Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

MAY 2022 | 16(05):2022 | EARLY VIEW | 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05


Nitrogen fertilization strategies with protected urea for tropical grasses in an integrated crop-livestock system

Dhiéssica Morgana Alves Barros, Rosane Cláudia Rodrigues, Clésio dos Santos Costa, Alex Carvalho Andrade, Giovanne Oliveira C. Sousa, Leonardo Santana Fernandes, Raphael da Silva Ramos, Rogério de Paula Lana, Francirose Shigaki, Jocélio Araújo dos Santos, Juliana Rodrigues Lacerda de Lima, Jefferson Auteliano Carvalho Dutra, Kátia Aparecida de Pinho Costa, Ana Paula Ribeiro de Jesus, Francisco Naysson de Sousa Santos*

Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Maranhão, Chapadinha, MA, Brazil
Department of Animal Science, Estadual University of Piauí, Parnaíba, PI, Brazil
Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Paraíba, Areia, PB, Brazil
Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology Goiano - Campus Rio Verde, Brazil


Abstract
The intercropping of corn and grass allows for the production of grains, and simultaneously, the recuperation and renovation of pastures. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of N doses on the yield, structure, chemical-bromatological characteristics, and the N use efficiency of Brachiara brizantha cultivars in an integrated crop-livestock system. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications, in a slip-plot scheme. The plots were formed of two grass plants, Marandu and Paiaguás, intercropped with corn and subplots composed of nitrogen doses (70, 100, and 130 kg N ha-1). During the system’s establishment (1st cycle), the Paiaguás grass presented higher values for all morphogenic and structural characteristics and higher forage yield when compared to Marandu grass. After the corn harvest, the interaction effect of the N doses and the cultivars for the foliar structure emergence and the number of living leaves was observed. The variables foliar elongation rate, stem elongation rate, and phyllochron were not influenced by any of the investigated factors (P>0.05). The highest DM content was obtained with the application of 100 kg ha-1 of N, whereas, for the other chemical characteristics, there was only an effect among the cultivars. Paiaguás grass exhibited the highest levels of NDF, ADF, lignin, and MM. CP levels were not influenced by the factors studied. Marandu grass and the use of 70 kg N ha-1 are recommended for intercropping with corn.

Pages 545-554 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3472
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Efficacy of Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr leaf extracts against seedling growth of six important plants

Seinn Moh Moh*, Hisashi Kato-Noguchi

Kagawa University, Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan
Ehime University, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566, Japan


Abstract
Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr, a deciduous shrub in the family Ochnaceae, is a great source of active compounds and is used as a medicinal plant in tropical Asia, Africa, and America. Previous studies have focused on the pharmacological properties of O. integerrima; however, the allelopathic potential of this plant has not yet been identified. Therefore, this study was carried out with completely randomized design to determine the allelopathic potential of O. integerrima leaf extracts in six concentrations against the seedlings growth of dicots plants [garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)] and monocot plants [Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.)]. The results showed that the leaf extracts inhibited the seedling growth of all the test plants at concentrations ≥10 mg dry weight (D.W.) equivalent extract mL−1, except for the barnyard grass shoots. The concentrations needed for 50% inhibition (I50 values) of the shoot and root growth of the test plants were in the ranges 1.97–48.01 and 1.18–9.64 mg D.W. equivalent extract mL−1, respectively. The I50 values showed the roots of all the tested plants were more susceptible to the extracts than their shoots, except alfalfa. These findings suggested that the leaf extracts of O. integerrima may possess allelopathic substances which could be used as a source of bio-herbicide for reducing the weed burden in crop fields. Thus, more research is needed to isolate and identify the allelopathic substances in O. integerrima in order to produce bio-herbicide for weed management.

