ferreira, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Maurício Horbach Barbosa, Tiago Corazza da Rosa, Francine Lautenchleger, Jainara Fresinghelli Netto, Daniel Boeno, Suélen Matiasso Fachi, Mayara Torres Mendonça, Ricardo Boscaini, Ritieli Baptista Mambrin, Darlene Sausen, Velci Queiróz de Souza

Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Brazil
Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Brazil
Universidade Ferderal do Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Pampa, Brazil
Centro Universitário de Mineiros, Brazil


Abstract
The aim of study is to estimate the variance components and genetic parameters (REML), as well as to predict the genetic value (BLUP) of F3 families of common black beans for the components of seed production. The experimental design was augmented blocks, where the 83 F3 families were arranged only in each block, and the commercial controls were organized in three replicates. The additive genetic effects were determinant for plant height and first pod insertion height. The pronounced effects of the environment are expressed for the number of pods, seeds and seed mass per plant.Potentiality in the selection of higher F3 families are revealed through the 2CBRS population for plant height and first pod insertion height, for the components of seed yield the selections should be directed to the populations 2CARS and 1FVRS. The number of seeds and seed mass per plant were potentiated in more than 28% of the selected F3 families, and pronounceable genetic gains are obtained by the selection of families 66, 65 and 67. The inferences obtained in this study present theoretical and practical foundation, and can be applied in future studies of breeding and production of common black bean seeds.

Pages 1950-1958 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p1523
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Gas exchanges in sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) subjected to salinity stress and nitrogen fertilization

Francisco Romário Andrade Figueiredo, Anderson Carlos de Melo Gonçalves, João Everthon da Silva Ribeiro, Toshik Iarley da Silva, Jackson Silva Nóbrega, Thiago Jardelino Dias, Manoel Bandeira de Albuquerque

Federal University of Paraíba, Department of Plant Science and Environmental Sciences, Campus II, Areia, 58397-000 Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Roraima, Department of Plant Science, Campus Cauamé, Boa Vista. 69304-000, Roraima, Brazil
Federal University of Viçosa, Department of of Plant Science, Street Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa, 36570-000, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Federal University of Paraíba, Department of Agriculture, Campus III, Street João Pessoa, s / n, Universitary city, Bananeiras, 58220-000. Paraíba. Brazil


Abstract
Salinity is one of the modern agriculture major obstacles, causing several physiological disturbances in plants, adversely affecting its growth and development. Therefore, some techniques are required in order to alleviate the negative effects of salinity stress on plants, as for example an adequate nitrogen fertilization. The aim of this study was to assess the ecophysiological responses of sugar apple plants (Annona squamosa L.) submitted to different salinity levels and nitrogen fertilization doses. The experimental design was a randomized block in an incomplete factorial scheme, with five electrical conductivities of the irrigation water (ECw: 0.5, 1.01, 2.25, 3.49 and 4.0 dS m-1) and five nitrogen doses (0, 101, 350, 598.2 and 700 mg dm-3), with four replicates, generated from the Box Central Composite experimental design matrix. Through a daily course, it was observed variations in gas exchange, chlorophyll content and fluorescence parameters. The gas exchange, chlorophyll content and fluorescence parameters were measured on photosynthetically active leaves. There was significant interaction between the salinity levels (ECw) and nitrogen doses for the chlorophyll indexes. The electrical conductivity of the irrigation water caused significant negative effects on chlorophyll fluorescence. Therefore, it can be stated that the sugar apple plants ecophysiology varies through the day and that salinity affects its chlorophyll content and fluorescence.

Pages 1959-1966 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p1754
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Rock phosphate fertilization harms Azospirillum brasilense selection by maize

Carime Moraes, Roberta Mendes dos Santos, Everlon Cid Rigobelo

Department of Plant Production, Agricultural and Livestock Microbiology Graduate Program, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences, Jaboticabal, Access way Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, 14884-900, Brazil

