Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

November 2018 | EARLY VIEW | 12(11) 2018 | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11


Study of storage condition on the physicochemical properties of biodiesel derived from macaúba palm (Acrocomia aculeata) oil using multivariate analysis

Sônia R. Arrudas*, Paulo H. Fidêncio, Flaviano O. Silvério, Maira Martins Franco, Darlyson Santos Silva, Márcio Antônio Silva Pimenta

Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Rodovia MGT 367, Km 583, 5000, Diamantina - MG, Brasil
Instituto de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, ICA, Av. Universitária 1000, 39.404-547 Montes Claros - MG, Brasil
Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121 - Santa Mônica, Uberlândia - MG, 38408-100, Brazil
Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Vila Mauricéia, 39401-089 Montes Claros - MG, Brasil


Abstract
The influence of storage conditions on the properties of biodiesel from macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart). seed oil was evaluated. The biodiesel samples were stored for 12 months at 25 °C and 4 °C. The physical properties of the biodiesel: acidity index, peroxide and refractive index, flash point, and oxidative stability were determined. The chemical composition of the biodiesel was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and by infrared spectroscopy. The analysis of the main components and the Hierarchical Analysis were used to group the samples. The oxidative stability of biodiesel, which developed low acid and peroxide indexes, and the ester composition were maintained stable, regardless of the storage method. However, storage at 4 °C proved to be more efficient in maintaining the characteristics of the biodiesel. The high quality of biodiesel and its stability confirm the potential of the agro-industrial use of biodiesel from Acrocomia aculeata.

Pages 1702-1709 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p1100
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Population dynamics and spatial distribution of the Calosoma granulatum Perty., 1830 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in soybean/corn crop

Ivan Carlos Fernandes Martins*, Francisco Jorge Cividanes, José Carlos Barbosa, Joaquim Alves de Lima Junior, André Luiz Pereira da Silva, Lourival Dias Campos, Gianni Queiroz Haddad, e Anderson Gonçalves da Silva

Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia / UFRA, Capanema Campus, PA, Brazil
Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia / UFRA, Campus Paragominas, PA, Brazil
Universidade Estadual Paulista / UNESP, Faculty of Agrarian and Veterinary Sciences / FCAV, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil


Abstract
The (Calosoma granulatum Perty., 1830) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is an important predator of agricultural pests. The knowledge about the spatial and temporal behavior and influence of the environmental structure may be fundamental for the application of conservative biological control. This study evaluated whether phenology of cultivated plants and meteorological factors influencing the occurrence and spatial distribution of the predaceous beetle (Calosoma granulatum) in soybean/corn crop. Three hypotheses were tested: H1: that this predaceous beetle occurs naturally in aggregated spatial patterns; H2: its presence/absence in agricultural fields is influenced by meteorolical factors; and H3: the presence of the beetle bank in crop fields affects the carabid spatial distribution patterns. To test these hypotheses, we measured annual population fluctuations to examine the influence of meteorological factors, and to determinate the spatial distribution using dispersion indices and probabilistic models based on the Calosoma granulatum frequency distribution in one hectare of soybean/corn crop using multiple regression analysis (stepwise). The results showed that population peaks of the beetle in soybean crop were coincident with their reproductive period regardless of meteorological factors. The analyses of the spatial distributions showed that Calosoma granulatum has a clustered distribution, and the highest numbers were observed in soybean crop. These results support the hypothesis that the beetles have an aggregated pattern. However, the hypotheses that the occurrence and distribution of this predator is directly influenced by environmental distribution factors and by the presence of herbaceous refuge is not supported.

