Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

October 2019 | 13(10):2019 | DOI: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10


Effects of organomineral fertilizers formulated with biosolids and filter cake on common bean yield crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Hellen Cristina da Silva, Luara Cristina de Lima*, Reginaldo de Camargo, Regina Maria Quintão Lana, Ernane Miranda Lemes, Atalita Francis Cardoso

Institute of Agricultural Science (ICIAG), Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), Brazil
University Center of Goiatuba (UNICERRADO), Brazil


Abstract
The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of different sources of residues in the composition of organomineral fertilizers on common bean yield. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the Federal University of Uberlândia. A randomized complete block design was used in the 2 x 4 + 2 factorial scheme corresponding to two organic sources (biosolids and filter cake) and four doses of pelletized organomineral fertilizer (50, 75, 100 and 125% of the recommendation for common bean, plus two additional treatments without fertilization and fertilization with mineral fertilizer). The plant height and stem diameter were evaluated at 30 days after sowing (DAS), and an average number of pods plant-1 and grains pod-1, yield (g plant-1), dry mass (g), and mass of 1000 grains (g) at 84 DAS. The organomineral fertilizer based on biosolids fertilizer provides the largest growth with the use of 100% of the recommended dose, the largest volume of dry mass up to 75% and the highest yield at 50%. The organomineral fertilizer based on filter cake increased dry mass volume. The organomineral fertilizers evaluated have the potential to substitute exclusively mineral fertilization in the common bean crop.

Pages 1566-1571 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1316
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Influence of artificial shading on seedling production of Tachigali myrmecophila (Ducke) Ducke.

 
Pablo Ruan Ferreira de Sousa*, Bruna da Silva Casseb, Mizael Cirineu da Silva, Lenilson Ferreira Palheta, Pedro Henrique Oliveira Simões, Clenes Cunha Lima, Natália Cristina de Almeida Azevedo, Luan Felipe Feitosa da Silva, Glauco André dos Santos Nogueira, Cândido Ferreira de Oliveira Neto, Dênmora Gomes de Araujo, Andressa Pinheiro de Paiva, Helaine Cristine Gonsalves Pires, Luciana Ingrid Souza de Sousa, Manoel Tavares de Paula

Federal Rural University of Amazonia, Institute of Agrarian Sciences, Belém, Pará, Brazil
Federal Rural University of Amazonia, Ciber Space Institute, Belém, Pará, Brazil
Federal Rural University of the Amazon, Parauapebas, Pará, Brazil
Federal Rural University of the Amazon, Capitão Poço, Pará, Brazil
Federal University of Paraná, Palotina, Paraná, Brazil
Center for Natural Sciences and Technology, University of the State of Pará, Belém-Pará-Brazil


Abstract
The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of shade level on the production of T. myrmecophila seedlings. After 30 days of seedling transplantation, the seedlings were submitted to the following treatments: 100% light (full sun), 75% light and 50% light. The statistical design was completely randomized with 5 replicates of 10 seedlings each per treatment. The data were analyzed by repeated measures in time, in 5 measurements, performed every 30 days (150 days of evaluation). The analyzed variables were shoot height and diameter. The environment with 75% luminosity was the one that contributed most to the growth in height of the seedlings, having presented higher mean values over time, in the 5th month (34.94 cm). The most pronounced effect for growth in diameter was verified in the 5th month of evaluation, where the highest average was obtained in the environment with 50% of shading (4.61 mm). The T. myrmecophila seedlings were influenced by the shading levels used. From the results evaluated, treatments with 75% and 50% of solar radiation provided superior growth for dendrometric variables height and diameter, respectively. Therefore, we recommend environments with 75% and 50% of solar radiation for the production of T. Myrmecophila seedlings.

Pages 1572-1577 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1657
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Cover crops as modifying agents of microbiological soil attribute

Catia Aparecida Simon*, Sebastião Ferreira de Lima, Meire Silvestrini Cordeiro, Vinícius Andrade Secco, Guilherme Nacata, Antonio Marcos Miranda Silva, Camila da Conceição Simon, Marivaine da Silva Brasil

Department of Soil Science, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba - SP, Brazil
Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Chapadão do Sul campus, Chapadão do Sul - MS, Brazil
Department of Plant Production, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba - SP, Brazil
Technical in Agriculture, Castelo - ES, Brazil
Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Corumbá campus, Corumbá - MS, Brazil


Abstract
Carbon sources are exuded and deposited by different soil cover plants. They promote growth, diversity and enhancement of soil microbial community functionality, due to organic matter degradation by participating in major biochemical cycles and the availability of inorganic nutrients to plants. In this way, it is necessary to evaluate the microbiological attributes of the soil after cover cropping, which allows for surveying and monitoring the soil quality, thereby enabling rapid responses in relation to managing changes in the soil. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate soil microbiological attributes and soybean grain yield under the influence of different cover crops. The experiment was installed in the year 2015. The treatments were constituted by the following vegetation coverages: sorghum, millet, Urochloa ruziziensis, forage turnip, Urochloa brizantha, crambe and fallow area, with cover crops sown in succession to the soybean crop for three years prior to the date of installation of the experiment .The evaluated parameters were soil microbial biomass carbon, soil basal respiration, metabolic quotient, enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase and soil β-glucosidase, plant phytomass produced by the different cover crops and soybean yield in each area. The use of cover crops promotes higher soybean yield. The microbial activity and its efficiency were modulated according to the type of cover crop used. Soil under sorghum mulch provided lower microbial efficiency. The U. ruziziensis plant residues remain for less time on the soil. The results show that U. brizantha may be the most suitable for its use as a soil cover plant, providing improvements in its attributes.