Pages 555-561 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3477
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Prognosis of growth and production of Eucalyptus urograndis planted at different spacings

Mirella Basileu de Oliveira Lima, Mauro Eloi Nappo, Sylvio Péllico Netto, Alexandre Behling, Mario Tommasiello Filho, Kálita Luis Soares, Renato Vinícius Oliveira Castro, Eder Pereira Miguel, Thelma Shirlen Soares, Ricardo de Oliveira Gaspar, Priscila Sales Rodrigues Aquino, Renan Augusto Miranda Matias

Federal University of Paraná, Department of Forest Sciences, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil
The University of Brasilia, Department of Forest Science, Brasília, Brazil
The University of São Paulo, School of the Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz, Department of Forest Resource, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil
Federal University of São João Del Rei, Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Federal University of Jataí, Jataí, Goiás, Brazil


Abstract
A topic of great interest in forestry research is recognizing the behavior of stands planted at different spacings to optimize the potential of producing multiple products. This study aimed to assess the future production of multiple products from Eucalyptus sp. planted at 12 different spacings. The study area was in central Brazil. A Nelder systematic design with three replications was used. This design yielded 432 planting spots per plot per replicate. Diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height were measured for all trees from 4 to 36 months of age. In addition, the volume of five trees for each spacing of 16, 24, and 36 months of age was measured. Subsequently, an equation system was fitted for each area to project the Weibull 3P probability density function parameters: minimum diameter, maximum diameter, and the number of trees. The current and mean annual increments were assessed based on the total volume. Trees of 36 and 48 months of age were compared between the population designed for multiple products (Scenario I) and the population designed for only one product (Scenario II). The results showed that spacing affects the technical harvest age and that 0.77 m² and 1.76 m² are optimal for a short-term regime.

Pages 562-572 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3495
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Carbon from above-ground biomass and litter accumulated in an Atlantic Forest fragment

Adriano Castelo dos Santos*, Maria Betânia Galvão dos Santos Freire, Lucca Silveira Mousinho Mossio, Luiz Carlos Marangon, Fernando José Freire, Rosival Barros de Andrade Lima, César Henrique Alves Borges, Giovana Elvira de Melo

Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Florestais, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil
Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Departamento de Agronomia, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil
Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Departamento de Ciência Florestal, Brasil


Abstract
This work aimed to quantify carbon (C) stocks from above-ground biomass (AGB) and accumulated litter in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest biome (edge and interior) in Northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out in areas with native vegetation, in a fragment of Atlantic tropical forest, municipality of Sirinhaém, Pernambuco, Brazil. AGB was quantified using the allometric equation proposed for tropical rainforests. The samples of plant material were dried at 60°C, weighed and ground, and then taken to the laboratory for analysis of organic C contents by dry combustion. AGB stocks were not different between the fragment edge and interior environments. The AGB stratification into diameter classes showed that large trees are important for the storage of biomass in trees. Litter biomass stocks also did not differ between edge and interior. The branch compartment showed higher levels of C. The C-AGB stocks were not different between edge and interior, similar to the C-litter. C stocks did not differ between interior and edge among tree species, except for Protium heptaphyllum, which had the highest C stocks at edges. With this study, we hope to contribute to improving C estimates in fragmented forests to support forest conservation policies, support REDD+ projects, and access to carbon credits.

Pages 573-579 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3526
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Metrics for optimum allocation of resources on the composition and characterization of crop collections: The CIMMYT wheat collection as a proof of concept

M. Humberto Reyes-Valdés, Juan Burgueño*, Carolina Paola Sansaloni, Thomas Payne, Angela Pacheco, Areli González-Cortés

Department of Plant Breeding, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila, México,
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), México City, México
Instituto de Ciencias y Humanidades Lic. Salvador González Lobo, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, México


