Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

MAY 2018 | 12(05) 2018 | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05

Yield and physiological quality of seeds of different bean genotypes produced in the off-season period in subtropical climate

Felipe Koch, Geison Rodrigo Aisenberg, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, João Roberto Pimentel, Cristian Troyjack, Maicon Nardino, Francine Lautenchleger, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Braulio Otomar Caron, Francisco Amaral Villela, Tiago Zanatta Aumonde, Tiago Pedó

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, CEP 96010-610, Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil
Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná Campus Dois Vizinhos, PR, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Pampa, Dom Pedrito, RS, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Campus de Frederico Westphalen, RS, Brazil

Abstract

The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield and physiological quality of seeds of different bean genotypes produced in the off-season period in the subtropical region of Rio Grande do Sul state. The work was divided in two experiments. The first one evaluated the number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, number of seeds per pod, thousand seed weight and seed yield per plant of five bean genotypes (IPR Tuiuiú, BRS Embaixador, Guabiju, Carioquinha and Mouro ), during 2013 and 2014 off-season periods. In the second study, the physiological quality of the seeds such as germination, first germination count, shoot and root dry matter were measured under different osmotic potentials (0.0, -0.09, -0.18, and -0.27 MPa) at temperatures of 25 and 35°C. Moreover, the isoenzymatic expression of the seedlings at the temperatures 25 and 35°C, of the seeds from the 2013 crop was evaluated. The results showed that IPR Tuiuiú and Carioca genotypes have superiority in yield components, whereas the BRS Embaixador showed the highest Thousand seed weight. The physiological quality of the seeds was reduced in the lower osmotic potentials at both temperatures. The expression and intensity of isoenzyme peroxidase bands were higher in potencies of -0.09 and -0.18 MPa for all genotypes at both temperatures.

Pages 669-675 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE610
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Effects of legume green manure on the physicochemical quality of maize grains (Zea mays L.)

Georgiana E de C Marques, Kiany S B. Cavalcante, Lanna K Silva, Natilene M Brito, Jose F S Lima, Emanoel G de Moura

Major in Biotechnology and Biodiversity Network of Amazon, Federal University of Maranhão, 65080-805, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil
Major in Organic Chemistry, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Maranhão, 65030-005, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Maranhão, 65030-005, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil
Major in Analytical Chemistry, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Maranhão, 65030-005, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Maranhão, 65030-005, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil
Major in Agronomy, Maranhão State University, 65054-970, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low/high quality legume residue addition on the chemical composition and quality of maize grain. The experiment followed a randomized block design with a 6 × 2 factorial arrangement, and four repetitions. The plots comprised different combinations of leguminous plants (LC, LA, LG, GC, and GA) and one control group, whereas the subplots were simultaneously cultivated with QPM BR 473 and hybrid AG 7088 maize cultivars. Lipid, protein, starch, fiber, mineral residue, mineral, sugar, carbohydrate, and amino acid levels were analyzed. Legume-biomass treatments applied to the two cultivars affected all mineral contents in the grains, except for calcium. In hybrid cultivar, the legume-biomass treatment provided increased mineral, reducing sugar, and fiber contents. The LG, GA, and GC treatments showed higher protein content during cultivation than the control in both cultivars. In the QPM cultivar, throughout the two cultivations, each one of the legume-based treatments the highest contents for amino acids when compared to the control. The different effects of legume residue-based treatments on different cultivars are associated with efficient nitrogen deposition in the soil and with nitrogen accumulation in plants. Each of the chemical parameters analyzed in the maize cultivars displayed different levels when subjected to treatments using legume-biomass. Legume-biomass helped improve the physicochemical profile of maize grains in the assessed cultivars, including QPM.

Pages 676-685 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE647
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Oil, protein and fatty acid profiles of Brazilian soybean cultivars in multi-environmental trials

Gilvani Matei, Cátia Meneguzzi, Leomar Guilherme Woyann, Matheus Henrique Todeschini, Diego Maciel Trevizan, Josiane Conte, Antonio Henrique Bozi, Giovani Benin*

Nidera Seeds, CEP: 85770-000, Realeza-PR, Brazil
Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná- UTFPR. Câmpus Pato Branco. Via do Conhecimento, Km 1. CEP 85503-390 - Pato Branco – PR, Brazil

Abstract

Soybean is an important oil and protein source for human and animal food, as well as being used in the production of biofuel. Brazilian soybean is known for its quality, especially with regard to its high protein content. This work aimed to present a screening of Brazilian soybean cropped at different locations, to assess the composition of seed with regard to the protein, oil and fatty acid contents. We screened 46 cultivars, which represent more than 50% of the soybean cultivars produced in the South-Center region of Brazil in recent years, analyzed under six environments. In order to conduct the analysis, a grain sample was used to determine seed protein, oil and fatty acid contents, which was accomplished using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). All the characters presented a genotype x environment interaction (GEI) (p<0.01). A mean oil content of 20.35% was identified for all the evaluated cultivars. This was superior to that obtained in other countries. The mean protein content was 40.20%, which was expected for the Brazilian soybean. This higher oil content is doubly favorable in Brazilian soybean: firstly, for its use as cooking oil and biofuel; secondly, for the production of high protein soybean meal, once all the oil is removed. The cultivars which presented the highest oil contents were also stable across the evaluated environments. On the other hand, the genotypes with the highest protein content presented low stability across the environments. Regarding the fatty acid composition, Brazilian soybean stands out for its low linoleic acid content, which gives a high oxidative stability to the resulting oil and biofuel. Character associations were dependent on the location, thus breeders can select plants for specific traits at different locations. Brazilian cultivars present interesting characteristics for use in human and animal food products, and for biofuel production.