Pages 1578-1585 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1723
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Application of wastewater for production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in hydroponic system

Josilda France Xavier*, Carlos Alberto Vieira de Azevedo, Marcia Rejane de Queiroz Almeida Azevedo, Josely Fernandes Dantas, Antônio Fernandes Monteiro Filho, Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima

Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58429-140, Paraíba, Brazil
Productivity CNPq Fellowof Reseach, 1B level, Brazil
State University of Paraíba, Center of Environmental and Agrarian Sciences, Lagoa Seca, 58117-000, Paraíba, Brazil


Abstract
The study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of three varieties of lettuce subjected to different treatments of wastewater. The experimental design was a randomized block in a 7 x 3 split-plot with three replicates. The factors were 7 hydroponic and 3 cultivars of crisp lettuce. The solutions were formulated and optimized by considering Furlani solution as reference nutrient. The experimental portion consisted of the nutritive solutions (S). S1 = Furlani solution; S2 = domestic wastewater; S3 = optimized domestic wastewater; S4 = well water; = S5 optimized well water; S6 = wastewater from the UASB reactor and S7 = wastewater optimized from the UASB reactor, the subplot was constituted of three lettuce cultivars (Verônica, Vanda and Thais). The results showed that solutions with domestic wastewater (S2), optimized domestic wastewater (S3), optimized well water (S5) and the solution wastewater from the UASB reactor (S6) promoted the highest number of leaves per plant for the three cultivars. Solutions with enhanced domestic wastewater (S3), optimum water well (S5) and the solution formulated from the wastewater from the UASB reactor (S6) promoted the highest stem diameter in three cultivars. The highest value of total production was obtained from Vanda cultivar, when the wastewater from the UASB reactor (S6) was used as nutritive solution.

Pages 1586-1593 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1752
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Nutrient uptake in ‘Venus’ grape vine grafted onto different rootstocks during two growing seasons

Marco Antonio Tecchio, Marlon Jocimar Rodrigues da Silva, Daniel Callili, Giovanni Marcello De Angeli Gilli Cóser, Dávilla Alessandra da Silva Alves, Francisco José Domingues Neto, Mara Fernandes Moura

São Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Agriculture, Botucatu, José Barbosa de Barros Street, 18610-307, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil
Fruit APTA Center (IAC), Luiz Pereira do Santos Street, 1500, 13214-820, Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
The current study aimed to assess the influence of the ‘IAC 766’, ‘IAC 572’, ‘IAC 313’ and ‘IAC 571-6’ rootstocks on nutrient uptake of ‘Venus’ grape vine by pruning branches and harvesting clusters during two consecutive grape growing seasons. The experiment was conducted in Votuporanga, state of Sao Paulo. Treatments consisted of the variety ‘Venus’ grafted onto four rootstocks during two growing seasons (2013 and 2014). The rootstocks evaluated were ‘IAC 766’, ‘IAC 572’, ‘IAC 313’ and ‘IAC 571-6’. We sampled the grape branches at pruning and their clusters at harvest time. The macro and micronutrient contents in both branches and clusters were analyzed. Nutrient uptake and removal were separately estimated in pruned branches and harvested clusters by uptake nutrient sum. Results indicated great nutrient uptake means in ‘IAC 572’ and ‘IAC 766’ during both seasons. Moreover, total removal uptake showed the following order K > N > Ca > P > Mg > S > Mn > Fe > Zn > B > Cu in pruned branches and harvested clusters.

Pages 1594-1599 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1803
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Development of papaya tree in organic substrates

Tiago de Oliveira Sousa*, Wéverson Lima Fonseca, Augusto Matias de Oliveira, Alan Mario Zuffo, Marcela Carlota Nery, Marcela Azevedo Magalhães, Thais Silva Sales, Cíntia Maria Teixeira Fialho, Kamila Antunes Alves

Department of Agriculture, Federal University of Vales de Jequitinhonha and Mucuri, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil
Department of Crop Production, State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Cassilândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Vales de Jequitinhonha and Mucuri, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil


Abstract
Papaya is a tropical fruit of great importance in the international and national market. For crop success, the use of quality seedlings is of paramount importance and substrates formulated from organic sources may be a viable alternative. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the initial development of papaya seedlings in different formulations and levels of organic substrates. A completely randomized design was used in a 4x4+1 factorial scheme, corresponding to four substrate formulations, containing decomposed buriti stem (CDB). The treatments included of the following: (CDB, ½ CDB + ½ poultry manure, ½ CDB + ½ cattle manure and ½ CDB + ½ gray with plant origin sourced from materials resulting from the burning of plant material (stem, branches); four proportion levels of the formulations of the substrates mixed to the soil (25; 50; 75 and 100%) and the additional control (100% soil). The following variables were measured: plant height, leaf area, number of leaves, shoot dry matter, root length and root dry matter at 42 days of seedling cultivation. The results showed that use of an ideal source of organic matter is feasible in the production of papaya seedlings. The substrate consisting of CBD + poultry manure had great potential to be used in the production of papaya seedlings.

