Volume 8 Issue 5 | May 2014 issue
Table of Contents
Southern Cross Publishing Group©2014
Australian Journal of Crop Science | May 2014
Volume 8 Number 5 2014
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) physiological, chemical and growth responses to irrigation with saline water
Abdelaziz Hirich*, Halima El Omari, Sven-Erik Jacobsen, Nicola Lamaddalena, Atef Hamdy, Ragab Ragab, Ahmed Jelloul, Redouane Choukr-Allah
Agronomic and Veterinary Medicine Hassan II Institute, Complex of Horticulture, Agadir, Morocco
University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Hψjbakkegεrd, Denmark
CIHEAM, Mediterranean Agronomic Institute, 70010 Valenzano, Italy
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB, UK
An experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to investigate the effect of irrigation with saline water on a local variety of chickpea. Irrigation with water of different salinity levels was carried out on pot experiments. Differences in water uptake and plant growth; as well as proline, soluble sugar, and Na+ and K+ contents of the plant were quantified. The results showed a negative relationship between increasing water salinity and most of the measured plant growth parameters.
Pages 646-654 | Full Text PDF
Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) fungus inoculation on Zn nutrition in grains of field grown maize
Kizhaeral S. Subramanian*, Chandrasekaran Bharathi, Muthukrishnan Gomathy and Natarajan Balakrishnan
Department of Nano Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore 641 003, India
Maize Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Vagarai, Dindigul District Tamil Nadu, India
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore 641 003 India
Bioavailability of zinc (Zn) concentrations in maize grains is low causing malnutrition in humans. This study is aimed to use mycorrhizal fungal inoculation as one of the biological strategies to improve Zn concentrations in field grown maize. The AMF+ plants had significantly (P = 0.01) higher root length (AMF- 16.8; AMF+ 23.5 cm) and volume, leaf area and chlorophyll concentrations regardless of P or Zn fertilization but the response to AMF inoculation was higher at lower levels of Zn fertilization. Maize grains of AMF+ plants had higher Zn and tryptophan concentrations by 15 and 8.6%, respectively.
Pages 655-665 | Full Text PDF
Plant-water responses of different medicinal plant thyme (Thymus spp.) species to drought stress condition
Parviz Moradi*, Brian Ford-Lloyd, Jeremy Pritchard
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
To understand the response of thyme to water deficit and its variation across the genus, eleven populations from a range of species (Thymus daenensis, T. kotchyanous, T. vulgaris, T. serpyllum, T. capitata and T. zygis) were evaluated physiologically to identify the response of different populations to water deficit stress. The results showed that populations had significantly different ratios of root/shoot under drought conditions. Leaf water potential in watered plants (-3.4 bar) decreased to -10.5 bar in droughted plants.
Pages 666-673 | Full Text PDF
Molecular diversity based on AFLP markers and possible natural hybridization among the Australian arid zone Gossypium species
Rashmi Sharma Tiwari*, Jinfa Zhang, and James Mac Stewart
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88001 USA
Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
In Australia, 17 native wild diploid Gossypium species in the subgenus Sturtia are divided into three sections, Grandicalyx (K genome, 12 species), Hibiscoidea (G genome, 3 species) and Sturtia (C genome, 2 species). The C and G genomes are sympatric in their distribution ranges. The objectives of the present study were to identify the degree of genetic diversity and possible natural hybridization among Australian arid zone Gossypium species, G. australe, G. bickii, and G. nelsonii (section Hibiscoidea) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Genetic similarity/diversity was evaluated using neighbor-joining analysis. The presence of markers that appeared to be primarily unique to G. australe in accessions of G. nelsonii and G. bickii indicated that the habitat of these species may be invaded by G. australe.
Pages 674-679 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary data
The effect of genotype and agronomic factors on crop growth and yield in field peas (Pisum sativum L.) as influenced by radiation interception and utilisation
Zachariah Munakamwe*, Bruce A. McKenzie and George D. Hill
Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Box 3100 Bendigo Delivery Centre, Vic 3552, Australia
Agriculture Group, Agriculture and Life Science Division, P. O. Box 84, Lincoln University, 7647, New Zealand
Three trials were conducted in 2006/07 and 2007/08 growing seasons aiming to find the effect of genotype, crop and weed population densities, herbicide, and sowing date on crop growth and yield in Pisum sativum as influenced by radiation interception and utilisation. Dry matter and radiation were measured throughout the growing season and seed yield was measured at harvest. There were significant (p = 0.05) herbicide by population interactions on total dry matter (TDM) and seed yield. Early pea sowing was associated with greater total radiation accumulation.
