Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

September 2019 | EARLY VIEW | 13(09):2019 | DOI: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09


Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae) on growth enhancement and nutrient (NPK) uptake of three grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars under three different water deficit levels

Azimeh Kamayestani, Mehdi Rezaei*, Ali Sarkhosh, Hamid Reza Asghari

Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161, Shahrood, Iran
Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611 USA


Abstract
We tested the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and three levels of water deficit on growth enhancement, physiological performance and nutrient uptake of three local Iranian grape cultivars. Mycorrhizal inoculation (Glomus mosseae) showed a significant increase in grape's growth characteristics, and variation was observed among the cultivars and field capacity percent (FC %) levels. Mycorrhiza inoculation increased significantly (p<0.05) the number of leaves in ‘Pikani’ and ‘Shahroudi’. The results showed that water deficit significantly increased the chlorophyll index and decreased the stomatal conductance, leaf relative water content (RWC), leaf area index, nitrogen (N%) content, and increased proline content (P<0.05). Water deficit and mycorrhiza increased potassium (K%) in all cultivars and phosphorous (P%) in two cultivars (‘Shahrudi’ and ‘Keshmeshi’) significantly (P<0.05). By increasing the water deficit level, ‘Shahrudi’ and ‘Keshmeshi’ showed more relative drought resistance than ‘Pikani’. The cultivar ‘Shahrudi’ showed a better symbiotic interaction with mycorrhiza and more resistance to water deficit in some traits in comparison to other two cultivars.

Pages 1401-1408 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1174
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Selection of watermelon accessions for resistance to some important potyvirus species based on serological evaluation

Gerffeson Thiago Mota de Almeida Silva, José Albérsio de Araújo Lima, Graziela da Silva Barbosa, Ênio Gomes Flôr Souza, Giordânio Bruno Silva Oliveira, Manoel Abilio de Queiróz2, Lindomar Maria da Silveira, Aline Kelly Queiróz do Nascimento, Aurélio Paes Barros Júnior*

Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC)/Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fitotecnia, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil
Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB)/Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciências Sociais. Juazeiro, BA, Brazil
Instituto Federal de Alagoas (IFAL)/Campus Piranhas. Piranhas, AL, Brazil
Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA)/Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Mossoró, RN, Brazil
Syngenta Brasil. Aracati, CE.


Abstract
We used 19 genotypes (plus controls) of watermelon from the collection of Cucurbitaceas germplasm of the Federal Rural University of the Semi-Arid to select watermelon plants resistant to Papaya ringspot virus “type Watermelon” (PRSV-W), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). Twenty individual plants were tested for each genotype/accession. Three controls were also used (3 genotypes). Evaluations were performed under greenhouse in a completely randomized design with five replications. The first inoculation was performed on the seedlings before the appearance of the first definitive leaf. From each accession (genotype) 20 different individual plants were inoculated with the three viruses. The inoculum was prepared by infected leaf tissue. The viral suspension and gauze soaked in extract were wiped on the surface of the leaves. Ten days later, the symptom assessment was performed. Subsequently, the plants were individually tested against the specific viruses using indirect ELISA. ELISA negative plants were submitted to a second inoculation under greenhouse, as described for the first inoculation. Ten days after new inoculation, new symptomatological evaluations and serological tests were performed to confirm the resistance of the plants. Plants that were negative by ELISA were tested by RT-PCR for confirmation of resistance. Resistance to the three viruses was verified individually in several tested genotypes. We found resistance to the three viruses tested, but in different plant individuals, where 16 individual plants were WMV-resistant, 26 PRSV-W resistant and 30 ZYMV-resistant. These plants can be used to develop homozygous lines for resistance to the virus studied.

Pages 1409-1415 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1203
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Yield of sorghum silage intercropped with pigeon pea and marandu grass in two spacings and chemical composition before and after ensiling

Elcio Ricardo José de Sousa Vicente, Frank Akiyoshi Kuwahara, Luanda Torquato Feba, Paulo Claudeir Gomes da Silva and Edemar Moro*

University of West of São Paulo, Agrarian Department, Raposo Tavares Highway, km 572, Limoeiro village, Code 19067-175, Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil

Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate yield of sorghum grown either solely (monoculture) or intercropped with Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu and pigeon pea cv. BRS Mandarin in two spacings. The experiment was carried out in field condition and the experimental design was in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme with four replications. The treatments consisted of two sorghum spacings, combined with four forms of cultivation as follows: (T1) sorghum as a monoculture (SOR); (T2) sorghum intercropped with marandu grass (SMG); (T3) sorghum intercropped with pigeon pea (SPP); and (T4) sorghum intercropped with marandu grass and pigeon pea (SMP). The evaluated traits were: sorghum height, stem diameter of sorghum, number of sorghum leaves, a ratio sorghum/pigeon pea/marandu grass. The data were submitted to the statistical program SISVAR, and averages compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The 0.45 m spacing between rows provided higher silage yield in relation to 0.90 m between sorghum rows. The highest silage yields was produced at 0.45 m spacing between rows for single sorghum and triple intercropped (T4). The triple intercropped (sorghum + pigeon + brachiaria) did not affect silage yield with the advantage of 10% of a legume in the final composition.