Pages 1710-1717 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p1130
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Glyphosate resistant soybean growth and yield affected by glyphosate and phosphate fertilization

Arthur Arrobas Martins Barroso*, Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP. Via de Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, s/n Rural. 14884900, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil

Abstract
Glyphosate is the most used herbicide worldwide and glyphosate-tolerant soybean planted in almost all cultivated areas. In Brazil, the area cultivated with transgenic soybean reaches more than 90%. Recently, the application of glyphosate in tolerant soybean has assumed the possibility to injury the crop under certain conditions and herbicides formulations. Phosphate fertilization can directly influence glyphosate uptake in plants because glyphosate translocation inside cells is related with phosphate transporters. Therefore, a study was conducted in two steps intended to determine if different doses of phosphate fertilization and/or glyphosate mode of spraying could modify glyphosate susceptibility of glyphosate-tolerant soybean, affecting crop development and yield. We tested two glyphosate doses and its interaction with mode of spraying and different glyphosate doses interaction with phosphate soil-fertilization. Experiment I was set up in a two by two factorial design, testing two doses of isopropylamine salt glyphosate (960 and 1,440 g ae ha-1) and two modes of glyphosate application (single spraying and sequential spraying). Experiment II was set up in a two by three factorial design, testing two doses of glyphosate (960 and 1,440 g ae ha-1) and three doses of phosphate fertilization (54, 108 and 162 kg ha-1 of P2O5). In both experiments, weed community was evaluated based on number of individuals and their respective dry mass accumulation. Crop was evaluated in dry mass of leaves, dry mass of stem, dry mass of pods, dry mass of shoot, plant height and grain yield. The use of glyphosate in a sequential spraying (960 + 480 g ae ha-1) or in higher dose (1,440 g ae ha-1) provides a highly efficient weed control and a high-performance crop growth and yield. The additional soil-fertilization with phosphate in this case does not affect soybean since no crop injury was observed.

Pages 1718-1724 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p1224
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Performance of tomato rootstocks in False Root-knot Nematode (Nacobbus aberrans) infested soil

Sebastián Andrés Garita*, Marcelo de Almeida Guimarães, María Cecilia Arango, Jean Paulo de Jesus Tello, Marcela Ruscitti

Instituto de Fisiología Vegetal, UNLP - CONICET. La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal do Ceará. Ceará, Brasil


Abstract
Nacobbus aberrans, known as the "false root-knot nematode", has drawn special attention since it affects large areas of tomato production in Latin America. The aim of this study was to evaluate two rootstocks, Solanum lycopersicon L. var. cerasiforme 'Carolina' and S. lycopersicon L. 'Maxifort', onto which S. lycopersicon L. 'Santa Clara' was grafted. In addition to these, non-grafted 'Santa Clara' plants were used as control. Grafting was carried out 30 days after sowing, both for scion and for rootstocks. Both the grafted plants and those used as control were grown in a greenhouse on two kind of substrate: without the presence of N. aberrans and inoculated with 5000 eggs. After 60 days of being inoculated, growth parameters, physiological stress indicators, and pathogen reproductive factor were evaluated. The parasitism caused changes in the metabolism of the plants. On grafted plants, flowering was delayed, and on plants exposed to nematodes such delay was even greater. The reproductive factors of the nematode were 3.68, 5.47 and 2.76 on non-grafted rootstocks, 'Carolina' and 'Maxifort', respectively, and they were classified as susceptible. The Maxifort rootstock has an invigorating effect on Santa Clara scion. It stimulates the apical growth and shows a great tolerance to the attack of nematodes as indicated by parameters like the accumulation of proline and the damage in the cell membranes. However, N. aberrans reproduces at its roots and increases its population, so its use as rootstocks must be carried out together with other practices that reduce the reproduction factor of the pathogen.

Pages 1725-1731 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p1283
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Comparison between the performance of genetically modified and conventional maize hybrids in Brazil

Leandro Nogueira Ramos*, Nara Oliveira Silva Souza, Maurício Kobiraki

DuPont Pioneer, Cx. Postal 08283, CEP 73301-970, Planaltina, DF, Brazil
University of Brasília, FAV, Cx. Postal 04508, CEP 70910-900, Brasília, DF, Brazil