Pages 680-688 | Full Text PDF
Study of diversity in a set of lentil RILs using morphological and molecular markers
Carolina Bermejo, Ileana Gatti, Nancy Caballero, Vanina Cravero, Eugenia Martin, and Enrique Cointry1*
Department of Plant Breeding, Rosario National University, (UNR), CC 14, Zavalla S2125ZAA, Argentine
CONICET, Zavalla, Argentina
We propose the use of SRAP and SSR markers along agronomic or morphological traits in genotypes differentiation during breeding programs. 25 F5 recombinant inbred lines (microsperma and macrosperma) with good quality characteristics and high yield and a tester were used. The analysis of variance for morphological traits showed significant differences between genotypes for all variables. The analysis of principal components determined that two PCs explained 75% of the total variation observed among the genotypes and the cluster analysis allowed the conformation of two principal groups. The first one included four varieties belonging to the microsperma type, whereas the second group included all the macrosperma type Rils.
Pages 689-696 | Full Text PDF
Heat-responsive microRNAs regulate the transcription factors and heat shock proteins in modulating thermo-stability of starch biosynthesis enzymes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under the heat stress
Suneha Goswami*, Ranjeet R. Kumar* and Raj D. Rai
Division of Biochemistry, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, Pin-110012, India
Heat-responsive miRNAs regulate the expression of the transcription factors (HSFs) and majority of the heat stress-associated genes (HSPs). Here we report identification of few heat-responsive miRNAs in wheat through de novo sequencing on Illumina Hiseq 2000. Validation of identified miRNAs in endospermic tissues of thermotolerant (HD2985) and thermosusceptible (NIAW) wheat cultivars using real time PCR showed up-regulation of 4 micro RNAs (tae-miR156, tae-miR167, tae-miR395b and tae-miR398) and down-regulation of 6 micro RNAs (tae-miR159a, tae-miR159b, tae-miR160, tae- miR171a, tae-miR319, and tae-miR1117) in response to the heat stress. Target analysis of identified miRNAs showed HSF3, HSFA4a, HSP17, HSP70 and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as most probable target genes.
Pages 697-705 | Full Text PDF
Identification of RAPD marker associated with gynoecious trait (gy-1 gene) in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)
Smaranika Mishra*, Tusar K. Behera, Anilabh D. Munshi, Kishor Gaikwad, Trilochan Mohapatra
Division of Vegetable Science, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India
National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, New Delhi 110012, India
Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha 753006, India
For identification of molecular marker that can differentiate the gynoecious line from monoecious line in bitter gourd, 154 primers (67 SSR, 16 ISSR and 71 RAPD) were used to screen the parents (Pusa Do Mausami and DBGy-201; 10 plants each) and F2 population (86 plants) derived from Pusa Do Mausami (monoecious) Χ DBGy-201 (gynoecious) using bulked segregant analysis (BSA). Phenotyping and genotyping of the 86 F2 individuals showed a ratio of 3:1 with respect to monoecious (both male and female flower in same plant): gynoecious (only female flowers in a plant), as expected. Only one RAPD primer OPZ 13 out of 154 produced polymorphism between the monoecious and gynoecious individuals in the parent as well as in the bulks in BSA.
Pages 706-710 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary data
The isolation and characterization of an endochitinase gene from a Malaysian isolate of Trichoderma sp.
Kalaivani Nadarajah*, Hamdia Z. Ali and Nurfarahana Syuhada Omar
School of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi Selangor, Malaysia
School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi Selangor, Malaysia
Chitinases have been reported to be capable of hydrolyzing chitin by splitting their ί-1,4-glucosidic bonds. The chitinases are divided into the exo and endochitinases. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize an endochitinase gene from a local isolate of Trichoderma spp. that was isolated from the Malaysian soil samples. In total, six highly antagonistic Trichoderma isolates were screened for chitinolytic activity via dual plate method and greenhouse studies. Trichorderma isolate T2 was identified as a target for isolation of an endochitinase gene due to its high chitinolytic enzyme activity by observing the degradation of chitin substrates.