Pages 686-698 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE667
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Comparison of two pressurized irrigation systems on lettuce seedlings production

Estor Gnoatto, Hugo O. Carvallo Guerra, José Dantas Neto, Tainara Tâmara Santiago Silva*, Yuri Ferruzzi Filiation

Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109- 970, Paraiba, Brazil

Abstract

Automatized irrigation systems under nursery conditions have become an essential tool to satisfy rationally the water needs for plants without forgetting the sustainability aspects. The present study aimed to evaluate two sprinkler irrigation systems under nursery conditions: one with fixed laterals (fixed system) and another with self-propelled laterals (mobile system) and study the effect of their use on the behavior of tree lettuce seedlings production. The experiment was conducted on a greenhouse with a polystyrene (PVC) plastic film coverture and laterals closed with 60% plastic screen. The statistical design used was a 2x3 completely randomized factorial with four replicates, and the results analyzed using the Tukey test. To compare the lettuce seedlings behavior under both irrigation systems it was evaluated the leaves number, seedling’s height, root length and fresh and dry mass of the aerial and root part of the plant. The Christiansen uniformity coefficient (CUC) and the water distribution coefficient (WDC) for the fixed irrigation system were considered adequate and for the self-propelled laterals system (mobile system) they were considered excellent. The volume of water used with the fixed system was 109.12% higher than with the self-propelled system. The lettuce seedlings irrigated with the self-propelled system had a growth, production and a seedling quality statistically superior than when irrigated with the fixed system. Independent of the irrigation system used, the Elizabeth lettuce cultivar had a greater seedling behavior. According with the results obtained, it is recommended the use of the self-propelled irrigation system (mobile system) on the production of lettuce seedlings.

Pages 699-703 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE747
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Cerium (Ce) and Lanthanum (La) promoted plant growth and mycorrhizal colonization of maize in tropical soil

Laíze Aparecida Ferreira Vilela, Sílvio Junio Ramos, Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro, Valdemar Faquin, Luiz Roberto Guimarães Guilherme, José Oswaldo Siqueira*

Centro de Ciência Natural, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rodovia Lauri Simões de Barros, km 12 SP-189, Bairro Aracaçu, Buri, São Paulo, 18290-000, Brazil
Instituto Tecnológico Vale, Rua Boaventura da Silva, 955, Belém, Pará, 66055-090, Brazil
Departamento de Ciência do Solo, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, 37200-000, Brazil

Abstract

Rare earth elements, such as lanthanum (La) and cerium (Ce), have been employed as agricultural inputs in some countries to enhance yield and crop quality. Benefits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation for maize are also well established, but effects of inoculation in coapplication with La and Ce are largely unknown. In the current study, the effects of La and Ce application were evaluated in two separate experiments, in soil and seed treatments. Both studies were performed using a completely randomized design in a 6 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replicates. Plants were exposed to the following concentrations (mg dm-3 as soil application): La - 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100; and Ce - 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125; and (mg L-1 as seed application) 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 for both elements, in presence and absence of AMF inoculations. Both elements enhanced maize growth, mainly at 60 and 40 mg dm-3 doses for soil application, and 15 and 10 mg L-1 doses for seed treatment, for La and Ce respectively. Moreover, at lower doses, both elements stimulated AMF colonization. A synergistic relationship was also observed between AMF, Ce and La on growth of maize. Results provided relevant information on Ce and La effects on maize growth in tropical environments, suggesting that application of these rare earth elements in soils containing AMF propagules is promising to improve crop production in tropical soils.

Pages 704-710 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE754
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Integrated management systems for the improvement of the physical-hydric quality of a cerrado oxisol

Leonardo Rodrigues Barros*, Adriana Aparecida Ribon, Kathleen Lourenço Fernandes, Jéssika Lorrine de Oliveira Sousa, Vladia Correchel, Clarice Backes, Alessandro José Marques Santos, Amanda Romeiro Alves

Department of Soil Science, Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás, Goiania, GO, Brazil
Department of Soil Science, State University of Goiás, Palmeiras de Goiás, GO, Brazil
State University of São Paulo, Agrarian and Veterinarian Faculty, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
State University of Goiás, São Luís de Montes Belos, Goiás, Brazil

Abstract

Degradation of the physical-hydric quality of the soils is one of the great obstacles to agricultural production in this country. Inadequate pasture management is one of the main factors that promote soil degradation, by contrast, some alternative farming practices have emerged. The objective of this work was to study the water retention curve obtained through the Richards chamber method, among other attributes of a Yellow Oxisol under Cerrado, planted with pastures in different integrated management systems: integrated crop-livestock-forestry (ILPF); integrated livestock-forestry (IPF); crop-livestock farming (ILP); Unmanaged pasture (P); Rotated picket (PIQ), and native forest (MN). Attributes such as water retention curve, soil density, macro, microporosity and total porosity, available water capacity and organic matter were evaluated in four soil layers (0 - 0.10 m, - 0.20 m, - 0.30 Me - 0.40 m). It was observed that the water content, given by the water retention curve in the soil, was higher in all layers of the IPF treatment. The results of the other evaluated attributes revealed that integrated management systems have potential to improve the physical and hydric conditions of the soil.

