Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

MARCH 2019 | EARLY VIEW | 13(03) 2019 | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03


Soil coverage, phytomass production and nutrient accumulation at intercropping maize and legumes system

Antonio Nolla, Ivo Jucksh, João Henrique Castaldo*, Ramon Costa Alvarenga, Liovando Marciano da Costa, Carla Raquel da Silva Damy, Laudelino Vieira da Mota Neto

Universidade Estadual de Maringá – Departamento de Ciências Agrárias, Estrada da Paca S/N, Umuarama – PR, Brazil, ZIP Code: 87502-000
Universidade Federal de Viçosa – Departamento de Solos, Brazil
Universidade Estadual de Maringá – Departamento de Ciências Agrárias, Estrada da Paca S/N, Umuarama – PR, Brazil, ZIP Code: 87502-000
Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rod MG 424 Km 45, Sete Lagoas - MG, Brazil, Zip Code: 35701-970
Universidade Federal de Viçosa – Departamento de solos, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, S/N, Viçosa - MG, Brazil, Zip Code: 36570-900
Universidade Estadual de Maringá – Departamento de Ciências Agrárias, Estrada da Paca S/N, Umuarama – PR, Brazil, ZIP Code: 87502-000
Universidade Estadual de Maringá – Departamento de Ciências Agrárias, Estrada da Paca S/N, Umuarama – PR, Brazil, ZIP Code: 87502-000


Abstract
Intercropping of maize and legume cover crop is currently usual at low technological areas, due to some high benefits and potential such as suppressing weeds, recycling nutrients and coverage of the soil. Suppression of weed is important due to its huge competitory impact on the commercial crops. The nutrient recycling is also important becuase it reduces usage of fertilizers on low technological agriculture. The soil coverage is important to prevent the erosion and reduce the nutrient leaching. All those positive effects can be influenced by type of cultivated species on the consortium. This study aimed to evaluate the soil coverage, phytomass production and accumulation of nutrients by plants in a maize and legume intercropping system. The experiment consisted of rustic maize “Caiano de Sobrália” variety, intercropped with Brazilian velvet bean, black mucuna, lablab-bean and pigeon pea, whereas a control treatment (sole maize culture) was also added. First, the maize was sown on the experiment. 64 days after emergence (DAE) the legumes were sown. The soil cover rates were evaluated at 0, 64, 84, 120, and 144 DAE. The corn grains were harvested at 120 DAE to obtain the corn grain yield. The remaining portion of maize and entire legume plants were sampled at 144 DAE, when the accumulation of dry mass and nutrient were measured. The intercropping system did not affect the corn grain yield and the soil cover rate provided by maize plants. The black mucuna had the greatest weeds suppression and nutrient accumulation among the legumes cover crops evaluated.

Pages 328-334 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p633
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Production of tomato seedlings Santa Cruz cv. Kadain using different substrates

Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Géri Eduardo Meneghello, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Simone Morgan Dellagostin, Tiago Corazza da Rosa, João Roberto Pimentel, Ítala Thaísa Padilha Dubal, Felipe Koch, Manoela Andrade Monteiro, Lilian Tunes

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, CEP 96010-610, Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil

Abstract
The tomato crop is considered of great socio-economic importance in the world, feeding millions of people daily. This crop is considered strategic because its production is diverse in the world, being produced by large agro-industries, moving a rich productive chain. This work aimed to evaluate the production of tomato seedlings as function of different substrates, and to comprehend the interrelation of characteristics through linear associations. The experimental design was randomized blocks, using one tomato cultivar, Santa Cruz Kada, in 32 repetitions for each treatment. The treatments consisted of several substrates such as carbonized rice husk, grape husk (S10), coconut fiber, and commercial substrate (Bioplant®). The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using pots. The characters measured 25 days after sowing were: stem diameter, number of leaves, shoot length, root length, green mass of root, green mass of shoot, dry mass of shoot, and dry mass of root. The analysis of variance was performed and the characters that presented significance were compared by the Duncan test at 5% of probability. Subsequently, Pearson’s linear correlation was individually performed for each substrate. The results showed that commercial (Bioplant®) and grape skin substrates were the most suitable for production of tomato seedlings cv. Santa Cruz Kada. The characters of stem diameter, number of leaves, shoot length, green mass of root and green mass of shoot revealed significant correlations; however they differently behaved in the substrates.