Abstract
Crop genebank collections are important resources for preserving genetic diversity to face the worldwide demand for food and coping with crop diseases and climate change. However, genebanks tend to accumulate materials without systematic collection growth. Thus, tools for optimizing collections are expected to help improvement of genebanks quality. Furthermore, the genotyping efforts of genebanks would benefit from tools that can help to sample the accessions. A set of parameters to aid the optimization of genebanks are defined, in which Relative Balance is central. In this study, the foundation of our mathematical approach was Kullback-Leibler divergence, providing formulas with consistent properties. Two examples were used as proof of concept. The first one was the comparison between actual and putative optimal numbers of accessions in the Triticum set of the CIMMYT (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo) Wheat Germplasm Bank, with 135,236 entries classified into ten groups. The second one was based on a set containing Triticum plus eight related genera, with 159,741 accessions classified into 217 end-groups, with the goal of illustrating the use of the analytical tools to optimize the ongoing genotyping process. The first example shows a scenario with a well-balanced allocation of accessions. The second example illustrates the optimized choice of end-groups to add 10,000 accessions to the genotyping process. The proof of concept showed the consistency and usefulness of the proposed methods for the improvement of composition in collections and their characterization.

Pages 580-586 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| Supplementary Data xlsx| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3534
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Evaluation of Kenyan wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for rust resistance, yield and yield components

Grace W. Wanyoike, James O. Owuoche, Miriam K. Charimbu, Godwin Macharia, Mandeep S. Randhawa*

Department of Crops, Horticulture and Soils, P.O. Box 536-20115, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya
Food Crops Research Center, Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), P. O. Private Bag Njoro 20107, Njoro, Kenya
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF House), United Nations Avenue, Gigiri, Village market, PO 1041-00621, Nairobi, Kenya


Abstract
Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) is an important fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) due to its ability to cause severe yield losses on susceptible cultivars grown under conducive conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate 81 Kenyan wheat cultivars for yield, agronomic traits and resistance to rust. A 3-season field experiment was conducted in a 9 × 9 partially balanced lattice design at KALRO, Njoro (0˚ 20’S and 35˚ 56’E) under stem rust (Sr) and yellow rust (Yr) pressure. The results from this study showed that effects due to season, cultivar and cultivar × season interaction were significant (p≤0.001) for number of kernels spike-1, Area Under Disease Progress Curve for stem rust (AUDPC_SR), Area Under Disease Progress Curve for yellow rust (AUDPC_YR), yield, 1000-kernel weight (TKW), biomass and days to heading. Principal component analysis showed AUDPC was the most effective disease parameter for determining rust resistance and biplot analysis identified cultivars K. Fahari, K. Kingbird, K. Songbird and K. Pelican with desirable traits for yield, TKW, biomass and kernels spike -1. Stem rust contributed to the highest in reduction of yield and TKW accounting for 12.87% and 21.95% variation, respectively while Yr contributed the most to biomass reduction accounting for 25.65% variation. From this study, cultivars Bounty, Lenana, and K. Leopard which produced high yield, low AUDPC_SR and AUDPC_YR values ranging from 3.5- 32.2 and 15.6-80.4, respectively can be used as valuable genetic stocks for improvement of rust resistance in wheat cultivars in Kenya.

Pages 587-595 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3558
.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Hydroponic kale: effects of row spacing and number of plants per cell on yield and quality

Caio Salvador Noboa, Bianca Machado de Lima, Silvia Raquel Bettan, Dorin Gupta, Marta Regina Verruma-Bernardi, Luis Felipe Villani Purquerio, Fernando Cesar Sala*

Departamento de Biotecnologia e Produção Vegetal e Animal, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Rodovia Anhanguera, Km 174, Araras, SP, CEP: 13600-970 Brazil
Departamento de Tecnologia Agroindustrial e Sócio-Economia Rural, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Rodovia Anhanguera, Km 174, Araras, SP, CEP: 13600-970 Brazil
School of Agriculture and Food, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Instituto Agronômico, Avenida Barão de Itapura, 1.481, Campinas, SP, CEP: 13020-902 Brazil