Abstract
This study evaluates the yield performance of five maize hybrids (HP2251, HP5253, HP6490, HP8761 and HP0297). The aim of this work was to compare a non-transgenic (base genetics), a transgenic (Bt) with TC1507 and a transgenic (Bt) with MON810+TC1507 for each hybrid. The experiment was conducted in farms during 2014-2015 season, with natural infestation of fall armyworm and controlled by spraying insecticides. Three locations were planted in the Federal District, another two in Minas Gerais and three in Goiás (Brazil). The experimental design was a complete randomized block of 5 x 3 factorial arrangement in 8 locations, 5 hybrids and 3 versions, with two replicates. The plot size was four rows of five meters. For grain yield, data on weight was converted to kg.ha-1 and moisture was standardized to 14%. Harvest data was submitted to statistical analysis using ASReml program to obtain yield predictions of genotypic effects. The estimation of variance components and genotypic parameters were obtained by Restrict Maximum Likelihood process. There were no significant differences when the treatments were analysed for the presence or absence of transgenic genes. The yield differences in the hybrids were due to the adaptability of those genotypes to the Brazil central high lands and not necessarily to the insertion of Bt genes. The transgenic insertions were not a determinant factor for yield reduction, indicating a specific interaction between genotypes and Bt events for yield. Therefore, a new transgenic hybrid always must be compared to its conventional counterpart before release decision.

Pages 1732-1737 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p1333
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Macro and micronutrients accumulation in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) subjected to potassium (K) fertilization

Aline Mendes de Sousa Gouveia*, Carla Verônica Corrêa, Marcelo de Souza Silva, Veridiana Zocoler de Mendonça, Letícia Galhardo Jorge, Bruno Novaes Menezes Martins, Regina Marta Evangelista, Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso

Department of Horticulture, Botucatu School of Agronomy (FCA), Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brasil
Department of Energy in Agriculture, Botucatu School of Agronomy (FCA), Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brasil
Department of Botany, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brasil


Abstract
The current study aims to evaluate the effects of potassium fertilization on yield, root quality, macro and micronutrients accumulation in radish production. The experiment was conducted using a randomized block design with five treatments consisted of potassium (K2O) topdressing (0, 22.5, 45, 67.5 and 90 kg ha-1) applied in the form of potassium chloride and five repetitions. Plants vegetative characteristics, yield, macro and micronutrient accumulation were evaluated in both roots and shoots. Results indicated that K2O increased plant height (21.5 cm) at 90 kg ha-1; in addition to root fresh mass (40.4 g), total fresh mass (115.2 g), yield (33.7 t ha-1), Mg concentration in roots (2.9mg plant-1) and B in leaves (3.6 mg plant-1), being the best dose for this crop. The decreasing orders of macro and micronutrient accumulation in the shoots were N>P>K>Ca>S>Mg and Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>B, respectively. The decreasing orders of macro and micronutrient accumulation in the roots were: K>P>N>Ca>S>Mg and Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>B, respectively.

Pages 1738-1742 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p1415
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Improvement of soil quality using bokashi composting and NPK fertilizer to increase shallot yield on dry land

Sri Anjar Lasmini*, Burhanuddin Nasir, Nur Hayati, Nur Edy

Departement of Horticulture, University of Tadulako, Palu - 94117, Indonesia
Departement of Plant Pest and Diseases, University of Tadulako, Palu - 94117, Indonesia


Abstract
The use of NPK fertilizer and bokashi composting, which is a fermented organic matter combined with microbial stock, have been reported as potential agricultural practices to enhance the farming land and crop production. The aim of this research is to understand the type of bokashi fertilizer and the correct dosage of NPK inorganic fertilizer in improving entisol soil quality and shallot yield in the dry land. The research used the split-plot design, which was divided into two factors. The first factor of the main plot was the bokashi type consisting of two levels: 3 t ha-1 of bokashi compost of Gliricidia sp. tree leaves (B1); and bokashi cow manure 3 t ha-1 (B2). The second factor as the subplot was the NPK inorganic fertilizer dose which were consisted of four levels: without fertilizers (K0), NPK 100 kg ha-1 (K1), NPK 200 kg ha-1 (K2), and NPK 300 kg ha-1(K3). By combination of these two factors 8 combined treatments with 3 replications totally 24 units were obtained. The result of the research showed that application of 3 t ha-1 bokashi cow manure (B2) coupled with NPK inorganic fertilizer at 200 kg ha-1 (K2) caused a decrease in evaporation of its land and soil temperature, while increase shallot bulb yield compared with other treatments. The analysis of soil and soil microbes showed an increase in soil fertility by elevated levels of C-organic from 0.66 % to 3.28 %, N-fixing bacteria from 27 x 105 CFU ml-1 to 47 x106 CFU ml-1 and phosphate solubilizing bacteria from 20 x103 CFU ml-1 to 90 x103 CFU ml-1. The shallot bulb yield increased from 4.79 t ha-1 to 11.74 t ha-1.