Pages 335-339 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p916
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Quality of dried banana produced from three cultivars 'Prata-Anã', 'FHIA-18'and 'BRS Platina' under different irrigation levels

Maristella Martineli*, Kênnia Karolline Gonçalves Pereira, João Rafael Prudêncio dos Santos, Ariane Castricini, Polyanna Mara de Oliveira, Camila Maida de Albuquerque Maranhão ,Victor Martins Maia, Luciana Albuquerque Caldeira Rocha

State University of Montes Claros, Under graduate Course in Agronomy, Avenida Reinaldo Vianna, 2630, Bico da Pedra, CEP 39440-000 Janaúba, MG, Brazil
Empresa Mineira de Pesquisa Agropecuária – EPAMIG, Researcher, Rodovia MGT 122, km 155, CEP 39527-000, Nova Porteirinha, MG, Brazil


Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different levels of irrigation on the quality parameters involved in the dried-bananas production from 3 different cultivars. The experimental design was a completely randomized factorial 3 x 3, with three genotypes of bananas ('Prata-Anã', 'FHIA-18' and 'BRS Platina' produced in the semi-arid region of Minas Gerais.) and three irrigation levels (50, 75 and 100% of crop evapotranspiration - ETC), with three replications. For the processing purpose, the fruits were selected at the maturity stage 6. Then they sanitized in hypochlorite of sodium solution at 100 mg L-1, peeled and dehydrated through the drying convective method with hot air, in dryer with forced air, in dryer with forced air circulation at 65ºC for 24 hours. The dried bananas were evaluated according to the following physical and chemical aspects: moisture, length, diameter, firmness, color (brightness, chroma and ºhue), soluble solids and titratable acidity, and sensory characteristics: purchase intention and acceptance. The humidity, length, diameter, firmness, color and acidity of dried bananas were influenced by the different studied irrigation levels. In the sensory evaluation, the best result regarding appearance, color, texture and flavor requirements was observed in banana processed from 'Prata-Anã' irrigated with the total level of water (100%).. The dried banana processed from 'BRS Platina' was the least accepted in the sensory tests.

Pages 340-347 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p986
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Sowing periods, agronomic performance and seed quality of soybean cultivars in the Planosol soil

Geison Rodrigo Aisenberg, Felipe Koch, Gustavo Zimmer, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho*, Manoela Andrade Monteiro, João Roberto Pimentel, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Francisco Amaral Villela, Tiago Pedó, Tiago Zanatta Aumonde

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, CEP 96010-610, Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Pampa, Dom Pedrito, RS, Brazil


Abstract
Understanding of sowing in an ideal season for each region and cultivar is essential for the crop to reach each of its stages in more favorable climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different sowing times on agronomic attributes of two soybean cultivars and the physiological quality of soybean seeds in soil type Eutrophic Haplic Planosol. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a factorial scheme 4 x 2, with four sowing times and two soybean cultivars, with eight replications. The sowing was executed at the beginning and end of November (1st and 2nd epochs) and beginning and end of January (3rd and 4th epochs), using the cultivars: Fundacep 64 RR and BMX Potência RR. The experiment was carried out in polyethylene vessels with volumetric capacity of 10 liters. The morphological attributes of the plants were evaluated, such as: height, stem diameter, number of pods and seeds per plant, 1000 seed weight, as well as seed germination and vigor. Seeding after January 1st negatively affected the agronomic behavior of soybean plants, with reduction of plant height, stem diameter, number of pods and seeds per plant. The sowing on November 1st favored the obtaining of seeds with lower physical quality in terms of 1000 seed weight; however, seeds with superior physiological performance. Late sowing showed an alternative for the production of soybean seeds in the South region of Rio Grande do Sul, mainly due to the higher quality of the seeds produced in this period.

Pages 348-353 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p994
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Non-destructive analysis of photosynthetic pigments in Avena strigosa and Avena sativa

Tiago Edu Kaspary, Luan Cutti², Cristiano Bellé, Gabriele Casarotto, Mártin Zanchett Groth, Gerarda Beatriz Pinto Da Silva, Adalin Cezar Moraes De Aguiar

Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria -INIA La Estanzuela - Ruta 50, Km. 11; 70000, Colonia, Uruguay
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fitotecnia, 91540-000 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Centro de Ciências Rurais, Departamento de Solos, 97105-900, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Sementes. Campus Capão do Leão s/n, 96001-970 Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fitotecnia, Campus Universitário, 36570 900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil


Abstract
Chlorophylls and carotenoids are the main photosynthetic pigments in plants. The photosynthetic potential of crop plants is used to determine the correct rate of nitrogen fertilization. To date, no studies have been conducted to understand the relationship between different methods of measurement of photosynthetic pigments in oats. The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the levels of photosynthetic pigments in Avena strigosa and A. sativa using two different methods, the extraction method and portable chlorophyll meter, and to determine whether the results of these two methods showed a significant correlation. Photosynthetic pigments were measured using both methods in a greenhouse and the laboratory at four developmental stages: tillering [28 days after sowing (DAS)], vegetative stage I (55 DAS), vegetative stage II (75 DAS), and reproductive stage (120 DAS). The same leaves were used to measure the relative chlorophyll content using a portable chlorophyll meter and extractable chlorophyll using the laboratory extraction method. The readings of the chlorophyll index differed for each developmental stage of both A. sativa and A. strigosa. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids determined using the extraction method showed high coefficients of correlation with the total chlorophyll index determined using the portable chlorophyll meter. Thus, the measurement of chlorophyll using the portable chlorophyll meter can be used for the accurate evaluation of the photosynthetic potential of oats, thus saving time and reagents.