Pages 1416-1421 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1248
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Micrometeorological methods to estimate sugarcane evapotranspiration in coastal northeastern region of Brazil

Adolpho Emanuel Quintela da Rocha*, José Leonaldo de Souza, Guilherme Bastos Lyra, Ricardo Araújo Ferreira Junior, Gustavo Bastos Lyra, Laurício Endres, Marshall Victor Chagas Santos

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa-MG, Brazil
Department of Agrometeorology, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió-AL, Brazil
Department of Meteorology and Climatology, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica-RJ, Brazil
Plant Physiology Laboratory, Federal University of Alagoas, Center of Agronomy, Maceió-AL, Brazil


Abstract
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the performance of Bowen ratio-energy balance method, as well as the energy balance closure by Eddy covariance technique for a sugarcane crop in Brazilian northeastern region. Micrometeorological measurements were carried out between June 7th and November 17th, 2013. Latent and sensible heat fluxes were determined through Eddy covariance technique and by the Bowen ratio - energy balance method (BREB), considering two approaches. The first, estimated the air temperature and water vapour pressure gradient in two levels above the canopy. The second method measured the air temperature and water vapour pressure at the first level and the surface temperature from radiometric measurements. Latent heat flux was also estimated as energy balance residue from determinations of the sensible heat flux by Eddy covariance. The degree of energy balance closure was dependent on the time of the day considered. Bowen ratio - energy balance estimated from the first approach, showed the best agreement with the eddy covariance measurements to estimate latent heat flux, while in the second case, when the Bowen ratio was estimated using the surface temperature, the linear relationship was the most discrepant. Therefore, the Bowen ratio conventional method is more suitable for estimating latent heat flux in sugarcane.

Pages 1422-1428 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1257
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Foliar fertilizer and biostimulant to enhance performance of Urochloa hybrid in two different seasons

Luara Cristina de Lima*, Leandro Martins Barbero, Regina Maria Quintão Lana, Fernanda Carvalho Basso, Atalita Francis Cardoso, Reginaldo de Camargo

Abstract
Technologies that promote forage production provide gains of income in beef cattle. The objective of the research was to evaluate forage production, morphological components and nutritive value of pasture of Urochloa hybrid Convert HD364, with application of biostimulant, foliar fertilizers and urea. A completely randomized design with 7 treatments and 3 replications was used. The treatments consisted of: T1 (control (no fertilization)), T2 (urea), T3 (Fertmicro), T4 (FertN), T5 (biostimulant), T6 (Fertmicro+biostimulant), T7 (FertN+biostimulant). The leaf content and accumulation of macro and micronutrients; accumulation of dry mass and rate of forage accumulation; concentrations of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber; morphological components (percentage, accumulation of dry mass and leaf: stem ratio and rate of forage of leaves; and stem and dead material were evaluated. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, using the Tukey test at the 5% significance level for the comparison of averages. The use of foliar fertilizers are associated with nitrogen fertilizer and the basis of micronutrients associated or not with biostimulant promote the best accumulation of forage dry mass, leaf, stem and dead material; and higher rates of accumulation of dry mass of stem and dead material of Urochloa hybrid Convert HD364.

Pages 1429-1437 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1304
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Spatial-temporal dynamics of biome Cerrado using different vegetation indexes

Jefferson Vieira José*, Niclene Ponce Rodrigues de Oliveira, Tonny Jose de Araújo da Silva, Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Jéfferson de Oliveira Costa, Helon Hébano de Freitas Sousa

Federal University of Mato Grosso – UFMT, Institute of Agricultural and Technological Sciences, 5055 Students Avenue, Rondonópolis, 78.735-901, Brazil
University of São Paulo - USP, College of Agriculture “Luiz de Queiroz” - ESALQ, Biosystems Engineering Department, 11 Pádua Dias Avenue, Piracicaba, 13.418-900, Brazil
Federal University of Ceará – UFC, Department of Soil Science, 2977 Mister Hull Avenue, Fortaleza, 60356-001, Brazil