Abstract

Maize is the most important crop cultivated worldwide. It needs a significant amount of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization to maintain high yields. However, the high cost of fertilization makes production more expensive and damages the environment. The present study used Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus subtilis bacteria in an attempt to supply nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization to a maize crop. The experiment was carried out with maize plants under greenhouse conditions with a factorial scheme (4 x 2 x 2), where the first factor corresponded to bacterial inoculation: (a) control (no inoculation); b) A. brasilense inoculation (AZ); c) B. subtilis inoculation (BS) and d) inoculation with a mixture of (AZ+BS), the second factor corresponded to the presence or absence of rock phosphate fertilization and the third factor corresponded to the presence or absence of top-dressed nitrogen fertilizer. Evaluated plant parameters were height, shoot dry matter (SDM), root dry matter (RDM), and soil parameters were total colony forming units of bacteria (CFU), nitrogen, soluble phosphorus and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). Although some parameters were improved with mineral fertilization in general, the findings showed that there were many adverse effects with the use of rock phosphate fertilization and A. brasilense inoculation. When both were applied together in treatments, there was reduction in plant height, microbial biomass carbon and total number of bacteria compared to treatments without rock phosphate fertilization. These results strongly suggest that rock phosphate harms the ability of A. brasilense to promote plant growth and demonstrate the necessity of new studies to verify whether this negative effect occurs under field conditions and could reduce yields in maize crop production.

Pages 1967-1974 |  Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p1880
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Nitric oxide fumigation alleviates chilling injury and regulates fruit quality in sweet orange stored at different cold temperatures

Muneer Rehman, Zora Singh*, Tahir Khurshid

School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia
Centre for Crop and Food Innovation, Western Australia State Agricultural Biotechnology Centre, College of Science, Health, Engineering & Education, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia 6150
NSW Department of Primary Industries, Dareton, Australia


Abstract
The cold storage of sweet oranges below 7 °C causes chilling injury and adversely affects fruit quality. Midknight Valencia and Lane Late sweet oranges were fumigated for 2 hours with different concentrations (5, 10 or 20 µL L-1) of nitric oxide (NO) and stored at (4 or 7 °C) to investigate the effect on chilling injury incidence (CI) and fruit quality after 90 days storage followed by 10 days simulated shelf conditions. Untreated fruit served as a control. The experimental design completely randomised with two factors including NO fumigation treatments and storage temperatures. All NO fumigation treatments (5, 10 or 20 µL L-1) significantly reduced the CI irrespective of storage temperature as compared to the control in both the cultivars. Fruit were fumigated with different concentration of NO gas in a sealed container for 2 h and then kept at 4°C and 7°C. Fruit quality variables such as fruit firmness, SSC (%), TA (%), SSC/TA, sugars, vitamin C and total antioxidants were determined. All the NO treatments significantly reduced per cent weight loss as compared to control in Lane Late. Mean weight losses were higher (8.3 % and 5.5 %) when fruit were stored at 7 °C as compared to those stored at 4 °C (4.8 % and 3.5 %) in Midknight Valencia and Lane Late respectively. All the NO fumigation treatments significantly reduced the mean concentrations of glucose, fructose, sucrose and total sugars in the juice of Midknight Valencia only. All NO fumigation treatments significantly reduced mean concentration vitamin C in the fruit juice of Lane Late as compared to the control. Meanwhile, in Midknight Valencia, NO (10 or 20 µL L-1) fumigated fruit showed a significant reduction in the mean concentration of vitamin C as compared to NO (5 µL L-1) fumigation and control. The juice of Midknight Valencia had higher mean total antioxidants when fumigated with NO (5 µL L-1) as compared to the control, but not in Lane Late. In conclusion, all the NO fumigation (10 µL L-1) treatment was most effective in reducing CIin both cultivars irrespective of the cold storage temperature. NO fumigation treatments did not affect SCC/TA ratio but reduced all the individual and total sugars as well as vitamin C in the fruit stored for 90 days followed by 10 days simulated shelf conditions.