Abstract
The consumption of kale is increasing, and it is sold in bunches of adult leaves. However, there is the possibility of growing in bunches of young plants in a hydroponic system with several advantages, but different densities were not tested. The aim was to generate information on the hydroponic cultivation in NFT (nutrient film technique) of curly kale in bunches of young plants, with a study of spacing (0.07, 0.11, 0.15 and 0.20 m) and several plants per cell (one, two, three and four), aiming to improve the productivity, quality and homogeneity of kale. A split-plot experiment was executed in randomized block design, with four repetitions. Agronomic characteristics were measured, and bromatological and nutrient analyses were performed. Plant height and productivity were higher with smaller spacing. With fewer plants per cell, the leaf dimensions were higher and more homogeneous were the different plants of the same cell. With four plants per cell, it was recorded, on average, 19.3 g of fresh weight of shoot in the largest plant and 6.4 g in the smallest one. The bromatological and nutrient content was consistent with literature reports. Thus, the desired product in cultivating hydroponic kale in bunches of young plants is decisive for choosing spacing and numbers of plants per cell. Larger leaves can be harvested with fewer plants per cell than more plants per cell and vice versa. The use of smaller spacing increases productivity. The hydroponic system is technically viable to produce curly kale, providing plants with good nutritional quality.

Pages 596-604 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3561
...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum): chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from organic against foodborne pathogens

Lidaiane Mariah Silva dos Santos Franciscato, Suelen Sorato Mendes, Camila Frederico, José Eduardo Gonçalves, Maria Graciela Iecher Faria, Zilda Cristiani Gazim, Suelen Pereira Ruiz*

Paranaense University, Graduate Program in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture, Umuarama, Paraná, Brazil.
Master Program in Clean Technology, Master Program in Science, Technology and Food Safety, and Cesumar Institute of Science, Technology and Innovation, Cesumar University Center,Maringá, Paraná, Brazil

Abstract
Microbial contamination is a serious problem for food industries, potentially leading to foodborne diseases that affect human health. Petroselinum crispum, popularly known as parsley, can be used for the production of biologically active essential oil. Considering the demand for novel natural products to control microorganisms, this study aimed to analyze the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of P. crispum essential oil from organic cultivation. Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial part of P. crispum cv. plain (plain leaf type) at 70 days of age and analyzed for chemical composition by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antibacterial activity was evaluated against five bacterial pathogens by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil yield was 0.02% and the major compounds were apiol (61.94%) and myristicin (9.33%). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil ranged from 1.70 to 10.00 mg mL−1, with the best activities against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results demonstrate that apiol-rich essential oil from organic P. crispum shows promise as an antibacterial agent in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Pages 605-611 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3585
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Eastern Morocco Argania spinosa propagation and growth: A follow-up study

Azizi Salah-eddine*, Mzabri Ibtissam, Dalli Mohammed, Kouddane Noureddine, Berrichi Abdelbasset, Gseyra Nadia

Laboratory of Bioresources, Biotechnology, Ethnopharmacology and Health, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Mohammed First, Oujda, Morocco
Laboratory of Agricultural Production Improvement, Biotechnology and Environment, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Mohammed First, Oujda, Morocco


Abstract
The Argan tree (Argania spinosa L) is an endemic species, located mainly in the southwest of Morocco, but also exists as a relic in the northeast of the country. It is a species of great biological, ecological and socio-economical importance. As part of the domestication of the Argan tree at the national and regional scale, a study was carried out which aims to optimize the mode of sexual multiplication of eastern Morocco Argan tree, by studying the effect of the nuts weight on the rate of imbibition, the rate of germination, the number of seedlings resulting from each nuts classes of weight, and the growth of the seedlings. The experimental treatment is mainly formed by three classes of nuts weight. The first class named W-1 is formed by nuts with a weight less than 2g. The second-class W-2 is characterized by nuts of a weight ranging from 2 to 3.5g. The last class is W3 and has a weight of over than 3.5g. The germination was conducted in a phytotronic room at a controlled temperature (26  2°C). While, the follow-up of the seedlings’ growth was carried out in a glass greenhouse, and the rate and kinetics of imbibition were performed in a separate experiment. The results indicated that the nuts were water permeable and the rate of imbibition was found to be proportionally related to weight and varies between 18.18 % W1 and 32.21% W3 after 48 hours. On the other hand, for the germination rate, the nuts of class W1 showed the highest germination rate (84.4%) followed by those of class W2 (72%) and finally class W3 (68.8%). However, Argan nuts could contain more than one kernel and produce more than one seedling per nut and this allowed to have a high number of produced plants and increased the germination rate in particular for the classes W2 and W3, (99.2% and 97.2%). The results also showed that the growth and the development of seedlings were proportionally related to the weight of the kernels.