Abstract
The Cerrado ranks among the major biomes in Brazil and its vegetation can now be monitored through remote sensing, although environmental factors can affect the use of this technique. Thus, the possibility of conducting a study in a region with negligible anthropogenic intrusion may become a potential reference work in controlling the spatio-temporal alterations occurring in the Cerrado biome. This study aimed at assessing the spatio-temporal dynamics of the Brazilian Cerrado biome at different seasons of the year (wet and dry), employing various vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, EVI and LAI) drawn from the LANDSAT satellite images 8. The study itself was conducted in the Tadarimana Indigenous reserve situated in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Extending across an area of 9952 hectares, the predominant vegetation cover in this reserve include the Savanna-Seasonal Contact (84.78%) and Savanna (15.22%). The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the best characterization of the vegetation was identified in the regions where higher variability was observed in the responses of the vegetation indices. The LAI revealed the best performance when the spatio-temporal dynamics of the Brazilian Cerrado biome was assessed. The wet season displayed the highest values among the different vegetation indices, despite the variances.

Pages 1438-1446 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1531
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Competition of maize hybrids with alexandergrass (Urochloa plantaginea)

Fernando Frandoloso, Leandro Galon, Ricardo Luis Gabiatti, Felipe Bianchessi, Cinthia Maethê Holz, André Dalponte Menegat, Carlos Orestes Santin, Francisco Wilson Reichert Júnior, Milena Barretta Franceschetti, Maico André Michelon Bagnara, Luciane Renata Agazzi, César Tiago Forte*

Agronomy Department, The Federal University of Fronteira Sul – UFFS, Campus Erechim, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, CEP: 99700-000.
Agronomy Department, The Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, CEP: 88.040-900.
Agronomy Department, The Federal University of Viçosa – UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, CEP: 36570-900.
Agronomy Department, The Federal University of Santa Maria – UFSM, Campus Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, CEP: 97105-900.


Abstract
Corn is one of the world's major cereals, and alexandergrass is the most damaging weed in the crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the relative competitive ability of corn hybrids in the presence of alexandergrass through replacement series experiments. The experiments were set up in a complete randomized block design, with four replications. Firstly, for the corn hybrids as well as for the alexandergrass, the plant population was determined in which the final production becomes constant. were composed of plastic pots with a capacity of 8 dm3, and in each experimental unit was placed in the proportion corresponding to each treatment (100: 00, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0: 100) in each experimental unit, the species competing or not between them. For each hybrid, a separate experiment was considered with the objective of evaluating intra and interspecific competition. The analysis of the competitiveness of the species was carried out through diagrams applied to the replacement experiments and by the relative competitiveness indexes. At 50 days after the emergence of the maize the leaf area (LA) and the dry mass of the aerial part (DM) of the plants were checked. The relative competition was occured among the weed and each maize hybrid, being negatively affected for both of species, independently of the proportion of weed causing reductions in LA and DM of the maize. Interspecific competition causes less damage to LA and DM of species than intraspecific competition. There is basically competition for the same environment resources (water, CO2, sun light and nutrients) between corn and alexandergrass, being the crop more competitive than the weed.

Pages 1447-1455 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1540
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Phenological-metric algorithm for mapping soybean in savanna biome in Brazil

Bernard S. de Oliveira*, Manuel E. Ferreira, Alexandre C. Coutinho, Júlio C. D. M. Esquerdo

Mauro Borges Statistic and Socioeconomic Institute (IMB), Goiás, Brazil
Socio-Environmental Studies Institute/Image Processing and Geoprocessing Laboratory (IESA/LAPIG), Federal University of Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil
Embrapa Agricultural Informatics, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
Agricultural expansion in Brazil is still intense for commodities (such soybeans and corn), mostly cultivated over large portions of the Cerrado biome. Therefore, the development and application of techniques based on remote sensing to map crop areas at a regional level, in a dynamic and more precise way is urgently necessary. In this context, the objective of this study is the improvement of techniques for mapping soybean crops in Brazil, through an analysis of the Centro Goiano mesoregion of Goiás state (a core area of Cerrado), using a time series of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) images provided by TERRA/MODIS orbital sensor, in a test period between 2002 and 2010. Despite their proven quality, MODIS EVI images already contain atmospheric interferences inherent to the acquisition process, such as the presence of clouds. Thus, a set of methods to minimize such artifacts was applied to the data of this study. In general, the methodological procedures comprise of (1) the application of the pixel reliability band aiming to remove pixels contaminated by clouds; (2) the use of contaminated pixel estimates (excluded from the time series); (3) application of an interpolation filter to fill the void pixels in each scene, obtaining continuous and smoothed spectral-temporal profiles for each land use classes; and (4) the classification of agricultural areas using a specific algorithm for crops in the Cerrado region of Goiás. The areas reconstituted in the images matched neighboring pixels, maintaining good coherence with the original data. Likewise, areas mapped with soybeans had a high correlation with official IBGE census data, with a global accuracy value of 78%, and Pearson Correlation coefficient of 0.64. The application of this technique to other imagery sensors (such as RapidEye, Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2) is highly encouraged due a better spatial and temporal resolution (when applied together in a temporal image cube), ensuring more efficient crop monitoring in Brazil.