Pages 1600-1606 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1812
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Salt stress in popcorn genotypes trigger changes of antioxidant enzymes

Claudia Borsari Trevizan, Letícia Lourenceto, Tiago Benedito dos Santos, Silvia Graciele Hülse de Souza*

Programa de Pós-graduação em Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agricultura, Universidade Paranaense - UNIPAR, Praça Mascarenhas de Moraes, 4282, Umuarama, PR, 87502-210, Brazil
Curso de Engenharia Agronômica, Universidade Paranaense - UNIPAR, Umuarama, PR, 87502-210, Brazil. 3Universidade do Oeste Paulista - Unoeste, Rodovia Raposo Tavares s/n, 19067-175, Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil


Abstract
Salinity is a major problem in agriculture because it can alter the metabolism of plants and affect crop yield. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of NaCl on growth, key antioxidants and changes in the expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes. Two popcorn genotypes, IAC125 and UFMV2, experienced reduction in growth as the salt concentration increased. Increase in chlorophyll content and damage to the plasma membrane was observed. Consequently, changes in osmotic activity led to reduced water content in the leaves. Increased concentration of salt increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in two popcorn genotypes but maximum activity was observed in the IAC125 genotype. Such enzymatic activities occur in order to maintain the levels of lipid peroxidation under salt stress, indicating that this genotype is tolerant to salinity conditions. The ZmAPX, ZmCAT, ZmSOD (Cu/Zn) and ZmSOD (Mn) genes increased their expression as salinity increased. The ZmSOD (Fe) gene was highly regulated in the IAC125 genotype under salt stress, but low regulation was observed in the UFM2 genotype, regardless of the salt concentration. The enhancement in tolerance against salt stress indicates that the genes involved in the antioxidative process are triggered by oxidative stress induced by abiotic stresses. These results showed that the popcorn varieties have different levels of salt tolerance due to the differential expression pattern of the antioxidant genes. The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymatic activity could lead to increased scavenging of excessive free radicals and reduce oxidative stress.

Pages 1607-1616 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1830
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Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alters content and composition of essential oil of Sage (Salvia officinalis) under different phosphorous levels

Rayane Monique Sete da Cruz, Glaucia Leticia Sete da Cruz, Douglas Cardoso Dragunski, Affonso Celso Gonçalves Junior, Odair Alberton*, Silvia Graciele Hulse de Souza

Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture; Paranaense University – UNIPAR; Praça Mascarenhas de Moraes; 4282; 87502-210; Umuarama – PR – Brazil
Agronomic Engineering; Paranaense University – UNIPAR; Praça Mascarenhas de Moraes; 4282; 87502-210; Umuarama – PR – Brazil
Department of Chemistry, State University of Western Paraná, College street, 645, CEP 85903-000, Toledo – PR – Brazil
Center for Agricultural Sciences, State University of Western Paraná., Pernambuco street, 1777, CEP 85960-000, Marechal Cândido Rondon – PR – Brazil
Postgraduate Program in Medicinal and Phyto therapeutic Plants in Primary Care. Laboratory of Preclinical Research of Natural Products, Paranaense University, Umuarama – PR – Brazil


Abstract
This study aimed at evaluating the growth and essential oil content of Salvia officinalis L. (sage) inoculated with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Rhizophagus clarus and Claroideoglomus etunicatum under different phosphorous (P) levels. The treatments were prepared in a sterile substrate (sand, vermiculite and organic compound (1: 1: 2, v:v) with high (200 mg kg−1) and low (20 mg kg−1) P levels at sowing, with and without AMF inoculation; the experiment was conducted in a greenhouse for four months. Plants were grown in pots with 3 kg of substrate in a 3 x 2 (3 mycorrhizal x 2 levels of P) factorial experiment, in a completely randomized design (with eight repetitions). Spore density, AMF root colonization, plant dry mass, P and N shoot content, yield and composition of essential oil (EO) were determined. Data were processed and submitted to analyses of hierarchical clustering and principal component. Plant biomass increased with addition of P in the substrate. EO content increased with AMF Rhizophagus clarus inoculation in high-P substrate. It was concluded that inoculation with R. clarus and the addition of P at sowing can boost the growth of sage and the content of its EO. Camphor, α-humulene, viridiflorol, manool, α-thujone and β- thujone were the main components of the EO.