Pages 711-716 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE793
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Adaptability and stability of grain yield in soybean

Daniel Augusto Silveira, Carlos André Bahry*, Luiz Fernando Pricinotto, Maicon Nardino, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Velci Queiroz de Souza

Syngenta Crop Protection LTDA, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
Federal Technological University of Paraná, Dois Vizinhos, Paraná, Brazil
Secretary of State for Agriculture and Supply, Cianorte, Paraná, Brazil
Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
5Federal University of Santa Maria, Frederico Westphalen, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Abstract

The aim of this work was to analyze the adaptability and stability of soybean grain yield in fifteen environments in Paraná through different methodologies. Trials were conducted to test the genotypes SYN 1049; SYN 1152; SYN 1059; SYN 3358; SYN 1163; and, SYN 1157, at five sites with three different sowing times in 2011/2012 season. The analyzed character was grain yield per hectare. The analysis of adaptability and stability was performed by bissegmented regression, factors analysis and AMMI analysis. The estimates of the environmental indices by the tested analyses were partially concordant regarding the classification of the environments as favourable or unfavourable to the cultivars. Both the factor analysis and the AMMI analysis allowed the classification of the cultivars in relation to the specific environmental conditions. The soybean cultivars SYN 1059 and SYN 1163 revealed specific adaptability for the three analysis methodologies. Stability was also revealed through the bissegmented regression and the IPCA1 vs. mean methods.

Pages 717-725 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE821
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Allelopathic influence of some fruit tree leaf extracts on germination and seedling development of different weeds and vegetable crops

Matheus Ferreira França Teixeira, Daniel Teixeira Pinheiro*, Hamilton Carvalho Santos Junior, Ediane Conceição Alves, Tiago Teixeira Viana Barros, Marco Antônio Moreira de Freitas, Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos Dias

Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Av. PH Rolfs s/n, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Departamento de Ciências Agrárias, Instituto Federal Goiano, Rodovia Geraldo Silva Nascimento, Km 12,5 , Urutaí, Goiás, Brazil

Abstract

Allelopathy is an important mechanism by which plants release allelochemicals. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the allelopathic effect of extracts of fruit tree leaves (orange, mango, jabuticaba and guava trees) on the germination and seedling development of different weeds (morning glory and beggartick) and vegetable crops (lettuce and cabbage). The FGC and G were evaluated. After germination, SDM and SL were measured. In general, first germination counting (FGC) and G (germination) were decreased for all species conducted with the allelopathic extracts in relation to the control. Mango extract reduced the FGC of morning glory in 20 p.p.m. The G of beggartick reduced to 0%, while cabbage and lettuce germination was not affected. The highest reduction on FGC was observed in lettuce using jabuticaba extract, usinf 9 p.p.m, compared to the control. The extracts reduced the G of morning glory and beggartick, respectively, in between 5 and 11 p.p. Jabuticaba extract reduced significantly the G of morning glory and beggartick. The development of morning glory and beggartick was negatively affected by allelopathic extracts. The G of morning glory and beggartick is affected by the jabuticaba extract. The development of cabbage seedling was affected when all extracts were used and guava extract affected the length of cabbage seedlings. Mango extract has potential to control morning glory and beggartick in established lettuce and cabbage fields. Mango, orange, jabuticaba and guava extracts have the potential to control weeds on lettuce established fields. Guava extract is not indicated to control weeds on cabbage cultivated fields.

Pages 726-730 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE839
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Application of treated wastewater on yield and heavy metals content of seeds in sunflower cultivars

Abbas Ali Yazdani*, Mehri Saffari, Gholam Hassan Ranjbar

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran
National Salinity Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Yazd, Iran

Abstract

Treated wastewater could be considered as a new water resource in agriculture especially in arid and semi-arid regions of the world such as Iran. Two one-year field experiments were carried out to determine the effects of municipal treated wastewater on yield and seed heavy metals content of sunflower cultivars, in Research Farm of Yazd Municipal Wastewater Purification Station during 2015 and 2016. The climate of the region was hot and dry according to Koppen climate classification system. Experiment was arranged as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replicates. Treatments were three irrigation water types as main plot consisted (“WW”: irrigation with treated municipal wastewater thoroughly, “WW/FW”: irrigation with treated wastewater/fresh water alternatively and “FW”: irrigation with fresh water thoroughly) and three sunflower cultivars (Azargol, Record, and Farrokh) as subplots. The following parameters were assessed: plant height (cm), head diameter (cm), seed numbers per head, unfilled seeds per head, seed and biological yield (kg/ha) and seed heavy metals content. Results showed that the highest plant height (194 cm) obtained in Record and the highest head diameter (21.5 cm) obtained in Farrokh cultivars, which were irrigated by WW. Treated municipal wastewater also increased seed yield by 10.7% compared to FW treatment. The highest (5029 Kg/ha) and lowest (3734 Kg/ha) seed yield were obtained in Azargol and Farrokh that irrigated with WW and WW/FW treatment, respectively. However, application of treated municipal wastewater lead to accumulation of trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and As) in seeds; but, the values of all the elements were below the permissible limits recommended by World Health Organization. It is concluded that WW could be used for irrigating sunflower crop without worrying about the accumulation of toxic substances.