Pages 354-359 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1149
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Productivity of jambu (Acmella oleracea) using different soil water tensions and nitrogen rates under greenhouse condition

William Lee Carrera de Aviz*, Joaquim Alves de Lima Junior, André Luiz Pereira da Silva, Rafaelle Fazzi Gomes, Rodrigo Otávio Rodrigues de Melo Souza, Helane Cristina Aguiar Santos, Pedro Daniel de Oliveira

Department of Plant Production, Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA), Brazil
Department of Plant Production, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA), Brazil


Abstract
Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. is a native Amazon vegetable, known as jambu, which is widely used in regional cuisine and has aroused the interest of the pharmaceutical and cosmetic market. Thereby, this work aimed to study the effect of different soil water tensions and nitrogen rates on Jambu cultivation in the State of Pará. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse for 30 days in 2016 testing Jamburana cultivar in a 10 × 10 cm spacing in the experiment. The experimental design was based on randomized blocks in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with three replications. The treatments consisted of four soil water tensions (12, 18, 24 and 30 kPa) adjusted using drip irrigation, and four doses (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-¹) of nitrogen. The analyzed variables were fresh mass, plant height, productivity and water use efficiency. There was no interaction between soil water tensions factors and nitrogen rates for all variables. The results showed that the best water tension in the soil and nitrogen dose that provided better development and productivity of jambu were 18 kPa and 79 kg ha-¹, respectively.

Pages 360-366 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1178
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Control strategies for Chrysodeixis includens and Spodoptera eridania caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selection of resistant cultivars in soybean

Paulo Vinicius de Sousa, Adriana Gonçalves Vaz, Debora Souza Miranda, Patricia Vaz da Costa, Andre Cirilo Sousa Almeida, Marcio Silva Araújo, Flávio Gonçalves de Jesus

Instituto Federal Goiano, Campus Urutaí, Rodovia Prof. Geraldo Silva Nascimento, 75790-000, Urutaí, Goiás, Brazil
Universidade Estadual de Goiás (UEG), GO 330, Km 241, Anel Viário, s/n, 75780-000, Ipameri, Goiás, Brazil


Abstract
Chrysodeixis includens and Spodoptera eridania caterpillars have been considered the most important pests for Glycine max in Brazil. This study evaluated different control strategies for these two important soybean caterpillars and the effects on crop productivity. The control strategies adopted were: BC, IPM, PUI and C (without pest control) and 2 cultivars (BMX Desafio - conventional and TEC Power IPRO – transgenic – Cry 1Ac). The experimental design was in randomized blocks in a factorial scheme (2 x 4) with four replications. The transgenic cultivar TEC Power IPRO presents efficiency in the control of Chrysodeixis includens and low efficiency for Spodoptera eridania. Harmonious practices such as IPM are the best alternative for soybean crops, to minimize Chrysodeixis includens and Spodoptera eridania infestations. The control strategy adopted did not influence soybean productivity.

Pages 367-371 | Full Trxt PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1188
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Conservation of Hibiscus acetosella germplasm by seed cryopreservation

Rodrigo Miranda Moraes, Fernanda Carlota Nery, Mayara Caroline Carvalho Pinto, Renato Paiva, Diogo Pedrosa Corrêa da Silva, Patrícia Duarte de Oliveira Paiva, Sandro Barbosa

Universidade Federal de Lavras – UFLA, Setor de Fisiologia Vegetal, Campus universitário, CEP 37200-000, Lavras-MG, Brazil
Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei – UFSJ, Departamento de Engenharia de Biossistemas, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei – MG, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Instituto de Ciências da Natureza, Rua Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 700, CEP 37130-000, Alfenas – MG, Brasil


Abstract
Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae) is a shrub of great importance for landscaping, food and medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to preserve H. acetosella germplasm by seed cryopreservation. Half of the seed batch was scarified and the other half was kept intact. Cryopreservation occurred by immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 hour. Moisture content (MC%), germination percentage (G%), germination speed index (GSI), normal seedling formation (NS%), shoot length (SL), dry matter (DM), biometry and plant survival were evaluated after treatment. MC% ranged between 7.7% and 6.65% in intact and scarified seeds, respectively. Scarification raised G% and GSI compared to intact seeds. Intact and scarified seeds had 100% and 70% NS%, respectively, when not cryopreserved. Cryopreservation reduced NS% to 62% and 12.75%, respectively. The highest SL was observed in intact and non-cryopreserved seeds, with an average of 10.21 cm in height. However, the cryopreservation of intact seeds reduced SL by about 50%, and scarification led to a further reduction, either with (3.32 cm) or without (2.47 cm) cryopreservation. Seedlings from intact and non-cryopreserved seeds showed higher DM in relation to seedlings from cryopreserved seeds. The association of cryopreservation and scarification further reduced DM. The cryopreservation of intact seeds yielded 100% survival at the end of the acclimatization process. However, cryopreservation of scarified seeds reduced the survival percentage to 15%. Changes in color were observed for seeds scarified and subjected to cryopreservation. Thus, cryopreservation is considered an efficient technique for the conservation of intact H. acetosella seeds in the long term.