Pages 612-619 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3591
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Effect of coconut water concentration and planting media on growth and post-harvest characters of large chili using multivariate and non-parametric analyses

Fachirah Ulfa*, Muhammad Fuad Anshori, Rusdayani Amin, Aisyah Amini Iqbal

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University, Perintis Kemerdekaan Street Km 10, Makassar, South Sulawesi, 90245, Indonesia
Bachelor Student, Department of Agronomy, Hasanuddin University, Perintis Kemerdekaan Street Km 10, Makassar, South Sulawesi, 90245, Indonesia


Abstract
This study was conducted to determine the best practices for combination of planting media and coconut water concentration on large chilies growth characteristics using multivariate analysis. The second aim was to determine the best combination of temperature and cultivation combination for post-harvest characteristics of large chilies using non-parametric analyses. The study was conducted in Jeneponto Regency, Indonesia, at 100 meters above sea level with dusty clay soil and 21-34 °C temperatures. The study used two experimental set up. The first experiment was arranged in split-plot design with planting media (combination of soil, compost or husk charcoal) as main factor (3 level) and concentrations of coconut water as subplot (4 levels). The second experiment was the temperature conditions (the room and refrigeration temperature conditions) as the post-harvest experiment after the first experiment that arranged with a nested design. The observation parameters were consisted of 9 growth parameters in the first experiment analyzed by multivariate analyses and 2 post-harvest parameters in the second stage by non-parametric analyses. Based on the results of multivariate and non-parametric analyses, increase was observed in the cultivation technology effectiveness. The variance of growth and post-harvest characteristics of large chilies were more influenced by the coconut water than the planting media effect. Furthermore, the best concentration of coconut water in large chilli is expected to occur at 15%, with a blend of refrigeration temperature for post-harvest treatment. This value is recommended in the urban farming of large chillies, using organic applications.

Pages 620-627 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3593
..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Land tenure regularization and state land grabbing in the municipality of Paragominas, Eastern Amazon

Robson Jose Carrera Ramos*, Herdjânia Veras de Lima

Cyberspace Institute (ICIBE), Federal Rural University of the Amazon (UFRA), 66077-530, Belém, Pará, Brazil
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Federal Rural University of the Amazon (UFRA), 66077-530, Belém, Pará, Brazil


Abstract
In the Amazon, the regularization of public and private lands is under discussion to reduce deforestation. However, this scenario is difficult due to land disorganization and divergent federal and state policies. The objective of this study was to analyze the importance of land data in federal and state public lands and private lands for the municipality of Paragominas, Eastern Amazon. In this study, we try to propose a diagnosis of land tenure structure, quantifying the Value of the Bare Land of the overlapping lands, state public lands on federal lands, as well as deforestation and forest conversion. The results showed that the area of federal publicly listed lands has drastically reduced. The reduced area is equivalent to the territory of Palestine, in the same database managed by the federal management agency. State public lands overlapped 16,153.32 ha on federal public lands, with a loss of US$5,529,927.57 for the federal government. Deforestation has increased on state public lands, driven by conversion to soy cultivation areas, and there is a trend towards stabilization of deforestation and agriculture on federal public lands.