Pages 731-737 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE859

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Evaluation of agro-morphological traits related to grain yield of Iranian wheat genotypes in drought-stress and normal irrigation conditions

Sayedeh Saba Bilgrami, Barat Ali Fakheri**, Vahid Shariati J.*, Khadijeh Razavi, Nafiseh Mahdinezhad, Elahe Tavakol, Hadi Darzi Ramandi, Mostafa Ghaderian

Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
Department of Plant Molecular Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran, Iran
Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Collage of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Head of Bioinformatics, Department in KidoCode sdn bhd Company, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abstract

In order to evaluate several agro-morphological traits in 30 bread wheat genotypes, an experiment, based on randomized complete block design with three replications, was carried out under drought-stress and normal irrigation conditions in two locations. The traits, including grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, spike features, and peduncle characters were evaluated. The result of the combined ANOVA revealed that location and genotype effects were significant for all of the traits. Stress had a significant difference for all of the traits, except for spike density and spikelet per spike. The simple correlation results for each condition were significantly different, indicating that the relationships among traits were significantly influenced by drought stress and location. Factor analysis, based on principal component analysis and varimax rotation in the Shahed field under irrigation regimes showed that four significant factors accounted for about 78.2% and 77.7% of the total variation among characters for normal irrigation and drought stress conditions, respectively. The cumulative variation at the NIGEB field was 62.7% for four factors under normal irrigation, and 84.8% for five factors under drought stress conditions. With respect to the achieved results, characters such as plant height, peduncle length, spike density, 1000-grain weight, harvest index, and biological yield had the highest communality and, consequently, provide a high relative contribution to wheat grain yield, and can be used as selective criteria in bread wheat breeding programs.

Pages 738-748 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE878
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Phenotypic divergence of grapes using productive cycle

Mara Fernandes Moura, Lenon Romano Modesto*, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias, José Luiz Hernandes, Miguel Zagretti Saito, Taiane Silva Santos

Instituto Agronômico/IAC – Center APTA of Fruits, C.P. 13214-820 – Jundiaí, SP, Brazil
Federal University of Santa Catarina/UFSC – Vegetable Genetic Resources, C.P. 88.034-001 - Florianópolis – SC, Brazil
University of São Paulo/ESALQ – Dept. of Estatistic, C.P. 13418-900 – Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

Abstract

Classifying vines regarding the number of days required to complete de productive cycle and the duration of intermediate phenologic phases are essential for genetic improvement programs, implementation of cultivation techniques and handling of the grape harvest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the access phenotypic divergence of grapes from the germplasm collection by the Agronomic Institute - IAC. Evaluations were performed for 4 years of production, from 2012 to 2015, when the plants were 4 years old. The training system applied the espalier, at a 2.0 x 1.0 m spacing between lines and plants, respectively. The IAC’s grape germplasm collection comprised 110 varieties of the Vitis vinífera, Vitis labrusca species and inter-specific hybrids grafted into the IAC 766 rootstocks, being 3 plants per each variety. After the pruning of the main vine phonologic phases, the number of days was evaluated using the scale proposed by Eichhorn and Lorenz. Two evaluations a week were carried out until the flowering, and afterwards one evaluation was performed a week, the period between pruning and the beginning of sprouting, full flowering with 50% flowers opened, beginning of maturation (veraison) and maturation (harvest), visually mature fruits and content of soluble solids above 14ºBrix. Multivariate analysis, such as the correlation between varieties, analysis of the main components (PCA) and methods of non-weighted arithmetic means (UPGMA) was applied to classify the phenotypes according to the productive cycle. A relation was found between the sprouting and the flowering phases, as well as the starting maturation and maturation. The first two components explained 81% of the total variability, being that the starting maturation and maturation were the best variables to study the divergence of vine phenotypes. Also, combining the UPGMA method and the PCA analysis that distinguished three groups, allowed us to divide the phenotypes into 25 processes, 75 median and 10 late varieties, according to their productive cycle. It was possible to conclude that the techniques used to study the genetic diversity applied to phenologic characters were effective to evaluate the vines phenotypic divergence, and therefore, the multivariate analysis may be used to guide future vine improvement programs.

Pages 749-754 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE880
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Water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes in sugarcane grown in megathermal humid climate in Northeastern Brazil

Adolpho Emanuel Quintela da Rocha*, José Leonaldo de Souza, Ricardo Araújo Ferreira Junior, Gustavo Bastos Lyra, Lauricio Endres, Guilherme Bastos Lyra

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa-MG, Brazil
Department of Agrometeorology, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió-AL, Brazil
Department of Meteorology and Climatology, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica-RJ, Brazil
Plant Physiology Laboratory, Federal University of Alagoas, Center of Agronomy, Maceió-AL, Brazil

Abstract

The understanding about biophysical processes taking place between the crop and the atmosphere is essential to define the appropriate management practices in order to increase crop yield. The aim of the present study is to analyze water vapour and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in sugarcane crop between the development and the mid-season as an environmental variables function, as well as to assess the correction effects on fluxes. Latent heat flux (E) and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) micrometeorological measurements were performed through the eddy covariance technique (EC), between June7th and November 17th, 2013 in a sugarcane crop grown in Northeastern Brazil. Days were characterized according to cloudiness conditions through the clearness index (Kt). The E and NEE, set through the EC technique, needed correction due to heat and water vapour transfer, because CO2 and E raw fluxes tend to overestimate and underestimate the values, respectively. Both E and NEE followed the daily photosynthetic solar irradiance course, but maximum values were not recorded at the same time. Apparent quantum yield and water use efficiency were higher under partly cloudy skies; both variables can be applied to simulation models in order to improve management practices and increase yield.