Pages 372-379 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1209
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Effects of selenium (Se) application and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) inoculation on soybean (Glycine max) and forage grass (Urochloa decumbens) development in oxisol

Soraya Marx Bamberg, Silvio Junio Ramos, Marco Aurelio Carbone Carneiro, José Oswaldo Siqueira*

Departamento de Ciência do Solo, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, 37200-000, Brazil
Instituto Tecnológico Vale, Rua Boaventura da Silva, 955, Belém, Pará 66055-090, Brazil


Abstract
Fertilizer application can enhance the nutritional value of plants, such effects being influenced by the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Nutrients × AMF interactions are well-known for variety of elements but very little has been addressed on biofortification of selenium (Se) in plants grown in tropical soils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Se application and AMF inoculation on growth and micronutrient contents on soybean plants as forage grass. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized factorial design with five Se doses (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg kg-1 for soybean plants, and 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 mg kg-1 for forage plants), with and without AMF inoculation in three replicates. The results showed that soil Se had only slight effect on soybean growth but it caused a two-fold increase on grain yield. However, the growth of forage grass was enhanced by Se application when AMF was present. The AMF inoculation reduced benefit for soybean growth and yield but marked positive effect on forage grass at high doses of Se. Selenium contents in both plants were increased by its application in soil, being such effect proportional to soil applied doses. Selenium application and AMF inoculation had marked effects on micronutrients contents in both soybean plants and forage grass and they may contribute to Se and micronutrient biofortification.

Pages 380-385 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1245
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Phenotypic diversity of the tidal swamp rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm from South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Dindin H. Mursyidin, Purnomo, Issirep Sumardi, Budi S. Daryono*

Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, South Kalimantan, 70714, Indonesia
Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia


Abstract
Tidal swamp rice is a valuable source for developing new rice cultivars in the future because they possess some important traits for, adapted to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, twenty-seven cultivars of the tidal swamp rice, comprising 26 from the South Kalimantan and one of Sumatera Island, Indonesia (an outgroup), were characterized phenotypically. Following Biodiversity International procedure, 14 qualitative and 15 quantitative traits were observed. The results show that this germplasm has a unique diversity in phenotypic traits. The secondary branch of panicle was the highest diversity of qualitative traits with an index of 0.93. Similarly, the plant height was the highest for quantitative traits (0.70). The correlation analysis confirmed that plant height, strongly correlated to culm diameter, the number of tillers and grain ratio. The PCA indicated that several independent traits, such as coleoptile anthocyanin coloration, basal leaf sheath color, and grain length, have positively contributed to the diversity, accounting 62.99%. Based on PCA analysis, the tidal swamp rice were clustered into four groups. According to UPGMA, this germplasm separated into six main groups, where Sardani (an outgroup) was very closely related to Lakatan Pacar and most distantly to Siam Perak. This information would be useful for the future rice breeding program, particularly in developing new rice cultivars in the tidal swamp areas.

Pages 386-394 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1268
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Agro-biological and economic efficiency in a beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) production system fertilized with hairy woodrose (Merremia aegyptia (L.) Urb.) as green manure

Italo Nunes Silva, Francisco Bezerra Neto, Aurélio Paes Barros Júnior, Jailma Suerda Silva de Lima, Aridênia Peixoto Chaves, Renato Leandro Costa Nunes1, Hamurábi Anizio Lins, José Ricardo Tavares de Albuquerque

Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Centro de Ciências Vegetais, Departamento de Ciências Agronômicas e Florestais, Av. Francisco Mota, 572, Costa e Silva, CEP 59625-900, Mossoró, RN, Brazil