Pages 1456-1466 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1541
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Phenological study of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) in dystrophic yellow latosol under the savanna conditions of Roraima

Elias Ariel de Moura*, Pollyana Cardoso Chagas, Edvan Alves Chagas, Railin Rodrigues de Oliveira, Wellington Farias Araújo, Sara Thiele Moreira Sobral, Daniel Lucas Lima Taveira

Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fitotecnia, Av. Francisco Mota, 572, Costa e Silva, 59.625-900, Mossoró, RN, Brasil
Universidade Federal de Roraima, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Departamento de Fitotecnia. Boa Vista/RR, Brasil
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Boa Vista, RR, Brasil. CNPq Research Productivity Scholarship.


Abstract
Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) is a commercially significant fruit species due to its nutritional qualities. The state of Roraima has excellent soil and climatic conditions for the cultivation of the species. However, no studies on the phenological behavior of this plant have been reported in the literature. In this context, the objective of this work was to investigate the vegetative and reproductive phenological behavior of sugar apple under the savanna conditions of the state of Roraima. The experiment was carried out in four seasons of the year (2014/2014 and 2015/2015 rainy season and 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 Summer). Production pruning was carried out in February 2014 (2014.1 cycle), September 2014 (2014.2 cycle), February 2015 (2015.1 cycle) and September 2015 (2015.2 cycle). Forty plants were monitored during the experiment and evaluated every three days for the following variables: beginning date of bud swelling; duration of flowering; and fruit harvest time. From the observed data, the periods (days) between each phenological stage were calculated: pruning/bud swelling; pruning/beginning of flowering; bud swelling/anthesis; pruning/anthesis; anthesis/beginning of fruit harvest; duration of fruit harvest, and crop cycle (production pruning/harvest). The duration of the cycle, from the production pruning to the harvest varied according to the productive period, recording 146 days for the 2014.1 cycle and 127 days for the 2014.2 cycle, which proves that the phenological behavior of the species is influenced by climatic conditions.

Pages 1467-1472 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1557
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Development of a core collection for Sri Lankan cinnamon germplasm based on morphological characterization using an eco-geographic survey

Rumana Azad, L. Jayasekara, R.A.A.K. Ranawaka, Gamini Senanayake, K.L. Wasantha Kumara, D.K.N.G. Pushpakumara, Sudarshanee Geekiyanage*

Board of Study in Agriculture, Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Ruhuna, Matara, Sri Lanka
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Ruhuna, Matara, Sri Lanka
Mid Country Research Station, Department of Export Agriculture, Sri Lanka
Department of Agricultural Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya, Sri Lanka
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka


Abstract
Cinnamomum verum is the most important spice produced by Sri Lanka. This study was carried out to fill the gap of knowledge on diversity of Sri Lankan cinnamon through morphological characterization. Therefore, an eco-geographic survey in major growing areas followed by the development of a core collection and vegetative propagation of the total collection for ex-situ conservation were carried out. Two hundred and sixty nine cinnamon accessions were collected. The average shoot regeneration frequency of 269 accessions was 47.76% after one month of vegetative propagation. The collection was established at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna for further studies. The collection was characterized for 15 quantitative and qualitative characters of leaf, stem and inflorescence among which, a wide variation was detected for leaf characters mainly. Leaf length positively correlated with Leaf width (+0.643) and Petiole length (+0.483). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that there were 3 dimensions of PCA explaining 88.85% of total variance. In Hierarchical cluster analysis based on above characters, 269 accessions were grouped into five clusters at rescaled distance of 0.1. A representation of 10% accessions was randomly selected from each cluster to develop a core collection with 33 accessions. The core collection of 33 accessions was clustered into five groups according to the same method at rescaled distance of 0.075. The core collection is a representation of the total collection as clusters of the two dendograms could be overlapped. Morphological characterization and core collection development during this study will be useful for germplasm management, conservation and varietal improvement through breeding programmes.