Pages 755-762 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE883
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Phynotypic placticity of upland rice lines cultivated in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

Hermínio B. Inácio, Flávia B. S. Botelho, Amanda M. de Moura, Marcela P. Mendes-Resende, Heloísa O. dos Santos, Adriano P. de Castro , Moisés de S. Reis, Fernanda O. Bustamante*

Department of Agriculture, University Campus, Federal University of Lavras 37200-000, Lavras, MG, Brazil
Samambaia Campus, Federal University of Goiás 74690-900, Goiânia, GO, Brazil
Brazilian company of agricultural research–Rice and beans, Highway GO-462, Km 12, 75375-000, Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil
Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais, PO box 176, 37200-000, Lavras, MG, Brazil

Abstract

The evaluation of breeding lines for prior recommendation in different environments is a step that requires a high level of investment. This evaluation is extremely important, especially when the objective of breeding is to select lines with high homeostasis, adaptability associated with high yield, and stability. Thus, this paper aimed to study the phenotypic plasticity of thirteen upland rice lines for grain yield in multiple environments of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experiments were installed in nine different environments corresponding to the combination of locations and agricultural years. Thirteen elite lines were used, originating from a partnership among UFLA (Federal University of Lavras), Epamig (Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais) and Embrapa (Brazilian Company of Agricultural Research) Rice and Beans. The experiments were conducted in a complete randomized block design with three replicates. Culture treatments used for conducting were the same as those recommended for culture. The evaluated character was grain yield (kg.ha-1). Adaptability and stability were estimated by the methods Wricke, Annicchiarico, and Lin and Binns. All experiments showed average productivities above average in the state of Minas Gerais. The methods by Anniccchiarico and Lin Binns were efficient for the lines identification with phenotypic plasticity, emphasis on the lines CMG 2097, CMG 1896 and CMG 2089, which obtained superior average performance with productivities higher than 5 t.ha-1. Thus, these lines are promising for the Minas Gerais state recommendation, as well as in similar environments under low fertility natural soil, ferralsol (latosols), with tropical semi-humid and tropical altitude.

Pages 763-769 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE896
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Brazilian pine diameter at breast height and growth in mixed Ombrophilous forest in Southern Brazil

André Felipe Hess*, Myrcia Minatti, Veraldo Liesenberg, Patrícia Povoa de Mattos, Evaldo Muñoz Braz, Emanuel Arnoni Costa

Department of Forest Engineering, College of Agriculture and Veterinary (CAV), Santa Catarina State University (UDESC), Luiz de Camoes Ave., 2090, Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Department of Forest Engineering, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Pref. Lothario Meissner Ave., 900, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil
EMBRAPA Forestry, Ribeira Road, km 111, P.O. Box 319, Colombo, Paraná, Brazil
Forest Engineering, Department of Forest Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, 1000 Roraima Ave., 97105-900, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Abstract

Information on the diameter at the breast height (DBH) growth of trees can be useful to understand their productivity and temporal dynamics in natural forests. This study presents the first results of increments in DBH of Araucaria angustifolia trees since their logging prohibition in southern Brazil, in late 1970s. We used dendrochronology techniques in 210 individuals in three different sites, which allowed a retrospective analysis of the DBH increment from 60 to 150 years. We adjusted temporal dimensional models whose results may help to support a sustainable forest management of A. angustifolia in southern Brazil. The results showed that the width of annual growth rings varied from 0.04 to 4.8 cm year-1 along the last 60 to 150 years, and the mean annual increment ranged from 0.3 to 0.9 cm year-1. The DBH increment accumulated in the last ten years showed a decreasing pattern, indicating that most of the sampled trees had already reached maturity. This result denotes a proportional loss in DBH increment with increasing DBH and age. Decreasing DBH growth rates became even more evident in the last ten years (i.e. ~0.15 cm year-1), indicating a need of silvicultural intervention in some sites to reduce competition among trees for soil nutrients and light. Regarding the average DBH increment growth, the time the trees need to reach the optimal DBH harvesting diameter of 40 cm ranged from 25 to 112 years, according to the local site index characteristics. The curve inflection point that represents the DBH increment occurred between 35 and 45 years for this specific DBH. These results confirm the viability and need of forest management practices of A. angustifolia trees due to the saturation of the trees DBH growth and increment capacity that reached its inflection. Therefore, since their logging prohibition, most A. angustifolia trees reached their optimal DBH harvesting size. Forest management is necessary for conservation of the forest structure. It would favor the growth of young A. angustifolia, seedling productions, the natural regeneration of this species and genetic diversity; and stimulate the increase of timber production.

Pages 770-777 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE900
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Production of kiwi snack slice with different thickness: Drying kinetics, sensory and physicochemical analysis

Inacia dos Santos Moreira, Wilton Pereira da Silva*, Deise Souza de Castro, Luzia Márcia de Melo Silva, Josivanda Palmeira Gomes and Cleide Maria D. P. S. e Silva

Federal University of Campina Grande, Campus I, PB, Brazil

Abstract

In the modern world, light and healthy meals are increasingly consumed between the main meal courses. Therefore, market has made a wide variety of products of this type available, usually without artificial additives. This study aimed to produce snacks through the thin-layer drying of kiwi slices. Circular kiwi slices were cut into various thicknesses (5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mm) and subject to different drying air temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 oC). Drying was described using several mathematical models, both diffusion (boundary condition of the third kind) and empirical (Henderson-Pabis, Lewis, Page, Silva et al.) models. According to diffusion model, kiwi slices showed an almost uniform moisture distribution over time. The Page equation/model showed the best fit to the experimental data, compared to other models. At the end of the drying process (until equilibrium), slices with initial thickness of 5.0 mm had a rigid consistency, suitable for production of flour through grinding. On the other hand, slices with initial thicknesses of 10.0 and 15.0 mm were soft; thus, they can be consumed as snacks. Sensory and physicochemical analyses showed that the product cut with initial thickness of 15.0 mm and dried at temperature of 70 ºC (until moisture content of 0.31 kgwater/kgdry matter) was the tastiest one and showed good results for the analyzed chemical compounds.