Pages 1975-1982 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p1918
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Genetic diversity and structure of walnut (Juglans regia L.) genotypes from middle and high atlas mountains of Morocco as investigated by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers

Ghizlane KABIRI, Said BOUDA, Mohammed ELHANSALI, Abdelmajid HADDIOUI

Laboratoire de Biotechnologie et Valorisation des Ressources Phytogénétiques, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Sultan Moulay Slimane, B.P. 523, Béni Mellal, Maroc

Abstract
The genetic diversity and genotypes structure of walnut (Juglans regia L.) are essential to understand and manage genetic resources of this species, as well as for further progress in breeding programs. ISSR markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 66 individuals’ trees from 11 accessions, representing the main cropping area of walnut belonging to two ranges types of Mountain in Morocco: middle and high Atlas. Eleven ISSR primers rendered a total of 135 bands (91%) with 0.88 polymorphic information content. The utilization of 123 polymorphic bands revealed a high level of genetic variation within and among the examined accessions. The multi-locus values of Ht and Hs were 0.25 and 0.20, respectively. The AMOVA analysis showed that 71.30% of total genetic variability is accounted within accessions and 28.70% between accessions. This was congruent with the coefficient of genetic differentiation (GST=0.16). Bayesian model-based clustering approach identified three gene pools that were not correlated with mountain range type. This is the first application of ISSR markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in Moroccan germplasm of walnut. This information will be useful to define conservation strategies and improvement programs of this species.

Pages 1983-1991 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p1932
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Mitigating chilling stress of pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L.) using Dimethyl Ether combustion gas in controlled greenhouse

Jayanta Kumar Basak, Waqas Qasim, Frank Gyan Okyere, Fawad Khan, Yong Jin Lee, Jihoon Park, Hyeon Tae Kim*

Department of Bio-systems Engineering, Gyeongsang National University (Institute of Agriculture & Life Science), Jinju 52828, Korea
Department of Environmental Science and Disaster Management, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh


Abstract
In this study, the possibility of enhancing chilling stress tolerance of pepper plant (Capsicum annuum Linnaeus) during early growth stages was investigated using DME combustion gas in controlled greenhouse. The experiment was conducted to determine the performance of DME combustion gas when used as a fuel for DME burner for raising temperature and CO2 concentration in greenhouse and also to examine its effects on morphology parameters of hot pepper in winter season. To analyze the relationship between the application of DME and morphology parameters of pepper plant, three treatments (DME-1, DME-2 and DME-3) for three controlled greenhouses were assayed. DME-1 and DME-2 treatments consisted of average DME flow quantity in duct were 17.4 m3/min and 10.2 m3/min, respectively to greenhouse-1 and greenhouse-2 and no DME gas was supplied to greenhouse-3 which was left as control (DME-3). Morphology parameters such as plant height, leaf area and leaf area index (LAI), net assimilation rate (RGR), relative growth rate (NAR), fresh weight and dry weight were measured for eight weeks for each treatment and analyzed using completely randomized designs through analysis of variance with a significance level of P < 0.05. Although DME-1, DME-2 and DME-3 received same crop management practices and controlled environmental factors, the highest changes (p < 0.05) of plant height, leaf area, LAI and fresh weight were found from the DME-1 treatment, followed by DME-2. A comparison of relative growth rates among the treatments indicated more rapid relative growth rate of morphology parameters at vegetative phase of plant implying better yield. Therefore endorsed quantify of DME combustion gas for a specified crop can be applied to greenhouse to improve the plant growth and enhance yield with mitigating chilling stress in winter season.

Pages 1992-2002 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p1975
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Bacillus spp. as plant growth-promoting bacteria in cotton under greenhouse conditions

Paola Andrea Escobar Diaz, Noemi Carla Baron, Everlon Cid Rigobelo*

Agricultural and Livestock Microbiology Graduate Program, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences, Jaboticabal, Brazil
Rodovia de acesso Professor Paulo Donato Castellane s/n CEP: 14884-900 Jaboticabal Brazil