Pages 1473-1485 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1561
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Production of partially gelatinized cassava starch: effects of preheating temperature and starch concentration on physicochemical characteristics during the spray-drying process

Thais Paes Rodrigues dos Santos*, Célia Maria Landi Franco, Martha Maria Mischan, Daiana de Souza Fernandes, Marília Sbragia DelBem, Magali Leonel

Center for Tropical Roots and Starches (CERAT), College of Agronomic Science (FCA), São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Institute of Biosciences, Language, and Physical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Biostatistics, Bioscience Institute, São Paulo State University, São Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
Starch has application in several industrial sectors, such as food, textile, paper, pharmaceutical, among other industries. To meet this demand, native starches have been modified by chemical, physical and enzymatic methods. Cassava is the second source of starch. Furthermore, understanding the effects of spray-drying modification on the structural and physicochemical characteristics of its starch is important. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of the main interfering factors in the process of spray-drying on the characteristics of cassava starch, aiming at increasing the industrial applicability of this starch. A Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD) was employed to assess the experimental data. Experimental design included four factorial points, four axial points and three replicates of the central point. The starch concentration ranges from 5 to 11 % and preheating temperature ranges from 54 to 60 °C. Results showed influence of the variable factors on the characteristics of cassava starch. The processing conditions that allowed obtaining pregelatinized starches with higher viscosity at room temperature, higher resistance to hot and agitation, lower retrogradation tendency, and with partial solubility, desired quality parameters for this product were: 6 % of starch concentration (wet basis) and 60 ºC of preheating temperature.

Pages 1486-1494 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1568
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Genetic analysis of nutritional and antioxidant traits in eggplant (S. melongena)

N. T Afful*, D. Nyadanu, R Akromah, H. M Amoatey, S. Amiteye, C. Annor

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon, P. O. Box 80, Accra, Ghana


Abstract
Six generations of eggplants (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) obtained from two crosses SM001-07 x ST004-03 and SM001-07 x San005-01 were grown in an open field using Randomized complete Block Design with four replications. The experiment was conducted to determine gene effects for the inheritance of twelve nutritional and antioxidant traits in eggplant using generation mean analysis. The analysis of variance showed significant differences for most traits indicating the presence of sufficient variation in the eggplant materials under study. Additive-dominance effect was adequate to demonstrate the genetic variation and its significance in the inheritance of protein and magnesium contents, while non-allelic interactions were observed to be important for iron, zinc and total phenol in both crosses. The study also showed low values for dominance and environmental variances that resulted in high heritability values for most traits. Therefore, to improve these traits population improvement approaches (recurrent selection or pure line) followed by delayed selection in segregating generation would yield better results.

Pages 1495-1502 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1628
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Operational cost of mechanized harvesting of first-crop coffee

Felipe Santinato*, Carlos Diego da Silva, Rouverson Pereira da Silva, Antônio Tassio Silva Ormond, Victor Afonso Reis Gonçalves, Roberto Santinato

Agronomic Institute of Campinas, IAC, Avenida Barão de Itapura, 1,481 Botafogo, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Rural Engineering., UNESP State University of São Paulo "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", Jaboticabal Campus, Path of Access Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, s / n, 14884-900, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
Federal University of Viçosa, UFV, Campus Rio Paranaíba, Highway MG-230, km 7, 38810-000, Rio Paranaíba, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Department of Rural Engineering, UNESP Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", Jaboticabal Campus, Path of Access Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, s / n, 14884-900, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
Federal University of Viçosa, UFV, Campus Rio Paranaíba, Highway MG-230, km 7, 38810-000, Rio Paranaíba, Minas Gerais, Brazil
MAPA/Procafé, Street of Margaridas, 783 - Chácara Primavera - CEP: 13087-450 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
The use of adapted harvesters for harvesting first-crop coffee requires a lower cost and exhibits a higher efficiency than manual harvesting. In view of this, the present study aimed to analyze the operational cost of mechanized harvesting of first-crop coffee. The experiment was conducted in a factorial scheme (2 × 3) + 1 and outlined in randomized blocks with five replications. There were seven treatments: two automotive harvesters (conventional and adapted) with times of operations for each harvester (1, 2 and 3 time operations) and manual harvesting. We tested these treatments in a young coffee crop planted in Catalão, GO, irrigated by Pivot, with 1.5 m of height. We measured the lost coffee, coffee harvest, remaining coffee before the operation to obtain efficient parameters and with the prices of the operations and the costs of the treatments. When operated once and three times, the adapted harvester required a lower transfer cost than the conventional harvester. Moreover, the adapted harvester showed no difference in cost between each operation. The cost reduction by mechanized harvesting varied from 23.96 to 59.9 %, depending on the frequency of the mechanized operations. In conclusion, it is efficient to harvest the young coffee with the adapted harvesters reducing the cost of coffee harvesting.

Pages 1503-1510 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1727
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Genetic inheritance of photoperiod sensitivity in Runner bean (Phaseolus coccineous L.)