Pages 1743-1749 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p1435
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Image-based phenotyping of morpho-agronomic traits in papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. THB var.)

Renato Santa-Catarina*, Diego Fernando Marmolejo Cortes, Julio Cesar Fiorio Vettorazzi, Helaine Christine Cancela Ramos, Geraldo Antônio Ferreguetti, Messias Gonzaga Pereira

Department of Genetic and Plant Breeding, North Fluminense State University “Darcy Ribeiro”, Av. Alberto Lamego, 2000, 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Caliman Agrícola S.A., BR 101, km 111, Linhares, Espiríto Santo, Brazil


Abstract
Manual phenotyping (MP) methodology for papaya breeding demands intensive labor and is time-consuming. This study aimed to validate a low-cost image-based phenotyping (IBP) methodology of fruit traits to speed up the process in breeding program. Two groups of 50 fruits of the 'THB' at the zero-maturity stage were used. The fruits were sliced longitudinally and half part of the fruit was scanned in Flat-bed Scanner to obtain the digital image. In the first group, the length and diameter of fruits were measured by image processing (IP) using a two-bit binary image and the ovarian cavity length, ovarian cavity diameter, thickness pulp were measured by image analysis (IA) in RGB format using the straight tool of ImageJ software. The traits were measured by digital caliper. The fruit mass (FM) was measured by analytical scale and de fruit volume (FV) was estimated using the water desplacement method (WDM). The second group was used to estimate the FV and FM through IP and MP. The trait averages were estimated using IBP, similar to those averages measured manually. The coefficients of variation estimated by IBP were low compared to the measurement by MP, indicating that this methodology is more accurate. The Bland-Altman approach showed agreement between the FV obtained by the WDM and IP. Since the IBP is about four times quicker and less-dependent on labor, it is expected to be incorporated to papaya breeding as a way to increase the number of accessed (being evaluated) genotypes and, consequently, increasing the genetic gains.

Pages 1750-1756 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p1437
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Adaptability to varying water levels and responsiveness to NPK fertilizer in yellow velvetleaf plant (Limnocharis flava)

Benyamin Lakitan*, Hibiki Iwanaga, Kartika Kartika, Haris Kriswantoro, Jun-Ichi Sakagami

College of Agriculture, Universitas Sriwijaya, Inderalaya 30662, Indonesia
Research Center for Sub-optimal Lands (PUR-PLSO), Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang 30139, Indonesia
Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
Graduate School, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang 30139, Indonesia
Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Palembang, Palembang 30139, Indonesia


Abstract
Yellow velvetleaf (Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau) is an edible plant commonly found at rice fields in tropical riparian wetlands. At present, young leaves and flower buds of L. flava are commonly gathered from rice field during off- growing season. This plant is rarely cultivated. Research was conducted for evaluating L. flava response to (1) different water regimes, i.e. flooding, water saturated soil, and shallow water table, for mirroring water behavior at riparian ecosystem; and (2) NPK application rates up to 6 g/plant. Pots used do not have bottom drainage hole; instead four side holes were drilled on each pot at height matching to water level treatments. Primary growth traits, leaf growth analysis, and chlorophyll concentration index were measured for evaluating adaptability of the velvetleaf plant to varying water levels and responsiveness to NPK fertilizer. Results of this research indicated that L. flava was well-adapted to all water regimes varied from 3 cm below to 3 cm above soil surface but it grew better under flooded condition at depth of 3 cm during vegetative growth stage. The L. flava positively responded to NPK fertilizer application at rate of 6.0 g/plant, both during vegetative and reproductive growth stages. Increase in leaf area was driven by leaf water content but the increase in leaf area was followed by decrease in specific leaf weight.