Abstract
The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is a promising alternative method to improve plant efficiency in the utilization of chemical fertilizers, enabling a reduction of fertilizer application on crops. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of ten Bacillus strains (eight B. subtilis, one B. velezensis and one B. amyloliquefaciens) to promote growth in cotton plants under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with 11 treatments and five replicates under greenhouse conditions. The parameters related to plant growth from treatments that received the bacterial isolates were compared to the control. The parameters analyzed were shoot dry matter, root dry matter, total dry matter, plant height, nitrogen content and phosphorus content in soil and in plants. The highest root dry matter was 1.24 g for the isolate 263. The total dry matter was 4.0 g for the isolate 248 and 3.54 g for the isolate 290. The highest chlorophyll content was 28 µg/cm2 for the isolate 290. The higher N content in shoot dry matter was 28 g of N for the isolate 290, 26 g for the isolate 248 and 25 g for the isolate 320. The improved P efficiency use was 32% for the isolate 248, 28% for the isolate 188 and 27% for the isolate 274. These results strongly confirm that B. subtilis isolates 248, 290 and 263 may represent a good alternative as plant growth-promoting endophytes to cotton crops, as they positively affected several parameters evaluated, such as root and shoot dry matter and phosphorus content in the soil. In addition, the parameters evaluated can strongly and positively affect plant yield. However, some isolates of B. subtilis did not promote plant growth and most likely failed as bioinoculants. This result shows the importance of properly identifying the isolate for bioinoculation to achieve success in promoting plant growth.

Pages 2003-2014 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p2003
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Susceptibility of corn to stink bug (Dichelops melacanthus) and its management through seed treatment

Paulo Roberto da Silva, Ademar Novais Istchuk, Thomas E. Hunt, Cristina Schetino Bastos*, Jorge Braz Torres, Karolayne Lopes Campos, Josemar Foresti

DuPont do Brasil S.A. Divisão Pioneer Sementes, Unidade de Pesquisa e Beneficiamento de Brasília – DF, Rod. DF 250, km 20 - Núcleo Rural Santos Dumont, lote 50, Cx. Postal 08283, 73310-970, Planaltina, DF, Brazil
DuPont do Brasil S.A. Divisão Pioneer Sementes, Estação de Pesquisa de Toledo – PR, Estrada Toledo - Novo Sobradinho, Sem Número, Linha Marreco, Cx. Postal 91, 85900-970, Toledo, PR, Brazil
University of Nebraska Haskell Agricultural Laboratory, 57905 866 Road, 68728, Concord, NE, EUA
Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária (FAV), Campus Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900, Brasília, DF, Brazil
DEPA-Entomologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/n - Dois Irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE, Brazil


Abstract
We determined the susceptibility of vegetative corn stages to Dichelops melacanthus damage, and how seed treatment can reduce damage and yield loss. Two field trials were carried out. In the first, corn plants were artificially infested with D. melacanthus male/female pairs at rate of 0.5 pair per plant at different vegetative stages and infestation periods lasting 7-28 days (V1-V3, V1-V5, V1-V7, V1-V9, V3-V5, V3-V7, V3-V9, V5-V7, V5-V9, and V7-V9), plus a control without infestation. In the second, corn plants were artificially infested at a rate of one male/female pair per plant at different vegetative stages and infestation periods (V1-V3, V1-V5, V1-V7, V3-V5, V3-V7 and V5-V7) and treated with two pesticide seed coatings: (i) fungicide [carbendazim + thiram (150 g i.a. per L and 350 g i.a. per L)] + insecticide [clothianidin (600 g i.a. per L)] or (ii) only fungicide (carbendazim + thiram), plus three controls without infestation and with only fungicide-treatment (V1-V7, V3-V7 and V5-V7). In both trials, plants were caged during the entire period in order to hold stink bugs in contact with plants and to avoid injury from other arthropods. The most stink bug susceptible corn growth periods were from V1-V5 and from V1-V7. Seed treatment with clothianidin at the rate of 3.5 mL per Kg during the most susceptible infestation periods increased yield gain of 37.8 to 61%. Treatment with clothianidin during V1-V5 and V1-V7 caused 40% to 50% D. melacanthus adult mortality, respectively.

Pages 2015-2021 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p2021
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Bioactive compounds and fruit quality traits of Vesuvian apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L.) and use of skin cover colour as a harvesting index

Claudio Di Vaio, Chiara Cirillo*, Antonio Pannico, Giulia Graziani, Alberto Ritieni, Franco Famiani

Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Agraria, Via Università, 100 -80055 Portici (NA), Italy
Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Farmacia, Via Domenico Montesano, 49 - 80131 Napoli, Italy
Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie Alimentari e Ambientali, Borgo XX Giugno, 74 - 06121 Perugia, Italy