Abstract
Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) is a tuberous vegetable that is under experimentation in the vegetable production system in Rio Grande do Norte state (Brazil). It is quite demanding, in nutritional terms. One of the alternatives to meet this need is green manuring using spontaneous species of the Caatinga biome. The aim of the present work was to optimize the agro-biological performance and economic profitability of the beetroot 'Early Wonder', fertilized with different doses of hairy woodrose (Merremia aegyptia (L.) Urb.) in this semi-arid environment. Hairy woodrose is a spontaneous species of the Caatinga biome that is widely distributed, being found in forests, fences, forest clearings and fields, growing in soils of different textures, producing biomass with a high content of macronutrients. This material was collected from spontaneous vegetation, native to the region, and used as green manure.The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with four treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of four amounts of hairy woodrose biomass incorporated into the soil (10, 25, 40 and 55 t ha-1 of dry matter). The following agronomic characteristics were evaluated in each beetroot treatment: plant height, fresh mass of shoots, number of leaves per plant, dry mass of shoots and dry mass of roots, total and commercial root productivity, and root productivity classified into scrap and extra roots, extra A roots, extra AA and great roots. Apart from these characteristics, the following economic indicators were also determined for each treatment: gross income, net income, rate of return and profit margin. The maximum agro-biological efficiency of beet root productivity (22.68 t ha-1) was obtained from 44.92 t ha-1 of hairy woodrose biomass added to the soil. The maximum economic efficiency of the yield of beet roots was achieved as a net income of AU$2,491.00 (R$6,406.36) ha-1, provided by the production of 22.04 t ha-1 of commercial roots, using 37.03 t ha-1 of hairy woodrose biomass incorporated into the soil. The use of hairy woodrose as green manure presents agro-economic feasibility in beet cultivation in this semi-arid environment.

Pages 395-402 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1297
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Physical properties of Oxisol under conventional corn cultivation and no-till management systems

Paula Regina de Oliveira, José Frederico Centuron, Cinara Xavier de Almeida, Adilson Pelá*, Fabiana de Souza Pereira, Maria Aparecida Pessôa da Cruz Centurion

São Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences, Jaboticabal, PC 14884-900, São Paulo, Brazil
Institute of Agricultural Sciences (ICIAG), Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU), Brazil
Goiás State University (UEG), Ipameri Campus, Goiás, Brazil
Instituto Federal de São Paulo – ISSP, Matão, SP, Brasil


Abstract
Searches for soil management systems that aim at maintaining soil quality are fundamental, along with sustainable agricultural and farming management. Thus, the aim of the present research was to assess soil parameters such as porous system, soil resistance to penetration, aggregate stability, relative soil density and the S index of an Oxisol under the conventional and no-till sowing management systems of corn production. They soils of the experimental areas were classified as a typical Oxisol with medium texture (LVd1) and typical Oxisol of clayey texture (LVd2). The experimental design was completely randomized split plot, with six replications. The plots (60 m2) consisted of six soil management systems (1 - SD1LVd1 = after one year no-till sowing; 2 - SD8LVd1 = after 8 years no-till sowing; 3 - SD10LVd1 = after 10 years no-till sowing; 4 - CCLVd1 = conventional sowing; 5 - SD12LVd2 = after 12 years no-till sowing; 6 - CCLVd2 = conventional sowing) and the subplots consisted of three soil layers (0-0.10, 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m deep). The results showed that in three analyzed layers, the no-till sowing on medium texture Oxisol had higher densities. Treatments of medium texture Oxisol showed higher values of maximum soil density. This occurred because the clay content influenced a larger quantity of surface charges and specific surface area which decreased the susceptibility to soil compacting. The 12-year-old no-till sowing yielded the lowest corn productivity (5.9 Mg ha-1), probably due to the formation of compact layers, mainly near the soil surface.

Pages 403-411 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1323
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

The morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of sweet corn to foliar application of amino acids biostimulants sprayed at three growth stages

Maher J. Tadros*, Hussam J. Omari, Munir A. Turk

Department Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

Abstract

Corn (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in many countries due to its high nutritive value and a raw material for many industrial products. This research was conducted to determine the optimum concentration of the foliar application of amino acids biostimulants at appropriate growth stage for achieving more efficient use of the foliar application on sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata) var. merkur. The foliar application used in this study was the commercial product (PerfectoseTM, liquid) which is a well known product and commonly used for different crops in Jordan. The experiment was conducted at the greenhouse during the summer of 2015. Corn plants were sprayed with four different concentrations: 1, 2, 3 and 4ml/L at three different growth stages: 7th leaf, tasseling and milk stage, while the control plants were sprayed with distilled water only. The morphological characteristics (plant height, root length and ear length), physiological characteristics (leaf relative water content and leaf water potential), and biochemical characteristics (chlorophyll content, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and protein content) were recorded during the experiment. The results indicated that the corn plant height, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and protein content were significantly affected by the foliar application treatments, while the rest of the parameters studied were not significant. The treatments 4ml/L at milk stage and 1ml/L and 2ml/L at 7th leaf stage were most effective in the majority of parameters studied. It can be concluded that using foliar application of amino acids biostimulants could positively enhance sweet corn morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics.

Pages 412-417 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1335
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Ascophyllum nodosum extract improves phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of medicinal and functional food plant Achillea millefolium L.