Pages 1617-1624 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1834
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Associations between pigments, antioxidant activity and coloring of blackberry fruits (Rubus sp.) and jellies through storage

Angela Vacaro de Souza*, Fernando Ferrari Putti, Marcos Ribeiro da Silva Vieira, Rogério Lopes Vieites

São Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Science and Engineering, Tupã, SP, Brazil
Federal University of Pará (UFPA), Altamira University Campus, Altamira, PA, Brazil
São Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Agronomic Science, Botucatu, SP, Brazil


Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the relations between the amount of anthocyanins, carotenoids and the antioxidant activity measured by the FRAP and TEAC methods. Furthermore, pigments and the coloration of blackberry harvested fruits were measured at 3 different collection points then fruits stored in refrigerated environment and the jelly made from them, preserved in hermetically sealed glasses, without contact with light and temperature of 25ºC. In order to investigate the relations between the studied variables (content of anthocyanins and carotenoids, antioxidant activity and coloration using digital colorimeter), Pearson’s correlation analysis was adopted, which indicates the existence of a positive or negative relation between two variables. The α = 5% (correlation coefficient) was used to verify the significance of the correlation. The Mahalanobis (D2) generalized distance for the clustering analysis by the mean linkage method between group of blackberry fruits and jellies was applied. Furthermore, the cophenetic correlation coefficient and multivariate analysis using major components were applied to verify the grouping of different responses of harvesting points of fresh blackberry fruit in natura and jellies. The results showed that there was correlation between the content of anthocyanins and carotenoids in fruits (0.99*) and between the same parameters in jellies. However, this behavior was not clearly observed between the pigments and the antioxidant activity. There was a positive correlation between the factors involved in the coloring of chroma fruits ‘L’, ‘a’, ‘b’ and ºHue in fruits and jellies. Blackberry jellies presented as good sources of anthocyanins and carotenoids.

Pages 1625-1630 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1835
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Winter pruning: option for management against alternaria brown spot (Alteraria alternata f. sp. citri) in Honey Murcott tangor [Citrus reticulata Blanco x C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck]

Fernando Alves de Azevedo*, Thiago Fernando Milaneze, Patrícia Marluci da Conceição, Camilla de Andrade Pacheco, Rodrigo Martinelli, Marinês Bastianel

Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira, Instituto Agronômico (IAC), 13490-70, Cordeirópólis, São Paulo State, Brazil
Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), Araras, 13600-970, São Paulo State, Brazil


Abstract
Alternaria brown spot (ABS), caused by Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri, is the main fungal disease plaguing tangerines. The main symptoms are falling leaf and fruit, resulting in the loss of production and quality. The initial symptoms in leaves are characterized by small brown or black spots, surrounded, or not, by yellowish halos. In the fruit, dark cortical patches appear that can easily break. In this study, the winter pruning of the plants was investigated to complementary control of ABS. The experiment was conducted in 10-year-old Honey Murcott tangor plants, where two treatments were applied: pruning in winter and no pruning, using a randomized block design with ten replicates. The treatment of winter pruning was performed before the flowering of the plants (September in Brazil), where the branches were cut close to the trunk, the thicker branches were removed. The chemical control was performed in both treatments. Evaluations of disease severity in fruit were performed using a diagrammatic scale; the disease incidence and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) were also calculated. The fruit drop and yield (t ha-1) of the plants were quantified, and the temperature and humidity inside the canopy of the plants were measured. Winter pruning had a positive effect on ABS management since it provided a decrease in incidence, severity, and AUDPC values. Fruit fall was reduced, resulting in greater productivity for Honey Murcott tangor plants. The results confirmed the positive effect of winter pruning on the management of alternaria brown spot.

Pages 1631-1637 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1849
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Enhanced efficiency of phosphorus fertilizer in soybean and maize

Adilson Pelá*, Rafael Umbelino Bento, Lucas Brennon Romão Crispim, Roberto dos Anjos Reis Jr

Goiás State University (UEG), Ipameri, State of Goiás, CEP 75.780-000, Brazil
Morgan Sementes e Biotecnologia, Silvânia, State of Goiás, Brazil
Wirstchat, Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil


Abstract
Soybeans and maize are the most cultivated crops in tropical soils and require large amounts of phosphate fertilizers. The use of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers is a promising technology to minimize losses of P by fixation in highly weathered tropical soils. The objectives of this study were to evaluate morphological characteristics, soybean P and boron foliar content, yield and agronomic efficiency of P fertilizer in response to P rates and sources in maize and soybean crops. Two P fertilization experiments with the sources Mono-ammonium Phosphate (MAP) and Policote coated MAP were carried out, one in maize (0, 20, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg P2O5 ha-1) and another in soybean crop (0, 20, 40, 80 and 120 kg P2O5 ha-1). The morphological characteristics, soybean P and boron foliar content, yield and agronomic P fertilizer efficiency were evaluated. The results showed that maize and soybean morphological characteristics, as well as soybean foliar P and boron contents were not influenced by fertilization. P fertilization increased soybean yield. Policote coated MAP was more efficient than MAP (conventional fertilizer) to produce higher maize and soybean yields and higher agronomic efficiency of P use. For higher productivity, we recommend the dose of 102.9 kg P2O5 ha-1 of Policote coated MAP for soybean and 97.6 kg P2O5 ha-1 for maize.