Pages 1757-1764 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p1451
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Impacts of vermicomposting rates on growth, yield and qualities of red seedless watermelon

Tahir Lawan Dalorima, Abd Jamil Zakaria, Ali Majrashi, Khairil Mahmud, Khamsah Suryati Mohd, Hasbullah Muhammad, Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker*

School of Agriculture Science & Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia
Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia


Abstract
A study was conducted at the teaching and research farm of the Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry at Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) with an objective of determining the best rates for vermicompost application on red seedless watermelon var. Crimson sweet. In this research, watermelon crimson red flesh seedless variety was used as planting materials and different application rates of vermicompost were the major factor of the experiment. The research was a potted layout experiment in a completely randomized design (CRD). Sixteen (16) pots were randomly arranged in a nursery and 10 kg of BRIS soil was added into each pot until 10 cm of soil furrow slice was achieved. Application of vermicompost at the rates of 5, 10, 15, 20 t ha-1 and untreated control were applied, with four replications each, single plant was taken as an experimental unit from each replicate. Vermicompost treatment at the rate of 15 t ha-1 increased stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and the least days required to 50% flowering was significantly different compared with other treatments and control. The vermicompost application at the rate of 20 t ha-1 positively influences leaf area, net photosynthetic rate, internal carbon dioxide, number of flowers and fruits weight of watermelon. This findings also revealed that quality properties of watermelon like rind thickeness, TSS, pH, anthocyanin, juice and ash contents were improved with the application rate of 20 t ha-1. Vermicompost application rate of 15-20 t ha-1 is recommended for watermelon production.

Pages 1765-1773 | Full Text PDF | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p1493
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Effect of resistance elicitors on the biology and feeding preference of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn

Janaina Marques Mondego, Keneson Klay Gonçalves Machado, Leonardo de Jesus Machado Gois de Oliveira, Raimunda Nonata Santos de Lemos*, Jacinto de Luna Bastista, Altamiro Souza de Lima Ferraz Junior, Ana Maria Silva de Araujo, Paulo Alexandre Fernandes Rodrigues de Melo, Mario Luiz Ribeiro Mesquita

Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agroecologia, CP 65.055-098, São Luís, MA, Brasil
Universidade Federal da Paraíba/ Campus Areia, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agronomia, Brasil
Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agricultura e Ambiente, Brasil


Abstract
This study searches for efficient and low environmental impact alternatives to control Spodoptera frugiperda. Application of elicitors capable of inducing resistance in plants has already been highlighted. The elicitors trigger the plant's defense capacity against attack of herbivores and phytopathogenic organisms. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of resistance elicitors on some biological aspects and food preference of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) in corn in laboratory conditions. The treatments consisted of: Control (distilled water); Biofertilizer (25 mL L-1); Acibenzolar-S-methyl-ASM (2 mg mL-1); Potassium silicate (10 mL L-1) and T5: Potassium silicate (10 mL L-1) + ASM (2 mg mL-1). The treatments were foliar application of elicitors with adjustable jet pressure sprayer to the whole plant with an amount of 20 mL of the solution per plant. The larval phase (weight at 7 and 14 days, duration and viability); pupal phase (weight after 24 h, duration and viability) and adult phase (number of eggs / female, number of eggs/posture/female and longevity of adults) were evaluated. Free-choice and no-choice food preference test experiments were also carried out on 1st and 3rd instar caterpillars, after which the leaves collected at 5 and 10 days after spraying. The results showed that Acibenzolar-S-methyl induces resistance in corn plants when applied either alone or together with potassium silicate. Therefore, it adversely affects development of S. frugiperda. The leaves treated with Potassium Silicate + ASM were less preferred and consumed by 1st and 3rd instar caterpillars in free-choice food preference test.