Ana Cláudia Pacheco*, Leonardo Araujo Sobral, Pedro Henrique Gorni, Marcia Eugenia Amaral Carvalho

Universidade do Oeste Paulista, Presidente Prudente – SP, Brazil
Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, Piracicaba – SP, Brazil


Abstract
Genetic, biochemical and physiological parameters of plants can be changed by applying seaweed extract-based products. However, there is scarce information about the influence of seaweed extract on yarrow performance (Achillea millefolium L.), which is widely used in the folk medicine. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of Ascophyllum nodosum extract on plant development (leaf and root biomass, and leaf area), physiological indexes (leaf weight ratio, and root: leaf ratio), secondary metabolite synthesis (phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of yarrow. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments (seaweed extract concentrations 0, 3, 6 and 9 mL L-1) and 10 replications. The higher concentration of seaweed extract caused higher total dry weight of plants (from 17.8 to 19%), especially due to increases in the root biomass (up to 28.5%). Only plants that received the highest concentration of seaweed-based product presented increments in the number of leaves when compared to the control plants (18.3 %). Furthermore, the use of A. nodosum extract 9 mL L-1 provided increases in the antioxidant activity and synthesis of phenolic compounds in leaves (up to 30.44%). In conclusion, application of A. nodosum is a potential tool to improve the quality of raw material from yarrow plants, since it increased the phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity in leaves, which are the plant organs commonly used in folk medicine.

Pages 418-423 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1342
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Physiological and agronomic behavior of commercial cultivars of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and OxG hybrids (Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis) at rainy and dry seasons

Cristihian Jarri Bayona-Rodriguez, Hernán Mauricio Romero*

Oil Palm Biology and Breeding Research Program, Colombian Oil Palm Research Center - Cenipalma, Calle 50 Nº 20 - 49, Barrancabermeja C.P. 687039, Colombia
Department of Biology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 30 # 45-02 111321, Bogota, Colombia

Abstract
Oil palm is the most productive and efficient oilseed crop in the world. Oil palm is planted in various geographical areas, where the frequency of extreme weather events is expected to increase because of climate change. The characterization of the response of oil palm cultivars to climatic conditions will allow identifying sources of tolerance to different types of stress caused by climate change, leading to the determination of the best genotype x environment relationships. The physiological responses, oil quality and yield of 11, six-year-old commercial oil palm cultivars with different origins were evaluated in two periods of contrasting climate conditions (rainy and dry seasons between the years 2008 and 2010). We found that the first impact of a period with water deficit was the reduction on gas exchange of all cultivars. Photosynthesis fell between 25% to 40% and transpiration decreased between 10% and 50%. During the dry season, leaf sugar concentration increased respect to the rainy season between 14% to 114%, and certain cultivars showed up to 27% higher photosynthetic water use efficiency. This variation could be due to the genetics of different cultivars. No significant differences were observed between the seasons in terms of oil quality. In general, changes in oil palm physiology observed in response to water deficit were related to the ability of the palm to adapt and survive periods of drought stress. The cultivars evaluated showed a good response to dry periods, with the IRHO being the most outstanding at each evaluated season .

Pages 424-432 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1354
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Pepper plants response to metal nanoparticles and chitosan in nutrient media

Zhao Hui, Liu Min, Chen Yu, Lu Jinying, Li Huasheng, Sun Qiao, Galina Semenovna Nechitaylo, Olga Aleksandrovna Bogoslovskaya*, Irina Pavlovna Olkhovskaya, Natalya Nikolaevna Glushchenko

Shenzhou Space Biotechnology Group, CAST, 100081, 31 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian District, Beijing, Chine
Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 119334, 4 Kosigina st., Moscow, Russian Federation
Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 119334, 38/2 Leninsky pr., Moscow, Russian Federation


Abstract
Neutral nanoparticles (NPs) of iron, zinc, copper or their compositions were introduced into nutrient Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium instead of traditional metal salts with/without chitosan supplements to obtain healthy and crop productive plants. Metal NPs concentrations were: Fe NPs (0.06, 0.3, 3.0); Zn NPs (0.016, 0.08, 0.4); Cu NPs (0.004, 0.0008, 0.00016) (mg L-1). Pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivar LJ-King, was grown on modified media in aseptic conditions. After 45 days, root and stem length, root activity, green mass gain and chlorophyll content in leaves were measured. Pepper plants grown on media with metal NPs showed increased root length and activity (for Fe, Zn, Cu NPs and their composition) and chlorophyll content in leaves (for NPs Fe and Cu). However, addition of Chitosan modified the effects. Monitoring of pepper grown on MS with NPs composition (Fe: Zn: Cu as 3.0:1.0:0.004 mg L-1) with electron microscope demonstrated no NPs accumulation in roots, sprouts and leaves.