Pages 711-721 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary data
Estimation of genetic variability of a Gerbera Brazilian collection based on morphological traits and EST-SSR markers
Daiane de Pinho Benemann, Luis Willian Pacheco Arge, Willian Silva Barros, Monique Inκs Segeren, Valmor Joγo Bianchi, Josι Antonio Peters
Laboratory of Plant Tissue Culture, Institute of Biology, Department of Botany, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil. Campus UFPEL S/N. Capγo do Leγo, Zip-code: 96010-900
Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brasil. Campus UFPEL S/N. Capγo do Leγo, Zip-code: 96010-900
ProVitro Biotechnology LTDA Company, Holambra, Sγo Paulo (SP), Brasil
This is the first study that correlates molecular and morphological data in gerbera (Gerbera spp.) Nine quantitative and 12 qualitative morphological traits, as well as 17 EST-SSR molecular markers, were analyzed to determine the correlations between individual quantitative traits and between quantitative traits and molecular markers. They also identified new informative markers and were used to analyze the genetic variability among 32 gerbera accessions. From the 17 molecular markers, the eight that were associated with seven quantitative traits were identified. The GERB12 and GERB17 markers correlated with ray floret width and stem length, respectively.
Pages 722-729 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary data
Nitrogen dynamics during growth of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in response to conventional and organic soil fertility management
Antoni?s V. Kouvelas, George Aggelis, Alexios A. Alexopoulos, Kostas C. Angelopoulos
Laboratory of Agronomy, Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Agricultural Technology and Food Technology and Nutrition, Technological Educational Institute of Peloponnese, Antikalamos 241 00, Kalamata, Greece
Group of Microbiology, Department of Biology, University of Patras, Patras, 265 04, Greece
Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Department of Biology, University of Patras, Patras, 265 04, Greece
The effects of organic and conventional soil fertility management on nitrogen supply and yield of sweet sorghum crop (cv Keller) were studied in two experiments conducted in summer-autumn in W. Greece. Conventional fertilization increased soil NH4-N content when estimated at 45 DAT (0.19 mg 100 g-1 soil). Nitrogen uptake was higher in organic soil fertility management 45 DAT (4.61-5.12 g m-2). However, crop nutritional nitrogen index was not affected by treatments. These results indicate that organic soil fertility management provides adequate nitrogen nutrition to sweet sorghum.
Pages 730 -737 | Full Text PDF
Cloning and function analysis of a plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene, GmPIP in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr)
Liang Li, Weiqi Wang, Shan Huang, Cunxiang Wu, Tianfu Han, Wensheng Hou*
The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement (NFCRI), Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 12 Zhongguancun South Street, Beijing 100081, China
Harbin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150070, China
A full-length mRNA that encoded a plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) was isolated by electronic elongation and RT-PCR, containing an open reading frame of 861bp (GenBank HM245628), which encodes a protein of 281 amino acid residues whit a termination codon. <http://www.biodic.cn/detail.asp?id=ac8c469766>The GmPIP included an Asn-Pro-Ala (NPA) domain and major intrinsic protein (MIP) superfamily domain, protein sequence alignment studies and phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that GmPIP belongs to the group of plant PIPs. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR results showed that GmPIP mRNA abundance was increased in roots under treatments with salt.
Pages 738-746 | Full Text PDF
Mineral composition and visual symptoms of nutrients deficiencies in Curauα plants (Ananas comosus var. erectifolius)
Ismael de Jesus Matos Viιgas*, Rosa de Nazarι Paes da Silva, Dioclιa Almeida Seabra Silva, Cβndido Ferreira de Oliveira Neto, Herαclito Eugκnio Oliveira da Conceiηγo, Gleciane da Silva Mascarenhas, Ricardo Shigueru Okumura, Lucila Elizabeth Fragoso Monfort, Raimundo Thiago Lima da Silva
Capanema Campus of the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazτnia, Parα, Brazil
Museum of Parα Emνlio Goeldi, Brazil
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazτnia, Brazil
Capitγo Poηo Campus of the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazτnia, Parα, Brazil
The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional and biochemical responses in curauα plants exposed to the - macronutrients deficiency. The experimental design was a randomized block design with seven treatments (complete and individual omissions N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S) and four replications. The omission of individual macronutrient showed deficiency symptoms well defined and promoted reduction in plant growth, wherein the omission of potassium was the most limiting factor to the development of the plant.