Pages 628-636 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3600
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Biological use coefficient of biomass of Tachigali vulgaris under phosphorus and potassium fertilization: Management technologies for sustainable production of bioenergy in tropical countries

Pedro Henrique Oliveira Simões*, Manoel Tavares de Paula, Denmora Gomes de Araújo, Luma Castro de Souza, Clenes Cunha Lima, Lenilson Ferreira Palheta, Cândido Ferreira de Oliveira Neto, João Olegário Pereira de Carvalho

Federal Rural University of the Amazon, Perimetral avenue, Terra Firme, Belém, PA 66077-830, Brazil
Pará State University, Dr. Eneas Pinheiro Street, Marco, Belém, PA, 66095-015, Brazil
Federal Rural University of the Amazon, Pau Amarelo street, Vila Nova, Capitão Poço, PA, 68650-000, Brazil
Federal Rural University of the Amazon, PA 275 road, Km 13, Zona Rural, Parauapebas, PA, 68515-000, Brazil


Abstract
Studies dealing with the behavior, initial development, uptake and nutrient use efficiency of native Amazonian trees as a function of fertilization are extremely important to support actions for the recovery and management of degraded areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization with different levels of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on growth and nutrient use efficiency in Tachigali vulgaris plantation. The experiment was installed in a tropical climate region in eastern Amazonia, Brazil. Three doses of P (0, 65.22 and 130.4 kg ha-1) and three doses of K (0, 100 and 200 kg ha-1) were applied in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme and randomized block design, with 4 repetitions. Growth parameters, nutrient concentration in biomass, nutrient use efficiency (NUE), and biological use coefficient (BUC) were evaluated. T. vulgaris responded significantly to fertilization with P and K in the parameters evaluated. It produced two times more biomass at the age of three years. Fertilization with 65.22 kg ha-1 of triple superphosphate and 200 kg ha-1 of potassium chloride was efficient to increase height growth by 11.1% considering the 24 months of evaluation, compared to unfertilized plants. Mg is the most efficiently utilized nutrient in the biomass components of T. vulgaris, followed by P, S, K, Ca and N. The woody compartments of T. vulgaris showed the highest BUC values, which is highly desirable and of great interest for forestry.

Pages 637-648 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3607
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Seed inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi propagules enhanced yield, biomass accumulation, and plant vigor of soybeans (Glycine max) and maize (Zea mays)

Rafael Munhoz Pedroso, Carlos Antônio Medeiros, Alexandre Ometto, Viviane Paes, Eduardo Figueiredo de Andrade, Scott Inman, Jefferson Rangel da Silva, Gabriel Munhoz Pedroso*

University of Sao Paulo, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
Sumitomo Chemical do Brasil, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Mycorrhizal Applications, Grants Pass, Oregon, USA


Abstract
Hyphal networks, resulting from mutualistic symbiotic associations between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), improve plant growth and nutrition by enhancing root access to a significantly larger soil surface area, which increases nutrient availability and translocation within the plant-host. Considering the limitations imposed by the low nutrient availability commonly found in the highly weathered soils of Brazil, the positive effects of AMF could benefit the production of important plant species, such as soybeans and maize. Multiple trials were thus carried out to investigate growth and yield responses of two major crops of Brazil, soybeans and maize, in response to mycorrhizal symbiosis originated from the inoculation of a mixture of four AMF species at seed treatment. Five soybean and seven maize field trials were conducted in the 2018/2019 growing season in different regions of Brazil. Two product rates (10 or 20 ml ha-1) were tested under two P fertilization levels (0% and 100%). We observed that plant growth-promoting effects were observed in response to AMF inoculation in both crops and both rates (10 and 20 ml ha-1 and regardless of P fertilization). Moreover, treatments inoculated with AMF propagule, but not mineral fertilized with P, presented growth improvements either similar or better than the untreated P-fertilized control. Both crops yield was increased when the highest product rate was applied in combination with P fertilization relative to the P-fertilized untreated control. Our results show that EndoFuse is an alternative to facilitate important crops cultivation.