Abstract
The qualitative/nutritional characteristics of apricots mainly depend on cultivar, cultivation area and ripening stage. Thus, it is important to characterise different cultivars and harvest fruits at the optimum time. There is no conclusive evidence about harvesting indexes in apricot for decision making about the best harvesting time. Moreover, little is known about fruit qualitative/nutritional characteristics of autochthonous cultivars of the Campania region (Italy), mainly grown in the area of Vesuvius volcano. Therefore, fruit attributes of the Vesuvian cultivars Ceccona, Vitillo, and Pellecchiella were evaluated during ripening with the aim of characterizing the qualitative/nutritional value of the fruit and specifying a reliable harvesting index. Cultivar, picking time and skin cover colour affected all the fruit qualitative/nutritional attributes considered. For the first time, a number of minor phenolic compounds were quantified in apricot. Ceccona was the richest in phenolic compounds, while Pellecchiella had the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). During ripening, the TEAC decreased on a per-gram basis and increased on a per-fruit-basis. Cultivar, picking time and skin cover colour had a great influence in determining the qualitative/nutritional value of the apricots, and overall Pellecchiella showed the best characteristics. The skin cover colour percentage may be a suitable harvesting index for the traditional Vesuvian apricot cultivars. A comprehensive description of the phenolic compounds and a dilution effect on apricot fruit TEAC is reported for the first time.

Pages 2022-2029 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p2024
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Genotype-by-environment interactions for grain yield of Valencia groundnut genotypes in East and Southern Africa

P. Okori*, H. Charlie, J. Mwololo, W. Munthali, L. Kachulu, E. Monyo, A. Muitia, O. Mponda, D. Kalule-Okello, L. Makweti, and M. Siambi

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Chitedze Agricultural Research Station, P.O. Box 1096, Lilongwe, Malawi
Mozambique Institute of Agricultural Research (IIAM) FPLM Avenue, Km 7 Via Corrane, Nampula Province, Mozambique. 622 Nampula Nampula Mozambique
Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute PO Box 509, Mtwara, United Republic of Tanzania
National Semi-Arid Resources Research Institute (NaSSARI), P.O. Box 56, Soroti-Uganda
Zambia Agricultural Research Institute (ZARI)-Msekera Research Station P.O Box 510089, Chipata, Zambia


Abstract
Grain yield is a quantitatively inherited trait in groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) and subject to genotype by environment interactions. Groundnut varieties show wide variation in grain yield across different agro-ecologies. The objectives of this study were to evaluate Valencia groundnut genotypes for yield stability and classify environments to devise appropriate breeding strategies. Seventeen multi-location trials were conducted in six countries, viz., Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Zambia, from 2013 to 2016. The experiments were laid out following a resolvable incomplete block design, with two replications at each location (hereafter referred to as ‘environments’) using 14 test lines and two standard checks. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis was conducted. Variation attributable to environments, genotypes and genotype × environment interaction for grain yield was highly significant (P<0.001). Genotype, environment and genotype × environment interactions accounted for 7%, 53 % and 40% of the total sum of squares respectively. Superior-performing genotypes possessing high to moderate adaptability and stability levels included ICGV-SM 0154, ICGV-SM 07539, ICGV-SM 07536, ICGV-SM 7501, ICGV-SM 99568 and ICGV SM 07520. Nachingwea 2013 in Tanzania, Nakabango 2014 in Uganda and Chitedze 2015 in Malawi were the most representative and discriminative environments. Considering the implications of interactions for Valencia groundnut breeding in East and Southern Africa we propose that different varieties should be targeted for production in different environments and at the same time used for breeding in specific environments.

Pages 2030-2037 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p2039
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Response of physalis crop (Physalis peruviana L.) to liming in acidic soils

Ari Medeiros Braga Neto, Enilson de Barros Silva*, Maria do Céu Monteiro da Cruz, Patrícia Lage, Emerson Dias Gonçalves, Luiz Fernando Oliveira Silva, Ramony Cristina Lima, Viktor Kayro Souza Santos

Federal Institute of Minas Gerais, São João Evangelista, Minas Gerais State, Brazil
Department of Agronomy at the Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valeys, Diamantina, Minas Gerais State, Brazil
Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais, EPAMIG, Maria da Fé, Minas Gerais State, Brazil