Pages 747-753 | Full Text PDF
Regulation of potato tuber dormancy: A review
Jane Muthoni, Jackson Kabira, Hussein Shimelis and Rob Melis
African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Private Bag X01, Scottsxille 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI). National Potato Research Centre, Tigoni, Kenya
This review article reports that dormancy is a complex process that depends on genetic background, stage of tuber development, environmental and management conditions during tuber growth and storage. Temperature, water supply, soil fertility and the photoperiod during plant growth are important environmental factors that regulate the sprouting behaviour. Storage temperature and gas composition regulate dormancy breaking. Endogenous as well as exogenous phytohormones are also important. When seed tubers are needed before natural sprouting occurs, it may be necessary to break the dormancy using chemical agents.
Pages 754 -759 | Full Text PDF
Rational identification of target enzymes for starch improvement through system-level analysis of a potato tuber model
Chalothorn Liamwirat, Supapon Cheevadhanarak, Supatcharee Netrphan, Jeerayut Chaijaruwanich, Sakarindr Bhumiratana, and Asawin Meechai*
Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand
National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Pathumthani, Thailand
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand
In this study, identification of target enzymes for starch improvement through system-level analysis of a potato tuber model is presented. A kinetic model representing the conversion of sucrose to starch in potato tubers was employed. This model was used to predict the percentage of amylose content (AC%) and starch content in potato tubers in response to perturbations of enzymes activities. The predicted AC% (23%) was found to be in the range of the actual AC% reported in literature. The model could satisfactorily predict the response trend to down-regulation of enzymes on the starch content and AC% (Pearsons correlation coefficients > 0.9).
Pages 760-770 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary data
Molecular diversity and association of simple sequence repeat markers with bud necrosis disease in interspecific breeding lines and cultivars of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Sandip Kumar Bera, Jignesh H. Kamdar, Anil Kumar Maurya and Pitabash Dash
Directorate of Groundnut Research, Junagadh-362001, Gujarat, India
Molecular diversity and association of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with resistance to PBND was detected in 21 interspecific pre-breeding lines and three cultivars of peanut differing in degree of resistance to PBND. Forty-five primer pairs yielded a total of 531 fragments, of which 337 were polymorphic, with an average of 7.5 polymorphic fragments per primer. Polymorphism ranged from 0 - 100% with an average of 60.2%. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) revealed two main clusters separated at 77% Jaccards similarity coefficient based on resistance to PBND. All 14 susceptible lines were grouped into a single cluster, while 11 resistant lines grouped into a separate cluster.
Pages 771-780 | Full Text PDF
Physiological response of Vicia faba L. to inoculation with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: Comparative study for irrigation with Nile water and wastewater
Ahmed A. Ismaiel, Hegazy S. Hegazy, Maha A. Azb
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
Field experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of Rhizobium (R), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation individually and in combination, on chlorophyll, soluble proteins, sugars, and indole acetic acid (IAA) contents, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of faba bean plant. The analyses of physiological parameters have been recorded as influenced by irrigation with Nile water (clear water) and wastewater (heavy metals polluted water). The highest content of chlorophyll, protein, soluble and insoluble sugars was observed with a combined R+AMF inoculant throughout the different stages of faba bean growth irrigated either with Nile water or wastewater.
Pages 781-790 | Full Text PDF
A genetic composition analysis of soybean sibling varieties Jidou17 and Ji nf58
Jun Qin, Fengmin Wang, Feng Gu, Jinghua Wang, Qiang Chen, Mengchen Zhang
National Soybean Improvement Center Shijiazhuang Sub-Center, North China Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Soybean Ministry of Agriculture, Cereal & Oil Crop Institute, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050031, P.R. China
The purpose of this study was to reveal the genetic compositions of soybean varieties under large-scale cultivation and their cornerstone breeding lines and to provide information for the more effective utilization of the soybean germplasm in Chinese breeding programs. We examined the genetic compositions of the sibling varieties Jidou17 and Ji nf58, the maternal line Hobbit, and the paternal line Zao5241 and evaluated the genetic contributions from the parental lines to the offspring varieties. The genetic backgrounds of Jidou17, Ji nf58, and the parental lines were analyzed by using 408 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers that were distributed among 20 soybean linkage groups. Our study showed that 197 loci were polymorphic between the parental lines, whereas 211 loci were non-polymorphic. Differences in the genetic backgrounds between Jidou17 and Ji nf58 were primarily reflected by genetic loci variations in the linkage groups A1, B2, and K.