Pages 1638-1642 | Full Tet PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1853
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Growth and quality of soursop (Annona muricata L.) seedlings under saline stress and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)

André Alisson Rodrigues da Silva, Luana Lucas de Sá Almeida Veloso, Geovani Soares de Lima*, Carlos Alberto Vieira de Azevedo, Hans Raj Gheyi, Lauriane Almeida dos Anjos Soares, Leandro de Pádua Souza, Jessica Dayanne Capitulino

Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agrarian Sciences, Pombal, 58.840-000, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Recôncavo of Bahia, Nucleus of Soil and Water Engineering, Cruz das Almas, 44.380-000, Bahia, Brazil


Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate growth and quality of soursop seedlings cv. Morada Nova, as a function of saline water irrigation and exogenous applications of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design used was randomized blocks in 5 x 5 factorial scheme, corresponding to the combination of five levels of irrigation water electrical conductivity – ECw (0.7, 1.4, 2.1, 2.8 and 3.5 dS m-1) and five concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 µM). The results showed that Hydrogen peroxide concentrations were applied by soaking the seed for 24 h and by spraying on all leaves of soursop seedlings. Irrigation water above electrical conductivity of 0.7 dS m-1 negatively affected growth and quality of soursop seedlings cv. Morada Nova. The dry phytomass of root was the most sensitive variable to saline stress. Hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 31 and 100 µM led to highest relative growth rate in leaf area and dry phytomass of leaves and stem, respectively. The quality of soursop seedlings cv. Morada Nova was not compromised by using water with electrical conductivity of 3.5 dS m-1 in irrigation.

Pages 1643-1649 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1857
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Mineral composition and nutritive value of Festuca ecotypes originated from the highland region of Bolivia and cultivars from Argentina

Karina Ustariz*, Mulatu Geleta, Helena P. Hovmalm, Franz Gutierrez, Jorge A. Rojas Beltrán, Rodomiro Ortiz

Department of Plant Breeding, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 101, SE-23053, Alnarp, Sweden
Centro de Investigación en Forrajes (CIF) - La Violeta, Facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas, Pecuarias y Forestales “Dr. Martín Cárdenas”, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba, Bolivia
Centro de Biotecnología y Nanotecnología Agropecuario y Forestal (CByNAF), Facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas, Pecuarias y Forestales “Dr. Martín Cárdenas”, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba, Bolivia


Abstract
Native grasses constitute the most important source of feed for camelids, sheep and cattle in the highlands of Bolivia, where the genus Festuca is one of the major feed components. This study was carried out to investigate the nutritional value of 11 Festuca ecotypes from the highlands of Bolivia and two cultivars from Argentina (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. ‘Taita’ and Festulolium). All ecotypes were grown in the same experimental field and their protein, ash, cellulose, moisture and micronutrients (Al, B, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, S, Si and Zn) content was determined. Principal component analysis and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis, based on all nutrients, clearly defined the two Argentinian cultivars as outliers. This differentiation was mainly explained by their cellulose, ash, Mn and Al contents. Analysis of variance based on the origin of the accessions revealed highly significant (P < 0.001) differences for their cellulose, ash, Mn and Mg contents, while they differ significantly (P < 0.05) in Ni, Fe, Na and Al contents. There was a highly significant positive correlation between several pairs of minerals including Mg–Ca (r = 0.94) and Mg–Zn (r = 0.92). Negatively correlated pairs of minerals include B–Fe (r = - 0.65) and B–Ni (r = - 0.58). This study provides useful information about the nutritive quality of Bolivian Festuca ecotypes for their use in breeding programs of this forage grass in the Andean highlands of South America.

Pages 1650-1658 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1889
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Curly lettuce development, nutrient absorption and salinization tolerance in response to an aerobic biofertilizer produced from agro-industrial residues

Sabrina Magaly Navas Cajamarca, Carlos Eduardo Pacheco Lima, Juscimar da Silva, Italo Moraes Rocha Guedes, Marcos Brandão Braga, Mariana Rodrigues Fontenelle, Cícero Célio de Figueiredo*

Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, University of Brasília, 70910970 Brasília, DF, Brazil
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília, DF, Brazil


Abstract
Biofertilizers stimulates natural processes to increase and benefit nutrient absorption, abiotic stress tolerance and increased yield when applied to plants. The production of biofertilizers from organic residues is a sustainable way to reduce these materials through recycling. The aim of this work was to define the biofertilization management based on concentrations and doses using a non-commercial aerobic biofertilizer on three newly emerged Brazilian lettuce cultivars. Consequently, this study will help to improve organic lettuces yields in the country. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse. The soil used for cultivation was a clayey Rhodic Ferralsol. Due to the high electrical conductivity (EC) observed in the biofertilizer a first experiment was conducted to determine the optimum concentration (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 100%) for the three lettuce cultivars (BRS Leila, BRS Lélia and BRS Mediterrânea). After finding the best concentration, a second experiment was developed to estimate the optimum dose of the biofertilizer based on the nitrogen requirement (N) for this crop (0 kg ha-1 of N, 50 kg ha-1 of N, 100 kg ha-1 N, 150 kg ha-1 N and 200 kg ha-1 N). The experimental design was completely randomized (DIC) with a factorial scheme. The results showed that 5% concentration of biofertilizer presented better results for the development of BRS Mediterrânea and BRS Lélia. BRS Leila presented better development when fertilized with the 10% biofertilizer concentration. The dose of 150 kg ha-1 of N allowed a better development of lettuce and greater supply of nutrients to the plants.