Mable. M. Mulanya*, Paul. M. Kimani, Rama D. Narla, Pascal Okwiri Ojwang

Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Department of Crops, Horticulture and Soils, Egerton University, kenya


Abstract
Lack of information on the mode of inheritance of photoperiod sensitivity is a constraint to genetic improvement of tropically adapted vegetable runner bean. This study was conducted to determine the inheritance of short-day photoperiod in runner beans. Seven single crosses between female parent; White Emergo (long day imported variety) and seven short day local landraces (Kin 1, Kin 2, Kin 3, Nyeri, Dwarf1, Dwarf 2 and Dwarf 3) were developed in Kenya. The parents, F1, F2 and backcrosses were evaluated at Kabete (warm conditions) and Ol Joro-Orok (cool condtions) under the natural short-day length of 12hrs. From the results, short day parents flowered earlier (within 40-48 days) and formed more racemes (on average 10 racemes/plant) and pods (at least 25pods/plant) than long day parent (White Emergo) at both locations. The populations in the seven cross combinations flowered earlier at the warmer location (Kabete) than cooler one (Ol Joro Orok). In all crosses, F1 and F2 means of days to flowering and number of racemes were within parental range while the backcrosses’ showed means that were close to their recurrent parents. The additive-dominance model [m+a+d] was found to adequately explain the genetic influence on studied traits with additive gene effects accounting for about 90% of the genetic action. The predominance of additive gene action indicates that improvement of this crop for short day adaptation can be easily achieved by trait integration through hybridization followed by pure selection methods such as single seed descent, bulk breeding or pedigree.

Pages 1511-1519 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1784
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Environmental impact of toxic metals on water and soil by agrochemicals, emerging pollutants and remediation methods

Eloisa Lorenzetti*, Jeferson Carlos Carvalho, Leidiane Coelho Carvalho, Claudecir Castilho Martins, Affonso Celso Gonçalves Junior, Juliano Tartaro, Elizana Lorenzetti Treib, Guilherme Borghetti Calixto, Adrieli Luisa Ritt, Alfredo José Alves Neto, Vanusi Camilo da Silva

State University of West Paraná - Unioeste, Marechal Cândido Rondon – Paraná – Brazil, street Pernambuco, Number 1777, Zip Code: 85960-000, Box: 91,
Positive University – UP, Department of Biotechnology, Campo Comprido, Curitiba – Paraná – Brazil, street Professor Pedro Viriato Parigot de Souza, Number 5300, Zip Code: 81280-330
Unimeo – Ctesop - Marechal Cândido Rondon – Paraná – Brazil, street Rio de Janeiro, Number 600, Zip Code: 85960-000


Abstract
This review article has aimed at environment and impact of different pollutants, define, classify, analyze and cite methods of remediation according to Brazilian environmental legislation. Concerns about the preservation of the environment is extensively debated nowadays, with a view mainly to the production of effluents in agriculture, toxic metals, emerging pollutants and excessive use of agrochemicals. However, some impacts are necessary to meet the needs of economic development and social to ensure they are carried out rationally. Furthermore, application of remediation methods reduce the impact of these pollutants as small as possible. In this sense, the environment's definition, the main current impacts, the size and consequences of these and some remediation methods, as well as Brazilian environmental legislation will be addressed.

Pages 1520-1525 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1788
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Gas exchanges and growth of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivated under saline waters and nitrogen-potassium fertilizers

Adaan Sudário Dias, Geovani Soares de Lima*, Francisco Wesley Alves Pinheiro, Hans Raj Gheyi, Lauriane Almeida dos Anjos Soares, Reginaldo Gomes Nobre, Leandro de Pádua Souza, Saulo Soares da Silva, Sabrina Gomes de Oliveira

Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agrarian Sciences, Pombal, 58.840-000, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Recôncavo of Bahia, Nucleus of Soil and Water Engineering, Cruz das Almas, 44.380-000, Bahia, Brazil
Federal Rural Semiarid University, Department of Science and Technology, Caraúbas, 59.780-000, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil


Abstract
The synergistic action between K and N (NO3-) favors the absorption of both ions by plants. A suitable combination of these macronutrients may be an alternative capable of alleviating the nutritional imbalance due to the excessive absorption of chloride and sodium by the plant and inhibitory competition between nitrate and potassium. In addition, it can favor the control of the turgidity of the cells, through the osmoregulation, elevate the synthesis of organic solutes, promoting the ionic homeostase, and consequently decrease the effect saline stress on the plants. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the gas exchanges and growth of sesame cv. BRS G4 as a function of irrigation with water of increasing electrical conductivity (ECw) and fertilization with different combinations of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K). This experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Treatments were distributed in randomized blocks and analyzed in 5 x 4 factorial scheme, consisting of five levels of ECw (0.6; 1.2; 1.8; 2.4 and 3.0 dS m-1) and four combinations of N and K: N/K2O (70/50; 100/75; 130/100 and 160/125% of the recommendation for pot experiments), with three replicates, totaling 60 experimental units. Except for the ECw level of 0.6 dS m-1, the other salt concentrations evaluated in this study compromised the gas exchanges and consequently growth of sesame cv. BRS G4, at 50 days after sowing. Fertilization with N and K in the combination of 70/50% of the recommendation of N/K2O led to the greatest growth of sesame cv. BRS G4. The N/K2O combinations of 130/100, 160/125 and 160/125% reduced the negative effects of saline irrigation of 1.2, 1.8 and 2.4 dS m-1, respectively, on the stomatal conductance of sesame plants. The combined supply of N and K2O in combinations of 100/75, 130/100 and 130/100% promoted higher CO2 assimilation rate in sesame plants using water of 1.2 and 1.8 and 2.4 dS m-1, respectively.