Pages 1774-1781 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p1509
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Assessment of allelopathic activity of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) seed extracts on different plant species

Krishna Rany Das*, Hisashi Kato-Noguchi

Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan
The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566, Japan


Abstract
The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni L. (Meliaceae) have been used as a traditional medicine for a long time. However, there is no report on its allelopathic activity. Considering allelopathy as an ecologically sound weed management approach, the aqueous methanol extracts of S. mahagoni seeds were examined on seedling growth of four dicotyledonous plants; cress, alfalfa, rapeseed, lettuce, and three monocotyledonous plants; barnyard grass, timothy and foxtail fescue at six concentrations (0.001, 0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 g dry weight (DW) equivalent extract/mL). The powder of S. mahagoni seeds was extracted with aqueous methanol, filtered and evaporated completely. The crude extract was then diluted with methanol to prepare six concentrations. The seeds of test plants were incubated for 48 h and the shoot and root length was measured. The suppression activity of S. mahagoni seed extracts was concentration-dependent and species-specific. For 50% inhibition (I50) of shoot and root growth of monocotyledonous plants, the required concentrations ranged from 0.0433-0.1443 and 0.0007-0.0348 g DW equivalent extract/mL, respectively. In case of dicotyledonous plants, I50 values for the growth of shoot and root ranged from 0.0040-0.1077 and 0.0010-0.0248 g DW equivalent extract/mL, respectively. Considering I50 values, the shoot growth of cress and the root growth of barnyard grass were the most sensitive, whereas foxtail fescue is found the least sensitive to the seed extracts of S. mahagoni. These findings suggest that the seed extracts of S. mahagoni may possess growth inhibitory substances and; therefore, might have possibility to be used in the biological weed management option.

Pages 1782-1787 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p1526
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Peel colour, anthocyanin, TSS content and sensory evaluation of some common fruits: A comparative study

Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker*, Fatin Nor Amirah, Ali Majrashi, Mohammad Hailmi Sajili, Khamsah Suryati Mohd, Nashriyah Mat

School of Agriculture Science & Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia
Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia


Abstract
The study was conducted to identify the best eating quality of some common fruits in the Malaysian local market. The selected market fruits such as papaya, mango, banana, wax apple (jambu madu) and tomato were collected from local markets located in Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia at different ripening stages. The qualities of these fruits were determined by the peel colour analysis, juice, total soluble solids, anthocyanin and total flavonoid content at different ripening stages. Furthermore, sensory evaluation was tested to find out the consumer preferences of fruit at different ripening stages by giving score to the attributes. The L* and a* values and hue angle showed significant differences between ripening stages of all fruits. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between ripening stages of tomato for b* value and also of mango, wax apple and tomato for Chroma value. As for juice content, the highest value was shown in papaya with significant differences. On the other hand, the highest TSS content was shown in banana with significant differences. Anthocyanin content was found to be the highest in banana as compared to other fruits, with significant differences. Meanwhile, flavonoid content was the highest in banana with significant differences. Sensory evaluation indicated that banana has the highest score compared to other fruits. Juice, TSS and anthocyanin content were correlated with each other and ripen fruits contain the better peel colour. This study showed that mango and banana were the two best fruit to be consumed as it has the best quality, with the best stage to consume was at the ripen stage.

Pages 1788-1795 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p1489
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Biometric models and maize genetic breeding: A review

Ivan Ricardo Carvalho*, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Ritieli Baptista Mambrim, Maurício Ferrari, Alan Junior Pelegrin, Tiago Corazza da Rosa, Márcio Peter, Diógenes Cecchin Silveira, Giordano Gelain Conte, Mauricio Horbach Barbosa, Velci Queiróz de Souza

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Universidade de Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Pampa, Dom Pedrito, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil


Abstract
Genetic variability is essential for maize breeding, being source of determining alleles and genes that maximize traits of agronomic interest, minimize abiotic and biotic stresses, as germplasm sources for breeding, one can use landraces, adapted populations, exotic populations and commercial hybrids, which are readily available to lineages extraction and improved open pollinated varieties (OPVs). Thus, the aim of this review is to highlight the main dynamics involved in the genetic improvement of maize, the use of biometric models to select genotypes superior to grain yield and nutritional components. In this study it was possible to contextualize on: Botanical description, morphological and physiological characteristics, the genetic breeding, development of inbred lines, development of hybrids, variance components and genetic parameters, heterosis, diallel analysis, genotype x environment interaction, associations between traits and Restricted Maximum Likelihood and Best Linear Unbiased Predictor (REML / BLUP).

Pages 1796-1805 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.11.p792



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