Abstract
Physalis is an herbaceous plant that produces edible fruits with a bittersweet flavor. This species has a high cropping potential attracting attention of farmers, traders and consumers. The effects of soil acidity indices on nutrient uptake, optimal growth, yield and fruit quality of physalis in acidic soils were evaluated. The study was conducted in a greenhouse with four lime requirements in completely randomized design and five replications. Dolomitic limestone was applied to the soils at rates of 0, 0.6, 1.4, and 2.3 t ha-1 (Typic Quartzipsamment) and 0, 0.8, 1.8, and 2.8 t ha-1 (Rhodic Hapludox). Plant height, stem diameter, shoot and root dry weight, longitudinal and transverse diameters of the fruits, macro and micronutrient concentrations in leaves, and soil chemical properties were evaluated. Liming is an essential practice for the cultivation of Physalis peruviana L. in the acidic soils, where it is aimed to achieve higher yields and quality fruit. The results highlighted the high demands of physalis for Ca, Mg, and base saturation, and low tolerance to aluminum in the soil. Maximum growth, yield and fruit quality was obtained with the application of 1.8 t lime ha-1 for both soils. The determined standards for pH in water, tolerated aluminum saturation, desired base saturation and calcium and magnesium requirements were 6.4, 5.0 %, 67 % and 25,8 mmolc dm-3, respectively.

Pages 2038-2045 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p2058
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Physico-chemical properties and sensory profile of Coffea canephora genotypes in high-altitudes

Carlos Alexandre Pinheiro, Lucas Louzada Pereira, Deusélio Bassini Fioresi, Daniela da Silva Oliveira, Vanessa Moreira Osório, Josimar Aleixo da Silva, Ulisses Alves Pereira, Maria Amélia Gava Ferrão, Elaine Manelli Riva-Souza, Aymbiré Francisco Almeida da Fonseca, Patrícia Fontes Pinheiro*

Programa de Pós-graduação em Agroquímica, Departamento de Química e Física, Centro de Ciências Exatas, Naturais e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Alto Universitário, sn, Guararema, CEP: 29500-000, Alegre, Espírito Santo, Brasil
Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo. Departamento de Ciência de Alimentos. Avenida Elizabeth Minete Perim, S/N. Bairro São Rafael, CEP: 29375-000, Venda Nova do Imigrante, Espírito Santo, Brasil
Departamento de Farmácia e Nutrição, Centro de Ciências Exatas, Naturais e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Alto Universitário, sn, Guararema, CEP: 29500-000, Alegre, Espírito Santo, Brasil
Departamentode Biologia, Centro de Ciências Exatas, Naturais e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Alto Universitário, sn, Guararema, CEP: 29500-000, Alegre, Espírito Santo, Brasil
Instituto de Ciências Agrárias (ICA), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Campus Regional de Montes Claros, Avenida Universitária, 1.000, Bairro Universitário, CEP: 39404-547, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brasil
EmbrapaCafé/Incaper Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária. Rua Afonso Sarlo, 160 - Bairro Bento Ferreira, CEP: 29052-010, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil
Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa. Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural (Incaper). Rua Afonso Sarlo, 160 - Bairro Bento Ferreira, CEP: 29052-010, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil


Abstract
In Brazil, Coffea canephora coffee is generally cultivated in hot climate regions and at altitudes below 400 - 450 m. There is little information on C. canephora cultivation at higher altitudes. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the physicochemical properties and to perform the sensorial analysis of 21 different Coffea canephora coffee genotypes, grown at 720 m altitude in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The field experiment was implemented in 2011 at the Incaper, Experimental Farm of Venda Nova using randomized block design, with four replications, eight plants per plot and spacing of 3.0 x 1.0 m. Thirteen clones of the clonal cultivar Vitória Incaper 8142 (V1 to V13) and eight clones of the clonal cultivar Robustão Capixaba Emcapa 8141 (R1, R2, R3, R6, R7, R8, R9 and R10) were studied. Grain samples were obtained from the third harvest in 2016. The harvest was performed when more than 80% of the fruits were ripe (August) and the freshly harvested coffee was processed using the conventional terrace drying method (natural processing). After the coffee was dried and processed, the four replicates were of each treatment were combined for the physicochemical analyses. The physicochemical analyses were performed (total titratable acidity, pH at 25oC and 96oC), reducing, non-reducing and total sugars were determined, chlorogenic acid (5-CQA), trigonelline and caffeine levels were determined by HPLC using the external standard method. Chlorogenic acid contents were found in the range of 2.60 to 3.65%. Caffeine levels ranged from 2.06 to 2.89%. There was no statistical difference in the final scores of the sensory analysis of the C. canephora coffees and the average value was 77.44 points, the same score for high-quality/premium coffee. Cultivation of C. canephora at high altitudes can be promising to obtain higher quality coffees from C. canephora species.