Pages 1526-1532 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1794
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Application of risk solver platform to improve soybean crushing profitability

Geovano Ceratti*, Jéfferson de Oliveira Costa, Keith Harris

Kansas State University - College of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, Manhattan, KS 66506 785-532-6011, United States
University of São Paulo - USP, College of Agriculture “Luiz de Queiroz” - ESALQ, Biosystems Engineering Department, 11 Pádua Dias Avenue Piracicaba, 13.418-900, Brazil


Abstract
The growing number of participants in the grain market shows just how globalized this sector is in Brazil nowadays. It is difficult to note how mergers and acquisitions between local companies as major tradings and funds have been acquiring part or even the totality of Brazilian companies, like the soybean crushing company “XYZ” that acquired some assets such as crushing plants in the state of Mato Grosso, located on the center-west region of Brazil and access to 2 port terminals to export the byproducts. This work contains data from January of 2014 to September of 2017 including prices of soybean and by products, freight rates, basis at the ports and operational costs. This information comes from different sources including government and private agencies and Thomson Reuters Eikon software. This information was used to build a model in Microsoft Excel and by using the Risk Solver Platform, a powerful statistic calculator tool, to find a solution to improve “XYZ” profitability. The results of the model suggest changes in the origin of grains, reducing the volume in some locations and increasing the volume originated in other locations. After running 2 different scenarios, “XYZ” profits was increased by 1.24 million of US dollars.

Pages 1533-1539 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1829
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Genetic parameters and yield potential of polyembryonic maize genotypes

Juan Samuel Guadalupe Jesús Alcalá-Rico, Alfonso López-Benítez*, Odilon Gayosso-Barragán, Julio Narcizo Ek-Maas, Dreyli Maygualida Hidalgo-Ramos, José Ángel Marroquín-Morales

Departamento de Fitomejoramiento, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Calzada Antonio Narro 1923, Buenavista, Saltillo, Coahuila, México. C.P.25315
Departamento de Riego y Drenaje, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Calzada Antonio Narro 1923, Buenavista, Saltillo, Coahuila, México. C.P.25315


Abstract
In the context of the mutants, polyembryony in maize (PEm) has agronomic potential; therefore, the inclusion of the PEm in new varieties may be useful when considering the ascending demand for food. The objective of this study was to develop new genotypes with high productivity potential, superior to in local area, and useful for family and extensive agriculture. In this work, simple crosses were carried out between three pure lines and the high frequency polyembryonic populations. The resulting F1 were advanced to the third generation (G3) and the genotypes obtained from this last generation were used as progenitors of a mating plan, according to the Griffing method 4. The resulting crosses were evaluated in a yield test measuring common characteristics of economic importance (Days to Male Flowering (MF), Plant Height (PH), Cob Height (CH), Fusarium Rotten cobs, Cobs (CFUS), Yield (YLD), and analyzed with the computer routine DIALLEL-SAS05. The results allowed to indicate that both the source of variation Genotypes as additive effects (GCA) presented significance for all variables, while non-additive (SCA) were significant only in the variables of cob sanity (p≤0.01) and productivity (p≤0.05). In this regard, most of the variables showed a greater contribution of the effects of General Combining Ability (GCA) compared to Specific Combining Ability (SCA). In addition, it was observed that the crosses were superior in all the variables evaluated with respect to BAP and NAP, and statistically similar in some cases with respect to hybrids. This means that this type of segregant polyembryony crosses can compete with other materials evaluated in the region. The estimation of GCA and SCA generated information on the potential of the studied parents and their crosses and are worthy of being taken into account in the formation of varieties.