Pages 1659-1667 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1893
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Physiological quality of soybean seeds in fixed-bed dryer with air radial distribution

Séfora SILVÉRIO, Arlindo Modesto ANTUNES, Rafael Batista FERREIRA, Daniel Antônio da CUNHA, Ivano Alessandro DEVILLA, Rosilane Carvalho da CONCEIÇÃO

National Supply Company, Brasília, Federal District, Brazil
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal Rural University of Amazônia, Tomé-Açu, Pará, Brazil
Department of Agricultural Engineering, State University of Goiás, Goiás, Anápolis, Brazil


Abstract
In recent years few countries have grown as much in international agribusiness trade as in Brazil, where soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the economic activities that has contributed most. However, in order to increase or maintain the efficiency of the oilseed, it is necessary to increase the knowledge in the post-harvest techniques that are applied to the seeds to maintain their quality. This study aimed at evaluation of the physiological quality and the drying uniformity of soybean seeds in a commercial fixed-bed dryer of the brand Granfinale and industrial ventilator of the brand AeroMack with the radial distribution of air. Samples were collected at 4 vertical heights: 0.20, 1.40, 2.60 and 3.80 meters at the dryer base combined with 4 radial distances of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 and 0.60 meters and central duct, through a 4x4 random factorial scheme. The following analyzes were performed on seeds: Water Content (WC), Germination Standard Test (GST), First count of Germination Standard Test (FCT), Accelerated Aging (AA), Electric Conductivity (EC) and Germination Velocity Index (GVI). The analysis of variance and regression analysis were performed, when applicable. We found a super drying in the lower layer and retardation in the upper layer of stationary drying. The seeds located at vertical heights of 0.20 and 1.40 m obtained the highest mean values of Germination Standard Test and Accelerated Aging. On the other hand, seeds located at vertical heights of 0.20 m, regardless of radial distances, showed less vigor according to Electric Conductivity test in relation to the other treatments. The variables First count of Germination Standard Test (FCT) and Germination Velocity Index (GVI) were not significantly influence by the evaluated treatments and their interaction.

Pages 1668-1675 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1907
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Correlations between fruit yield and sensory and nutritional quality of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.)

Rita Mércia Estigarribia Borges*, Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de Lima, Natoniel Franklin de Melo

Embrapa Semiárido, BR 428, km 152, – ZIP Code 56302-970 – Petrolina, Pernambuco State – Brazil

Abstract
Traits related to fruit yield and physical and chemical fruit quality are being evaluated by Embrapa pumpkin breeding program. Path and Pearson's correlation analysis are necessary to allow the knowledge of the relation between the variables of interest for this program. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic correlations between yield- and sensorial and nutritional quality attributes-associated variables in pumpkin progenies to support the selection process. Twelve genotypes were evaluated for 10 yield-related traits, and 8 sensory and nutritional quality traits of fruit, including the commercial cultivar Jacarezinho. A path analysis considered the fruit weight (FrW) was as basic variable and the others as explanatory. The FrW had 98% of its total variation available in a function of the explanatory variables. The highest variations were observed in the fruit-shape related traits. In addition, the variables internal median cavity diameter (IDmed), equatorial pulp thickness (EPT), apical pulp thickness (APT), and smallest fruit diameter (Dsm) are indicated for a direct selection of progenies targeting a higher FrW. The correlation analysis highlighted that color-related variables have the possibility of indirect selection aiming to increase total carotenoid content (TCC) and β-carotene content (β-car). The evaluated progenies showed notable soluble solids content (SSC), TCC and β-car contents compared to the commercial cultivar. Furthermore, the contribution of β-car to TCC is at least 50% higher in these progenies than in 'Jacarezinho' pumpkin.

Pages 1676-1682 | Full Text PDF| Suppleemntary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1914
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Ecological weed control in rice and maize using Orbygnia phalerata with focus on the weed seedbank in the soil

Mário Luiz Ribeiro Mesquita*, Leonaldo Alves de Andrade, Walter Esfrain Pereira

Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agricultura e Ambiente, CEP 65.055-098, São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil
Universidade Federal da Paraíba/ Campus Areia, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agronomia, Brasil


Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mulching with dry leaves of babassu palm (Orbygnia phalerata Mart.) on germination of weed seed bank on rice tiller number and on grain yield of rice and maize in Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil. In the field the experimental design was a split plot in a randomized complete block with 15 replications. Rice, maize and rice intercropped with maize were allocated to the main plots and mulching treatments with unprocessed whole dried palm leaves (0 and 23 t ha-1) to the subplots. Germination of the weed seed bank was assessed after crop harvest in the greenhouse by means of a collection of three soil samples per subplot (n = 270) with an open metal device of 25 cm in length x 16 cm in width x 3 cm in height as sampling unit. Soil samples were placed in aluminum trays in the greenhouse and irrigated daily. The germinated weed species were identified and counted every fifteen days. The results showed that mulching can reduce germination in the weed seed bank up to 55% and promoted a significant increase in rice tiller number from 63 to 95 m-2, grain yield of rice from 1,077 to 2,251 kg ha-1 and grain yield of maize from 1,137 to 2,293 kg ha-1. Therefore, mulching can be recommended for weed control in smallholder farming of rice and maize crops.