Pages 2046-2052 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p2060
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Physiological responses and post-stress recovery in field-grown maize exposed to high temperatures at flowering

Nicolás Neiff*, Edmundo L. Ploschuk, Oscar R. Valentinuz, Fernando H. Andrade

CONICET and Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Departamento de Producción Vegetal, Corrientes (3400), Argentina
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Agronomía, Cátedra de Cultivos Industriales. Av. San Martín 4453 (1417), Buenos Aires, Argentina
Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Paraná (3100), Argentina
CONICET, Unidad Integrada Balcarce and Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Balcarce (7620), Argentina


Abstract
Heat stress affects physiological traits and biomass production in major crops, including maize. We researched the responses of maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), relative cell injury (RCI), stomatal conductance (gs), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), leaf photosynthesis (CER), and crop growth rate (CGR) in two maize cultivars exposed to high temperatures around silking (R1) under field conditions. Temperature regimes (i.e. control and heat) were performed during the pre-silking (–15d R1 to R1) and post-silking (R1+2d to R1+17d) periods. In the heat treatments, polyethylene shelters were used in order to increase daytime temperatures around midday (from 10 A.M. to 2 P.M.) during each period (i.e., pre- and post-silking). In the control treatments, the shelters remained open during the entire growing season. Gas exchange variables, Fv/Fm and relative cell injury (RCI) were measured on ear leaves. CGR was estimated based on biomass samples. CER and Fv/Fm presented maximum reductions at the end of the daytime heating. However, 30 min after the shelters were reopened, Fv/Fm of heated leaves reached values similar to controls, which were closely linked to CER recoveries. RCI was negatively associated with Fv/Fm, and cell injury increased gradually as heating continued. Ci was unaffected by heat treatment, indicating that gs was not the primary cause of CER reduction. Heat stress decreased CGR, and the reduction was positively associated with CER and Fv/Fm in both heating periods. We attempted to scale from cell to crop level and identify some physiological traits that could be helpful in breeding programs for heat stress tolerance.

Pages 2053-2061 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p2070
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Organic fertilization with turkey litter for maize cultivation in tropical region

Diego Oliveira Ribeiro, Gustavo Castoldi, Manuel Rodriguez Carballal, Mariângela Brito Freiberger, Warlles Domingos Xavier, Franciele de Freitas Silva*, Andrisley Joaquim da Silva, Raphael Krauspenhar de Oliveira Santos, Gildomar Alves dos Santos

Goiano Federal Institute (Instituto Federal Goiano), Rio Verde Campus, Rio Verde-GO, Brazil
University Center of Mineiros (UNIFIMES), Mineiros-GO, Brazil
Agronomist Engineer, Mineiros-GO, Brazil


Abstract
Residues from agroindustry activity have been commonly used as a source of fertilizer for fertilization of annual crops. Sometimes these residues can replace the mineral fertilizers totally or partially, while their effects can be extended to the soil attributes. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing conventional chemical fertilization with organic fertilization using turkey litter on maize grain yield and in the chemical attributes of an Oxisol in tropical region. The experiment was carried out in two crop seasons with various quantities of turkey litter, or in blend with chemical fertilizers, in a randomized block design with six treatments and five replicates. The treatments were as follows: T1 – Control treatment; T2 – Chemical fertilization with 450 kg ha-1 of 10-27-10 (NPK); T3 – Application of 3,800 kg ha-1 of turkey litter; T4 – Application of 7,600 kg ha-1 of turkey litter; T5 – Chemical fertilization with 450 kg ha-1 of 10-27-10 + 1900 kg ha-1 of turkey litter; T6 – Chemical fertilization with 450 kg ha-1 of 10-27-10 + 3,800 kg ha-1 of turkey litter. The organic fertilization with turkey litter presented potential for total or partial replacement of chemicals fertilization for maize cultivation with no loss in grain yield. Therefore, the treatments of T3 and T5 could be recommended to farmers at a lower cost. The treatment T4 increased the P and K contents in the soil, reaching to 24 mg dm-3 and 3.1 cmoc dm-3, respectively, after two crop seasons.