Pages 778-787 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE925
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Salicylic acid (SA) addition influences postharvest quality of 'Jubileu' peaches (Prunus persica)

Marines Batalha Moreno Kirinus*, Caroline Farias Barreto, Pricila Santos da Silva, Paulo Celso de Mello Farias, Marcelo Barbosa Malgarim

Departamento de Fitotecnia – Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel) - Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel (FAEM) - Av. Eliseu Maciel, s/n, 96010-900, Capão do Leão-RS, Brazil
Departamento de Produção Vegetal – Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC) - Av. Luís de Camões, 2090 - Conta Dinheiro, 88520-000, Lages-SC, Brazil

Abstract

The SA organic elicitor is an alternative to extend the useful life of fruits by inducing the defenses of the plant and decreasing fruit rot. This study aimed at evaluating not only the effects of SA applied after the harvest in the cold storage period, but also the marketing simulation of the maintenance of physicochemical characteristics of ‘Jubileu’ peaches. The experimental design was thoroughly randomized in a double factorial scheme. Fruits were picked at proper maturity, in agreement with the maturity index. In the laboratory, they were submitted to SA doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 mM and, then, kept in a cold room at 1 ± 1º C, at 90± 5%,for 7, 14 and 21 days. Afterwards, a 3-day shelf life was simulated at 25±5º C. Characteristics under evaluation were fruit mass loss, firmness, color, solids/acidity and rot. Predictive points of the variables under analysis were observed because they are important to determine the interaction between time and dose. Regarding parameters of solids/acidity, the predictive point ranged from 14.88 to 3.51 SA in 11.5 days. SA application decreased mass loss in 11.1 days at2.16 mM and firmness, in 11.3 days at doses of 2.75 mM. The predictive point of rot incidence was 5.96 at3.97 mM SA in 8.48 days whereas the one of color brightness was 68.32 at 1.25 mM SA in 19.7 days. Finally, the one of hue was 87.92 at 2.81 mM SA in 15.3 days. SA was efficient to keep the general quality of ‘Jubileu’ peaches.

Pages 788-793 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE932
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Trichoderma harzianum and some antioxidants for suppressing faba bean chocolate spot incidence under natural field infection

Nehal Samy El-Mougy, Mokhtar Mohamed Abdel-Kader*

Plant Pathology Department, National research Centre, Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt

Abstract

Chocolate spot is one of the most important diseases affecting faba bean in Egypt. The field experiment was conducted for two cropping seasons with the objective of evaluating the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum and five antioxidant agents, i.e. Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, VitaMax Plus against Chocolate spot disease incidence and severity under field conditions. Field study was performed during two successive growing seasons (2015/2016 and 2016/2017) using the bioagent T. harzianum and antioxidants individually or in combinations. All treatments were applied as faba bean foliar spray three times with 15 days interval starting at the beginning of flowering stage. Percentages of disease incidence and severity were measured for each growing season and their mean was calculated. Results showed that all applied treatments could reduce chocolate spot disease incidence at a range of 66.6 to 92.2% compared to the fungicide Diathane M45 (39.0%). Meanwhile, disease severity followed similar trend. It was reduced by a range of 38.7 up to 75.1% and 20.9% relatively to control at applied treatments of antioxidants individually or combined with T. harzianum and the fungicide, respectively. Combined treatments showed that when T. harzianum combined with either one or all of the used antioxidants, they had superior effect for reducing disease incidence and severity on faba bean plants compared to fungicide and the control. Meanwhile, all of the antioxidants in combination showed lesser suppression effect on disease incidence and severity than individual treatment. The present findings demonstrate that bio-agent T. harzianum integrated with antioxidant as foliar spray treatment can be recommended for the future use in a commercial scale for effective management of Chocolate spot on faba bean.

Pages 794-799 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE979
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Assessment of agronomic performance and prediction of genetic gains through selection indices in silage corn

Jocarla Ambrosim Crevelari*, Nayara Norrene Lacerda Durães, Laila Cecília Ramos Bendia, Alysson Jalles da Silva, Flávio Henrique Vidal Azevedo, Valdinei Cruz Azeredo, Messias Gonzaga Pereira

Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque Califórnia, CEP 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brasil
Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal, Via de Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane s/n, Vila Industrial, CEP 14884900, Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil

Abstract

During the dry season, the production of pastures is decreased, making farmers necessary to use corn silage as roughage source. Maize is increasingly recommended as the most important silage crop due to their qualitative and quantitative traits on top of the great acceptance for most animals. This work aimed to evaluate, through selection indices, the agronomic performance and prediction of genetic gains in corn hybrids for silage production. Eight topcross hybrids and seven controls were assessed in randomized blocks with six replications in two environments, in the municipalities of Campos dos Goytacazes and Itaocara - RJ, respectively, in the 2015/2016 agricultural year. The following agronomic traits were assessed: plant height (PH), height of first ear insertion (TH), stem diameter (CD), number of ears (NT), yield of ear with straw and ready for silage (TPS); yield of ear without straw and ready for silage (TPWS); yield of grain ready for silage (GY); ratio of grains in the fresh weight (GFM) and fresh weight vield (FMY). The selection indices of Smith & Hazel, Willians, Pesek & Baker and Mulamba & Mock were used for gain prediction. The results showed that Mulamba & Mock provided the highest predictive values in the estimation of gains for the selection of hybrids. The topcross hybrids UENF-2205, UENF-2208, UENF-2209 and UENF-2210 presented the best performance and indicated high potential of TPWS, GY and GFM for silage production in the Northern and Northwestern Rio de Janeiro state.

Pages 800-807 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE1004
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Application of floating culture system in chili pepper (Capsicum annum L.) during prolonged flooding period at riparian wetland in Indonesia

Erna Siaga, Benyamin Lakitan*, Hasbi, Siti Masreah Bernas, Andi Wijaya, Rika Lisda, Fitri Ramadhani, Laily Ilman Widuri, Kartika Kartika, Mei Meihana

Graduate School, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang 30139, Indonesia
College of Agriculture, Universitas Sriwijaya, Inderalaya 30662, Indonesia
Research Center for Sub-optimal Lands (PUR-PLSO) Sriwijaya University, Palembang 30139, Indonesia
STIPER Sriwigama, Palembang 30137, Indonesia

Abstract

Floating culture system (FCS) is the only feasible way for crop cultivation during high and prolonged flooding period at riparian wetlands. Objective of this research was to evaluate growth and yield of chili pepper cultivated using three different FCS during high flooding period at tropical riparian wetland. Floating rafts were constructed using used plastic bottles. Dimension of the raft was 2m x 1m with load capacity of 60 kg m-2; therefore each raft can carry 120 kg dead weight of growing media and chili pepper grown on it. Chili pepper used was CK9856 variety. Three FCS treatments applied were: P1, with gunny sack layer placed at interface between water surface and growing media; P2, without gunny sack at the interface; and P3, bottom part of growing media was immersed in water at 2-3 cm depth. These treatments were compared to P0, conventionally cultivated chili pepper as control. Result of this study revealed that chili pepper cultivated using FCS (P1, P2, and P3) significantly outperformed those of conventionally cultivated (P0) as indicated by higher growth and yield. Among FCS treatments, P2 produced the highest marketable yield (248.9 g plant-1). Therefore, the P2 is recommended for cultivation of chili pepper by smallholder farmers at riparian wetlands during high and prolonged flooding period.

Pages 808-816 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE1007
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LEffects of particle size and application rate of rice-husk biochar on chemical properties of tropical wetland soil, rice growth and yield

Kartika Kartika, Benyamin Lakitan*, Andi Wijaya, Sabaruddin Kadir, Laily Ilman Widuri, Erna Siaga, Mei Meihana

Graduate School, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang 30139, Indonesia
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Universitas Sriwijaya, Inderalaya 30662, Indonesia
Research Center for Sub-optimal Lands (PUR-PLSO), Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang 30139, Indonesia
Department of Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Universitas Sriwijaya, Inderalaya 30662, Indonesia
STIPER Sriwigama, Palembang 30137, Indonesia

Abstract

Besides unpredictable time and duration of flooding occurrence, low soil fertility has been another main agricultural issue at riparian wetland in Indonesia. The objective of this research was to determine the potential use of biochar in improving soil chemical properties, rice growth, and yields. Assessment on the effects of particle sizes (S) and application rates (R) of rice-husk biochar was executed through pot experiments in a greenhouse of Universitas Sriwijaya, Indonesia, from January to April 2017. The experiment was laid out in randomized block arrangement with three replications. S consisted of particle sizes ≤1 mm (S1) and > 1 mm (S2). R consisted of application rates at 1 t ha-1 (R1), 2 t ha-1 (R2), 3 t ha-1 (R3), and 4 t ha-1 (R4). Rice growth, yield, and growth analysis were measured during vegetative and generative stage. Soil chemical properties were analyzed after harvesting. Results indicated that application of biochar increased soil pH but did not affect cation exchange capacity (CEC), and availability of major soil nutrients. During vegetative stage, biochar application increased relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) but decreased leaf are ratio (LAR). R3 treatment significantly increased grain weight per panicle, number of filled spikelet, and weight of 1000 grains. Root and stem N content tended to be higher with biochar application. Application of biochar on riparian wetland soil exhibited some promising positive impacts on soil properties, growth, and yield of rice. However, a long term study on residual effects of biochar application in tropical riparian wetland needs to be pursued further for a more comprehensive understanding on this issue.