Pages 649-656 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3612
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

In-furrow application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi propagules enhanced yields, plant vigor, and biomass accumulation of soybeans (Glycine max) and maize (Zea mays)

Rafael Munhoz Pedroso, Carlos Antônio Medeiros, Alexandre Ometto, Viviane Paes, Eduardo Figueiredo de Andrade, Scott Inman, Jefferson Rangel da Silva, Gabriel Munhoz Pedroso*

University of Sao Paulo, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
Sumitomo Chemical do Brasil, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Mycorrhizal Applications, Grants Pass, Oregon, USA


Abstract
Highly weathered soils are commonly found in most crops cultivation sites of Brazil, such as maize and soybean. They impose many challenges for plant growth, such as reduced nutrient availability. Hyphal networks, resulting from mutualistic symbiotic associations between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), could be a viable alternative to improve plant growth and nutrition by enhancing root access to a significantly larger soil surface area, increasing nutrient availability and uptake. Thus, we aimed at evaluating in-furrow applications of propagules from four AMF species to enhance soybeans and maize yields, plant vigor, plant height, and biomass accumulation. Thereby, four soybeans and six maize field trials were conducted in the 2018/2019 growing season in Brazil in different environments. Two EndoMaxx SC rates (150 or 300 ml ha-1) were tested, with or without P fertilization during sowing. Results indicated that both rates positively impacted all variables analyzed, regardless of crop species and P fertilization. Even in the absence of P fertilization, AMF-colonized soybeans and maize treatments were either significantly higher or similar to the untreated control. Moreover, crop yield was 2.6-9.1% more when the highest rate of AMF was applied in combination with P fertilization compared to the P-fertilized untreated control. In-furrow EndoMaxx SC applications are an alternative to increase the sustainability of soybean and maize production, especially in a scenario, in which yield must be maximized in the coming decades to supply food for the exponentially growing population without expanding cultivations to new sites.

Pages 657-664 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3613
..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Productivity of some barley cultivars as affected by supplemental irrigation under rainfed conditions

Mohamed Abd El-Hammed Attia, Moamen M. Abou El-Enin*, Ayman M. Abou Tahoun, Fatma I.M. Abdelghany, Rasha S. El-Serafy

Desert research center, Al Materia, Cairo, Egypt
Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11651, Egypt
Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta, 31527, Egypt


Abstract
Barley is widely cultivated in the northern coasts of Egypt and in the newly reclaimed lands. The goal of this study was response of some naked barley cultivars with high yield potential using supplemental irrigation under rain-fed conditions at Al-Kasr area, Marsa Matrouh, North-Western Coast of Egypt. The growth, yield, and drought-tolerance indices of Giza 129, Giza 130, and Giza 131, barley cultivars were estimated under rain-fed and supplemental irrigation regimes (SI0: rainfall only; SI1: two supplementally irrigations at tillering and heading stages; SI2: three supplementally irrigations at tillering, stem elongation, and heading stages). Agronomic traits including yield components and drought indices for the studied barley cultivars were assessed. The results displayed that Giza 131 gave a higher performance in most studied characters under rain-fed and irrigation regimes. Also, it produced the highest tolerance index (TOL), yield index (YI), harmonic mean (HM), stress susceptibility percentage index (SSPI), sensitivity drought index (SDI), mean productivity (MP), and geometric mean productivity (GMP). MP was positively correlated with YSI, GMP, DI, and HM. So, Giza 131 cultivar was identified as a drought-tolerant genotype. Moreover, the drought tolerance indices of TOL, YI, HM, SSPI, SDI, MP, and GMP are suitable for screening cultivars with high yields under stressed and non-stress conditions. The correlation analysis between the studied traits of barley indicated that highly significant positive correlation was obtained between number of spikes m-2 and grain yield. So, these traits are the most important components of the estimated grain yield of naked barley.

Pages 665-675 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.22.16.05.p3647