Pages 433-443 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1370
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Biochemical metabolism of two cultivars of cowpea treated with 24-Epibrassinolide and subjected to saline stress

Kerolém Prícila Sousa Cardoso*, Susana Silva Conceição, Ana Ecídia de Araújo Brito, Jéssica Taynara da Silva Martins, Liliane Corrêa Machado, Thays Correa Costa, Glauco André dos Santos Nogueira, Vitor Resende Nascimento, Rafael Pimentel Prata da Silva, Rafael Costa Paiva, Antônio Vinícius Correa Barbosa, Ricardo Okumura, Cândido Ferreira de Oliveira Neto

Institute of Agrarian Sciences, Laboratory of Biodiversity Studies of Upper Plants, Federal Rural University of Amazonia, Campus Belém, Pará, Brazil
Department Ciberespacial, Federal Rural University of Amazonia, Campus Belém, Pará, Brazil
Federal Rural University of Amazonia, Campus Parauabepas, Pará, Brazil


Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the changes in biochemical metabolism generated by salt stress and to investigate the effect of brassinosteroids in mitigating of this stress on two cultivars of Vigna unguiculata L. We used a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 3 x 3 factorial scheme, using two cultivars of cowpea (BRS Guariba and BR3 Tracuateua - moderately tolerant and sensitive to salinity, respectively), three concentrations of brassinosteroids (0, 0.2 and 0.4 μM Br) and three concentrations of NaCl (0 , 50 and 100 mM NaCl), with four replicates. The following evaluations were carried out: relative water content, electrolyte leakage, nitrate levels, nitrate reductase activity, free ammonium, total soluble amino acids, soluble proteins, glycine betaine and proline. The results showed that salinity at 100 mM affected the nitrate reductase enzyme activity, the relative water content, total soluble amino acids and soluble proteins for cultivars BR3 Tracuateua, and BRS Guariba, but the 24-epibrassinolid attenuated the effects of salinity for these variables. The concentration of 0.2 μM of Br increased 55% and 20% in proline and glycine betaine contents, respectively, in both of cultivars. The plants under stress saline and 0.2 mM of 24-epibrassinolid, presented 42% and 58% reductions in electrolyte leakage of BR3 Tracuateua and BRS Guariba cultivars, respectively. The concentrations of ammonium were slightly varied. Therefore, the application of 0.2 μM of 24-epibrassinolid caused a greater acclimatization of the cultivars, being the BR3 Tracuateua (sensitive to salt) cultivar more expressive in most treatments.

Pages 444-451 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1390
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

The physiological quality of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg.) seeds with different water content placed in a cold chamber room and environmental conditions

Paula Aparecida Muniz de Lima, Khétrin Silva Maciel, Rodrigo Sobreira Alexandre, José Carlos Lopes*

Postgraduate Program in Plant Production, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo), Alegre, Espírito Santo, Brazil
Center for Training in Agroforestry Sciences and Technologies, Federal University of Southern Bahia, Brazil
(Universidade Federal do Sul da Bahia), Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil
Department of Forest Sciences, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo), Alegre, Espírito Santo, Brazil
Department of Plant Production, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo), Alegre, Espírito Santo, Brazil


Abstract
Seed quality is extremely important for the crop production system, and storage conditions are important to preserve this quality. The objective this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of yellow passion fruit seeds with different water contents placed in a cold chamber room (4°C) and in a natural laboratory environment (25 ± 2°C) for a period of eight months (240 days). Passion fruit seeds were harvested in orchards of the southern region of Espírito Santo, with water content adjusted to 10%; 14%; 18% and 22%, and placed in a cold chamber room and a natural laboratory environment. Germination, germination speed index, shoot and root length, fresh and dry mass of normal seedlings were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two environments (cold chamber room and natural laboratory environment) and with a plot experimental arrangement subdivided according to time, with four replicates of 25 seeds within each environment. Yellow passion fruit seeds placed in a cold chamber room and natural environment with 14% of water content presented a higher physiological quality during eight months of storage. Yellow passion fruit seeds placed in a cold chamber room and natural environment presented maximum germination and vigour with 60 days of storage. Yellow passion fruit seeds exhibit orthodox behaviour, and should be stored at 14% of water content, in a cold chamber room and natural environment, without loss of viability and physiological quality over eight months, presenting maximum germination and vigour after 60 days storage, without the presence of pathogens.

Pages 452-457 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1462
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Emergence and vegetative development of melon in function of the soil salinity

Daniel Teixeira Pinheiro*, Fabio Delazari, Carlos Nick, Edson Marcio Mattiello, Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos Dias

Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Av. PH Rolfs s/n, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Departamento de Solos e Nutrição de Plantas, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, PH Rolfs s/n, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil


Abstract
Soil salinity is one of the main factors limiting the development and global agricultural productivity. Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is mainly produced in arid and semi-arid regions around the world, favoring the accumulation of soluble salts in the soil. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the emergence and vegetative development of melon genotype under different levels of soil salinity. The assessments were performed based on the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) at 0, 20, 25, 30 and 35%. The emergence was affected around 30 percentage points, by comparing the control and the highest dose (35%). The emergence speed and the emergence speed index parameters were also affected in a similar way, as well as the length and dry matter of the shoot. The growth of the plants was also affected by the saline stress, being superior in the control (0%) in relation to the treatments with NaCl. The leaf area increased between weeks 4 and 7 after the planting and was slightly superior in the control in relation to the plants submitted to saline stress (20, 25, 30 and 35% of exchangeable sodium). The melon is more sensible to the saline stress in the seedling emergence than in the vegetative development over time. The development of melon seedlings is mainly affected in exchangeable sodium values superior to 20%. The analyzed hybrid is sensible to the saline stress even in 20% of exchangeable sodium.