Pages 1683-1687 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1954
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First evidence of multiple resistance of Sumatran Fleabane (Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.Walker) to five- mode-of-action herbicides

Camila Ferreira de Pinho*, Jessica Ferreira Lourenço Leal, Amanda dos Santos Souza, Gabriella Francisco Pereira Borges de Oliveira, Claudia de Oliveira, Ana Claudia Langaro, Aroldo Ferreira Lopes Machado, Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti, Luiz Henrique Saes Zobiole

Department of Plant Science, Institute of Agronomy, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica-RJ, Brazil
Department of Crop Science, University of São Paulo (USP), Piracicaba-SP, Brazil
Corteva AgriscienceTM, the Agriculture Divison of DowDuPontTM, Dow AgroSciences LLC Mogi-Mirim-SP, Brazil


Abstract
Herbicide resistance is the evolutionary response of weeds to the selection pressure caused by repeated application of the same active ingredient. It can result from two different mechanisms, known as target site resistance (TSR) and non-target site resistance (NTSR). In addition to single-herbicide resistance, multiple resistance can occur due to herbicides selection or accumulation of resistance genes by cross-pollination. The aim of this research was to investigate the suspect of multiple herbicide resistance of Sumatran Fleabane (Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.Walker) to herbicides frequently used as a burndown application. Dose-responses in a whole-plant assay were carried out to investigate multiple-resistance of Sumatran fleabane to paraquat, saflufenacil, diuron, 2,4-D and glyphosate. Results indicated that the resistance index (ratio R/S) based on herbicide rate to cause 50% mortality (LD50) were 25.51, 1.39, 7.29, 1.84 and 7.55 for paraquat, saflufenacil, diuron, 2,4-D and glyphosate, respectively. Based on herbicide rate required to cause a 50% reduction in plant growth (GR50), the resistant index were 51.83, 14.10, 5.05, 3.96 and 32.90 for the same herbicides, respectively. Our results confirmed multiple resistance of Conyza sumatrensis from Paraná-Brazil to herbicides from five-mode of-action. This was the first report of Conyza sumatrensis resistant to 2,4-D and the first case of Conyza sumatrensis presenting multiple resistant to herbicides from five- mode of-action in the world.

Pages 1688-1697 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1981
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Spray volume deposits and fungicide efficacy on soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi)

Evandro Pereira Prado*, Carlos Gilberto Raetano, Mario Henrique Ferreira do Amaral Dal Pogetto, Rafael de Souza Christovam, Paulo Renato Matos Lopes, Rafael Simões Tomaz, Pedro José Ferreira-Filho, Diego Cunha Zied, Julio Cesar Guerreiro, Denise Tourino Rezende de Cerqueira

Sao Paulo State University / College of Technology and Agricultural Sciences, Rod. SP-294, km 651 - 17900-000 - Dracena, SP - Brazil
Sao Paulo State University/FCA − Dept. of Plant Protection, R. José Barbosa de Barros, 1780 − 18610-307 − Botucatu, SP − Brazil
Department of Environmental Science, Federal University of São Carlos, 18052-780 - Sorocaba, SP - Brazil
Department of Agrarian Science, Maringá State University, 87502-970 - Umuarama, Paraná State, Brazil


Abstract
Soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most destructive fungal diseases affecting soybean yields in many countries. Fungicide application methods that provide better SBR control efficacy may reduce soybean losses due to this disease. We investigated the effects of spray volumes applying the fungicide pyraclostrobin plus epoxiconazol at 133 + 50 g a.i. ha-1 by a conventional sprayer (CS) and an air-assisted sprayer (AAS). Field experiments were conducted comparing the effects of spray volumes of 110, 160, and 210 L ha-1 and two application techniques (CS and AAS) on spray deposits and SBR control. Fungicide efficacies were measured by disease severity, thousand seed weight, and yield. Correlations between disease severity and yield were also assessed. All treatments were applied with an Advance 2000 AM18 sprayer. In general, SBR disease and yield did not differ significantly when fungicide applications were applied with AAS compared to CS. Increasing the spray volume from 110 to 210 L ha-1 did not increase spray deposit coverage on soybean leaves. Low disease severity was obtained by fungicide applications using a spray volume of 210 L ha-1. Safe recommendations of ground spray volumes for SBR control should be between 160 and 210 L ha-1, using hydraulic nozzles.

Pages 1698-1705 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p1996
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Effect of Trichoderma spp. fungus for production of seedlings in Enterolobium Schomburgkii (Benth.) Benth

Misael Freitas dos Santos, Daniele Lima da Costa, Thiago Almeida Vieira, Denise Castro Lustosa*

Postgraduate Program in Forestry Sciences, Midwestern State University, Brazil
Institute of Biodiversity and Forests, Federal University of Western Pará, Brazil


Abstract
Enterolobium schomburgkii (monkey ear) is important Amazonic forest specie, being used for wood and medicinal purposes and environmental recuperation issues. Biological treatment such as Trichoderma fungus is alternative method that may improve performance of seeds germination and provide healthy seedlings. We aimed to assess effect of Trichoderma fungus on development of E. schomburgkii seedlings. Five isolates of Trichoderma spp., in the concentration of 1.0 x 107 conidia.mL-1, were assessed and applied through four methods: seeds; pre-planting substrate; post-planting substrate; and seed + pre-planting + post-planting substrate. The seedlings were produced in polypropylene bags and kept in nursery for 10 months. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5x4+1 factorial scheme, with 10 repetitions. We monthly assessed the plant height, collar diameter and number of leaves and leaflets. After 10 months, we assessed root length, dry matter of aerial part and dry matter of roots system. The results showed that variables were significantly influenced by Trichoderma isolates and its application modes, either individually or under interaction, except on the root length. Eight treatments boosted the plants height and five of them increased the collar diameter, compared with the control. The height of the seedlings was the variable that mostly influenced by the treatments. Application of Trichoderma in pre-planting substrate influenced the highest number of variables analyzed. Therefore, the isolates application used in this work is feasible for production of Enterolobium schomburgkii seedlings. Based on results of this experiment we do not recommended treatment of Enterolobium schomburgkii seeds with Trichoderma isolates, except for T. asperellum T09