Pages 791-798 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary data
Influence of phosphorus fertilizer on melon (Cucumis melo L.) production
Juan Waldir Mendoza-Cortez, Arthur Bernardes Cecνlio-Filho*, Leilson Costa Grangeiro, Fαbio Henrique Tavares de Oliveira
Sγo Paulo State University, Via de acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, s/n, 14884-900, Jaboticabal, Sγo Paulo, Brazil
Federal Rural of Semiarid University, Av. Francisco Mota, 572, 59625-900, Bairro Costa e Silva, Mossorσ, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
Two melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars, Olimpic express and Iracema, were used to evaluate doses of P in a randomized complete block design with six treatments (0, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 kg ha-1 P2O5) and five replicates. The following characteristics were evaluated: foliar P content, total (TNF) and commercial (NFC) number of fruits per hectare, total (TP) and commercial (CP) productivities, P level in the soil (determined by two methods: anionic exchange resin (AER) and Mehlich-1), and the optimum economic dose (OED) of P. Foliar P, TNF, NFC, TP, CP, and both determinations of P levels in the soil were significantly affected by P doses for both cultivars. The maximum NFC (18 239 fruits ha-1) and the CP (28.98 t ha-1) for Olimpic express were achieved with 319.5 and 310.1 kg ha-1 P2O5, respectively.
Pages 799-805 | Full Text PDF
Inheritance and mapping for resistant genes of soybean adult-plant and seed coat mottling to soybean mosaic virus No3 strain
Yanzhi Mao, Zhe Yang, Kang Wang, Dawei Xin, Hongwei Jiang, Chunyan Liu, Xue Han, Guohua Hu*, Qingshan Chen*
Key Laboratory of Soybean Biology in Chinese Ministry of Education (key Laboratory of Soybean Biology and Breeding/Genetics of Chinese Agriculture Ministry), Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
Agronomy College, Northeast Agriculture University, Harbin 150030, China
Soybean research institute, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150086, China
The Crop Research and Breeding Center of Land-Reclamation, Harbin 150090, China
KeShan Branch Academy of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, KeShan 161606, China
The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic regularity of resistance to SMV3 and to map the resistant genes associated with SSR markers for soybean adult-plant and seed coat mottling. Two F2 populations, the parents, and the relative F2:3 populations were used to evaluate the genetic regularity underlying SMV3 resistance. One F2 population (288 individual plants) was constructed by susceptible cultivar 3C624 crossed with resistant cultivar DongNong 8143, another F2 population (300 individual plants) was constructed by resistant cultivar DongNong 8143 crossed with susceptible cultivar 3C624. 1000 pairs of SSR molecular markers and genetic analytic software were used to map the resistant genes, 11 SSR markers associated with the resistant genes were mapped successfully. The results indicated that adult-plant resistance to SMV3 of DongNong 8143 was controlled by one single dominant nuclear gene; seed coat mottling resistance to SMV3 were controlled by two genes which were inherited dependent to each other.
Pages 806-813 | Full Text PDF
Studies on gene action and combining ability of cytoplasmic-genic male sterile hybrids in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]
Praveen Pandey*, Dinesh Tiwari, Vankat R. Pandey and Sunil Yadav
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229 (U.P.) India
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Rewa-486001 (M.P.) India
To recognize proper parents for hybrid pigeonpea inheritance pattern of some polygenic traits was studied. The results showed that estimates of SCA variance were higher than their corresponding GCA variance for all the traits except plant height. The values of average degree of dominance were more than unity (>1) and predictability ratio was less than unity (<1) for all the traits except plant height, signifying non-additive gene action which resulted from dominance, over dominance, epistatic and various other interaction effects.
Pages 814-821 | Full Text PDF