Pages 817-826 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE1043
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Antagonism of fungi with biocontrol potential of papaya black spot caused by Asperisporium caricae

Janieli Maganha Silva Vivas*, Silvaldo Felipe da Silveira, Pedro Henrique Dias dos Santos, Beatriz Murizini Carvalho, Tathiane Pastana de Sousa Poltronieri, Tiago Silva Jorge, Juliana Saltires Santos, Railan do Nascimento Ferreira Kurosawa, Ramon de Moraes

Agricultural Sciences and Technologies Center, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil

Abstract

he antifungal activity of fungi with biocontrol potentials should be studied. Therefore, this study aimed at establishing alternative agent to replace the chemical control of papaya black spot. We investigated the antagonistic activity of the fungi Hansfordia pulvinata (H-611), Acremonium sp (A-602, A-617 and A-598), Simplicillium lanosoniveum (S-599), Lecanicillium lecanii (L-622), and Sarocladium implicatum (I-609) on the phytopathogenic fungus A. caricae, by evaluating the mycoparasitism, the enzymatic activity and the production of volatile and non-volatile compounds. For the evaluation of mycoparasitism, each antagonic fungi isolate was microcultured along with conidia of A. caricae. Then, events of mycoparasitism were evaluated at 24h, 48h, 72h, and 96h after inoculation under an optical microscope. We estimated the enzymatic activity (protease and lipase) of the fungi in a particular culture medium for each enzyme. The activity of the protease was reflected in the mean diameter of the halo. The lipase activity was measured by the halo/colony relation. In order to detect volatile compounds in the antibiosis test, A. caricae was cultured under a medium along with the isolates described. For the test of non-volatile compounds, we evaluated the germination of A. caricae in culture medium by diffusion under cellophane paper. As a result, the mycoparasitism of the H-611, A-602, A-617, A-598, S-599, and L-622 isolates was confirmed on the microcultures. We observed higher activities of protease in the I-609, S-599, A-602, and A-598 isolates. The H-611 and A-602 isolates presented higher activities for lipase. We did not observe effect of volatile compounds in any of the tested isolates. In the non-volatile compound test, there was production of antifungal metabolite highlighting the A-617 isolate, which inhibited the germination of the conidia of A. cariae by 100%.

Pages 827-833 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE1073
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Biomass yield, nutritional status and industrial quality of sugarcane as a function of nitrogen and potassium fertilization

Mauro Wagner de Oliveira, Christiano Nascif, Vinicius Santos Gomes da Silva, Terezinha Bezerra Albino Oliveira, Thiago Camacho Rodrigues, Keite Fernandes Vieira Gama, Gabriel Carlos Benhami de Oliveira

Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Rio Largo, Alagoas, Brazil
Programa de Desenvolvimento da Pecuária Leiteira da Região de Viçosa- MG (PDPL-RV), Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Abstract

Sugarcane plant uptakes a large amount of nutrients from the soil. Thus, crop yield may decrease due to the reduced availability of nutrients in the soil. The aim of this study was to evaluate plant nutritional status, yield and juice quality of variety RB867515 in the first regrowth cycle, fertilized with doses of nitrogen and potassium. Therefore, a study was set up in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replicates. The following treatments were applied to the first regrowth sugarcane: (T1) control: no nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) fertilization; (T2) N and K fertilization, replenishing 75% of the N and K removed by cane-plant harvest; (T3) N and K fertilization, replenishing 100% of the N and K removed by the cane-plant harvest; (T4) N and K fertilization, replenishing 125% of the N and K removed by the cane-plant harvest. The increase in the fertilizer dose promoted a linear effect in leaf N content and biomass of N and K concentration, but did not influence the quality of the juice, which had average concentrations of 22.23; 19.63; 88.30 and 16.50 (Brix, Pol, Purity and PC, respectively). TRS was also not influenced by fertilization, with an average value of 162.82 kg t-1. Biomass yield increased linearly with fertilization, yielding the regression equation of Y = 82.74 + 0.3394 x, with R2 of 0.9824. The values obtained indicated excellent quality sugarcane.

Pages 834-840 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE1082
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First insights of soybean stem fly (SSF) Melanagromyza sojae control in South America

Luis Eduardo Curioletti, Jonas André Arnemann, Dionei Schmidt Muraro, Adriano Arrué Melo, Clérison Régis Perini, Lucas de Arruda Cavallin, Jerson Vanderlei Carús Guedes*

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, CCR – Prédio 44 G, CEP 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil

Abstract

The occurrence, distribution, and intensity of damages caused by Melanagromyza sojae on soybean fields in Brazil and Paraguay indicate the need of information regarding the effect of insecticides and mode of applications to its control. The aim of this study was to evaluate insecticide applications at soybean sowing and during the early soybean stages to control M. sojae. Two experiments were carried. In the 1st experiment, 12 insecticides were applied at sowing as a seed treatment (ST) or in the sowing furrow (SF) and combined with presence or absence of foliar spray (FS) of insecticides at 18 and 28 days after soybean emergence (DAE) in a factorial scheme. In the 2nd experiment, 17 insecticides were sprayed foliar at 10 and 22 DAE. Control efficiency of M. sojae was assessed on experiment 1 at 22, 28 and 38 DAE and on experiment 2 at 22 and 38 DAE, by counting the number of larvae, pupae, and damaged plants and length of galleries. The results evidenced the need of a specific management for this pest and recommended application of insecticides such as: Chlorantraniliprole (ST), Imidacloprid + Bifenthrin (ST), Fipronil (ST), Imidacloprid (ST) and Thiamethoxam (SF) at sowing, combined with the foliar spray until 10 DAE of Chlorpyrifos, Thiametoxam + Lambda-Cyhalothrin, Thiodicarb, Bifenthrin and Imidacloprid + Beta-cyfluthrin. The foliar spray should be repeated at least once in an interval shorter than 10 days, to protect soybeans plants during the most vulnerable development stages to the attack of M. sojae.

Pages 841-848 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.05.PNE1201


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