Pages 1706-1711 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p2023
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Effect of debranching on sweet potato yield and quality

Albertir Aparecido dos Santos, Valter Carvalho de Andrade Júnior, Cíntia Maria Teixeira Fialho, Alcinei Místico de Azevedo, Orlando Gonçalves Brito, Abraão José Silva Viana, Amanda Gonçalves Guimarães*

Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys, Campus JK – Highway, Brazil
MGT 367 - Km 583, nº 5000, High of the Jacuba - Zip code 39100-000, Diamantina/MG, Brazil
Federal University of Lavras, University Campus, Mailbox 3037, Zip code 37200-000, Lavras/MG, Brazil
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Campus Montes Claros, Zip code 39404-006, Montes Claros/MG, Brazil


Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of branch removal on the yield and quality of sweet potato genotypes in different harvesting systems and two growing seasons. Two trials (2014 and 2016/17) were conducted in a randomized block design with three replicates in the factorial scheme composed of: three clones (Brazlândia Rosada, BD-31 TO and BD-65) and five harvesting systems (H): H1- total harvest of branch and root at 120 days after planting (DAP); H2- cut of the branches at 120 DAP, plus regrown branches and roots harvested at 210 DAP; H3 - total harvest of branches and roots at 165 DAP; H4 - cut of the branches at 165 DAP and harvest of regrown branches and roots at 210 DAP and H5- branches and roots total harvest at 210 DAP. For harvesting systems H2 and H4 the total production of branches at the end of the cycle was determined by the sum of the two cuts. The yield, dry matter of shoot and root, chemical-bromatological and nutrient quality were evaluated. The 2014 trial produced higher green mass yield of the branches, while in 2016/2017, higher root yield observed. H2 and H4 were shown to have better quality of the branches regarding the bromatological and nutrient characteristics, being recommended for animal feeding. The systems without regrowth (H3 and H5) allowed better yields and quality of roots, useful for human feeding. In general, the clone Brazlândia Rosada, produced the highest yield of roots and branches; therefore, recommended for planting.

Pages 1712-1722 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p2026
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Challenges in chemical management of Chrysodeixis includens using several insecticides

Clerison R. Perini*, Jonas A. Arnemann, Lucas de A. Cavallin, Gabriel A. Guedes, Rafael P. Marques, Ivair Valmorbida, Karina da Silva, Natalie M. Feltrin, Leticia Puntel, Ricardo Froehlich, Jerson V. Carus Guedes

Department of Plant Protection, Federal University of Santa Maria, Roraima Av 1000, CCR, 44G, Santa Maria - RS, Brazil
Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, 339 Science II, Ames - IA, United States


Abstract
Soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858]) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is the most important caterpillar pest in Brazil due to its high tolerance to insecticides and control failures that have been reported in fields. Based on this, we assessed the performance of several insecticides against C. includens on soybean over three seasons (2014, 2015, and 2016), performing four experiments in southern Brazil. Experiments I / 2014, II / 2015, III / 2016 were carried in completely randomized block designs with eight insecticides. Experiment IV / 2016 was arranged in completely randomized block design in an 8 x 2 factorial arrangement, eight insecticides x two spraying time. Mortality of small (< 1.5 cm) and large (> 1.5 cm) soybean looper larvae was assessed with a vertical beat cloth, sampling in each plot 1.0 m2 at 3, 7 and 10 days after spray. Percentage of defoliation injury was assessed visually comparing to a scale of soybean leaf injury in experiment IV / 2016. Data were subjected to one-way (type I SS) analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear models. The insecticides indoxacarb and chlorfenapyr had consistently high mortality upon small and large larvae of C. includens. Spinosyn, spinosad and spinetoram insecticides showed higher effect over small larvae (< 1.5 cm) than large (> 1.5 cm). Number of spraying was significant for spinetoram and indoxacarb that increased mortality of large larvae (from 4.50 to 2.75 and from 3.75 to 0.87 larvae m-2, respectively) and reduced defoliation injury significantly (from 22.5% to 9.3% and from 14.5% to 3.3%, respectively) with two applications. The treatment chlorfluazuron+acephate showed low defoliation injury in 2016 but did not affect larval density. Chlorfenapyr showed reduced defoliation (3.0%) and low larvae density (1.37 larvae m-2) with only one application. Spinosyns have satisfactory control of small larvae and indoxacarb and chlorfenapyr show high mortality of both sizes, small and large larvae. Therefore, we recommend that 7 days from the first one, a second application should be considered for indoxacarb, and spinetoram to achieve higher mortality. Considering our results, we demonstrate that the satisfactory control of soybean looper larvae is difficult to achieve with most chemical insecticides. It needs a more accurate management strategy of C. includens in soybeans.

Pages 1723-1730 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.10.p2052