Pages 2062-2066 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p2076
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Promotion of maize growth using endophytic bacteria under greenhouse and field conditions

Laiana Lana Bentes Lobo, Roberta Mendes dos Santos, Everlon Cid Rigobelo*

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Microbiologia Agropecuária da Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”/Unesp Departamento de Produção Vegetal, Via de Acesso Paulo Donato Castellane s/n, 14884-900 Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil

Abstract
The effect of Bacillus subtilis isolates before being used as inoculants is very important. They present various impacts on promotion and characteristics of plant at different stages of growth. This experiment was carried out on maize under greenhouse conditions with eleven treatments of endophytic bacteria and three repetitions. The better isolates under greenhouse conditions were used in the field experiment with four best treatments and six replicates. The traits evaluated under both conditions were height, shoot and root dry matter, and the nitrogen and phosphorus content in the plant and soil and the total number of bacteria in the soil. Under greenhouse conditions, the groups that received Bacillus spp. showed higher amount of soluble phosphorus and total numbers of bacteria compared to control. Under field condition, isolate BS-290 increased the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in shoot dry matter, phosphorus concentration in dry soil and the total number of bacteria in the soil, compared to the control. Isolate BS-320 increased the phosphorus concentration in plants and maize yield, which strongly suggests its use as a biological inoculant for maize crops. BS-248, BS 290 and BS-320 isolates promoted the highest maize growth, compared to the other isolates. The results showed that Bacillus subtilis isolates that promote plant growth did not increase similar traits in all plants and the behavior has been highly isolate-dependent. This finding shows that the isolates had a preference and certain specificity on each individual trait.

Pages 2067-2074 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p2077

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Yields of sesame vary dramatically under rain-fed conditions on marginal lands in Thailand

Darika Bunphan*, Joseph E. Knoll, and William F. Anderson

Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Technology Mahasarakham University, Kantarawichai District, Mahasarakham 44150
USDA/ARS Crop Genetics and Breeding Unit, 115 Coastal Way, Tifton GA 31793, USA


Abstract 
The objectives of this research were to evaluate grain yield, related traits and some agronomic performances of 15 sesame cultivars under rain-fed conditions on marginal land of Northeast in Thailand. The experiments were conducted at two locations; Maha Sarakham and Buriram provinces in Northeast Thailand during the summer of 2018. The fields were arranged in a RCBD with 4 replications and 15 sesame cultivars. Significant differences were observed for all traits at both locations except SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR) at 90 DAP in Maha Sarakham. Significant differences were found between locations for yield and some of the yield components. It appeared that pod/plant, plant height, number of branches, and plant biomass were the most important components attributing to yield. Harvest index was negatively correlated with yield. Heritability estimates were the highest for plant height (0.88), branches per plant (0.92), pod width (0.95), and pod length (0.89). At Maha Sarakahm, cv. UB3 had the greatest grain yield (1058.03 kg ha-1), and was among the highest for number of branches/plant, plant height, and number of pods/plant, whereas KKU1 had the highest harvest index (43.62%). Mahasarakham60 had the highest SCMR value at 60 and 75 DAP and also total chlorophyll content at 60, 75 and 90 DAP. At Buriram cv. Buriram had the highest number of branches/plant, plant height, SCMR, total chlorophyll content, and number of capsules/plant, but did not have a high grain yield (334.44 kg ha-1). UB1 had the highest grain yield (545.63 kg ha-1) at Buriram. Environmental factors affected agronomic performances and grain yield in sesame grown under the rain-fed condition and marginal land in Thailand. If breeding under various environmental conditions, traits such as plant height and number of branches per plant would achieve the highest gains.

Pages 2075-2085 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p1998