Pages 1540-1545 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1872
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Accelerated aging test and image analysis for barley seed

Luciano Antônio Ebone*, Inri Mateus Gonçalves, Nadia Canali Lângaro

Departament of Technology and Seed Production, University of Passo Fundo (UPF), Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Abstract
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) planted area has increased in Brazil after a decline from 2005‒2009, but the country continues to import malt for the brewing industry. The physiological quality of the seed lot is essential for plant establishment and for screening for high yield grain. However, a uniform accelerated aging (AA) procedure has not been developed for testing barley seeds. Thus, this study aimed to determine the best AA method for measuring barley seed vigor. Seeds of three barley cultivars (BRS Cauê, BRS Brau, and MN 6021) were subjected to four AA treatment (T1: 41 °C for 72 h; T2: 42 °C for 48 h; T3: 42 °C for 60 h; and T4: 43 °C for 48 h). The following variables were evaluated using traditional vigor tests: seed viability in the first and last count of the germination test, number of seminal roots, shoot length, and radicle length. In addition, digital images of seedlings were acquired with the Seed Analysis System (SAS®) to compute seedling vigor, growth, and uniformity. AA methods T2 and T3 were effective in separating barley cultivars into vigor categories at day four of the germination test. Computer analysis of digital images of barley seedlings is a valuable tool for testing barley seed vigor. Accelerated aging methods T2 and T3 also gave the best separation in seed lot vigor and seedling growth using the SAS® index, respectively.

Pages 1546-1551 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1892
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Salt effect of potassium fertilizer on productivity and technological quality of sugarcane

Igor Tenório Marinho da Rocha, Fernando José Freire*, Emídio Cantídio Almeida de Oliveira, Edivan Rodrigues de Souza, Maria Betânia Galvão dos Santos Freire, Djalma Euzébio Simões Neto, Aníbia Vicente da Silva

Agronomy Department, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, street Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/n, Dois Irmãos, Recife, CEP 52171-900, Pernambuco, Brazil
Experimental Station of Sugarcane, street Ângela Cristina Canto Pessoa de Luna, s/n, Santa Terezinha, Carpina, CEP 55812-010, Pernambuco, Brazil


Abstract
The K is important for sugar concentration in sugarcane, but the salt effect on K fertilizer may reduce the productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate productivity of sugarcane, to establish soil and plant K critical levels, and to determine a saline limit of the soil with maximum agronomic efficiency. The sugarcane variety RB992506 was cultivated in the field in Oxisol (Kandic) dystrophic with very sandy and low K content, mainly in subsurface. Six doses of K2O were used: 0; 25; 50; 100; 200; 250 kg ha-1. We evaluated soil and leaf K content, electrical conductivity of the saturated soil paste, productivity and technological quality of the sugarcane. The application of K promoted increase in soil and leaf K levels, increasing also both productivity and the sugar concentration. The dose of maximum agronomic efficiency was 150 kg ha-1 of K2O and production of 116 Mg ha-1. High doses of K (> 200 kg ha-1 of K2O) decreased the productivity due to elevated soil salinity by the application of K fertilizer. The critical levels of K were 0.18 cmolc dm-3 in the soil and 9.53 g kg-1 in the plant and were associated with low doses of K (< 25 kg ha-1 of K2O). The salinity limits that reduced productivity were 1.38 dS m-1 in the surface layer and 1.19 dS m-1 in the subsurface, suggesting that these critical levels and limits can be used to evaluate the fertility of sandy soils cultivated with sugarcane in tropical regions.

Pages 1552-1560 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p1919
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New morphological key using male prothoracic leg characters to identify Helicoverpa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) species

Clerison Regis Perini*, Andres O. Angulo, Tania Sonia Olivares, Jonas Andre Arnemann, Jerson Vanderlei Carus Guedes

Federal University of Santa Maria, 1000 Roraima Av, 97105900, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
University of Concepción, Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile


Abstract
Since invasion of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in South America, identification of Helicoverpa species became essential for Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Thus, we worked out on a pictorial key to identify tree important Helicoverpa species that occur in the Southern Cone of America, using new morphological characters from the prothoracic legs. Adult male and female of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), H. armigera, and Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar) were used for identification. Prothoracic legs from moths were removed and images were taken (magnification of 25X) with scales and specialized scales. In addition, images (magnification of 50X) of prothoracic legs were used to measure the foretibia and epiphysis. The results showed that measurable characters were more reliable and accurate on male moths than female moths. For this reason, will be shown only detailed results of male moths. Foretibia of H. zea were longer than H. gelotopoeon, but shorter than H. armigera. This size is visible with or without scales and specialized scales on males. Here, we show a first detailed description of protibial epiphysis. H. armigera has the longest epiphysis with fore margin pointed and with bristles terminating before the end of epiphysis. This illustrated pictorial key shown some first detailed descriptions of prothoracic legs. These characters shown to be useful on integrated pest management programs of many crops in order to identify male representatives of Helicoverpa, which are captured on pheromone traps.

Pages 1561-1565 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.09.p2031