Pages 458-464 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1551
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Biological fixation, transfer and balance of nitrogen in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) orchard intercropped with different green manure crops

Edilândia Farias Dantas, Ana Dolores Santiago de Freitas*, Maria do Carmo Catanho Pereira de Lyra, Carolina Etienne de Rosália e Silva Santos, Stella Jorge de Carvalho Neta, Augusto Cesar de Arruda Santana, Rosemberg de Vasconcelos Bezerra, Everardo Valadares de Sá Barretto Sampaio

Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Energia Nuclear, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, 50740-545, Cidade Universitária, Recife, PE, Brasil
Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Departamento de Agronomia, Avenida Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/n, 52171-900, Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE, Brasil
Instituto Agronômico de Pernambuco, Avenida General San Martin, 1371, 50761-000, Bongi, Recife, PE, Brasil
Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Avenida Sebastião Rodrigues da Costa, s/n, 55145-065, São Pedro, Belo Jardim, PE, Brasil


Abstract
Green manures can replace or supplement mineral fertilization and add organic matter to the soils, ensuring greater sustainability to fruit growing in semiarid regions. Biological fixation, transfer and balance of nitrogen were determined on an irrigated yellow passion fruit orchard (Passiflora edulis Sims) intercropped separately with three cover crops: sunn hemp, Crotalaria juncea (L.); pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill; and jack bean, Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. In a fourth treatment, legumes were not planted, but spontaneous vegetation was left to grow freely. The legumes were croped for 90 days in three lines (0.5 m apart) inside the passion fruit plant lines (2.5 m apart). Fixation and transfers were determined by the 15N natural abundance technique, using sunflower as a reference plant. The three planted legumes nodulated abundantly and fixed nitrogen in high proportions (between 50 and 90% of their N), forming symbiosis with bacteria naturally established in the soil. Jack bean produced more biomass than sunn hemp and pigeon pea, and as much as the spontaneous plants, of which 23% were legumes. The amounts of fixed N (150, 43, 30 and 29 kg ha-1) were determined mainly by the biomass of legumes. More than 40% of the N of passion fruit plants came from the biological nitrogen fixation of the intercropped jack bean, which provided an amount of N higher than that exported in the fruits, generating a positive balance of more than 100 kg ha-1. Therefore, it is recommended to intercrop jack bean in irrigated passion fruit orchards.

Pages 465-471 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1559
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Effects of saline water and exogenous application of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on Soursop (Annona muricata L.) at vegetative stage

Luana Lucas de Sá Almeida Veloso*, Carlos Alberto Vieira de Azevedo, André Alisson Rodrigues da Silva, Geovani Soares de Lima*, Hans Raj Gheyi, Raul Araújo da Nóbrega, Francisco Wesley Alves Pinheiro, Rômulo Carantino Moreira Lucena

Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Recôncavo of Bahia, Nucleus of Soil and Water Engineering, Cruz das Almas, 44.380-000, Bahia, Brazil


Abstract
Soursop is a fruit of great socioeconomic importance for the northeastern region of Brazil. However, the quantitative and qualitative limitation of the water resources of this region has reduced its production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of ‘Morada Nova’ soursop plants irrigated with saline water and subjected to exogenous application of hydrogen peroxide through seed immersion and foliar spray. The study was conducted in plastic pots adapted as lysimeters, using a eutrophic Regolithic Neosol with sandy loam texture under greenhouse conditions. Treatments were distributed in randomized blocks, in a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, corresponding to four levels of irrigation water electrical conductivity – ECw (0.7; 1.7; 2.7 and 3.7 dS m-1) and four concentrations of hydrogen peroxide – H2O2 (0, 25, 50 and 75 µM), with three replicates and one plant per plot. Foliar applications of H2O2 began 15 days after transplanting (DAT) and were carried out every 15 days at 17:00 h, after the sunset, by manually spraying the H2O2 solutions with a sprayer in such a way to completely wet the leaves (spraying the abaxial and adaxial faces). Treatment effects were evaluated based on plant height (PH), stem diameter (SD), number of leaves (NL) and leaf area (LA) at 60 and 90 DAT, and dry phytomass of leaves (LDP), stem (SDP), roots (RDP) and total (TDP) and leaf succulence (LS) at 90 DAT. Irrigation using water with estimated ECw of 1.55 dS m-1 caused acceptable mean reduction of 10% in soursop growth. Increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide did not attenuate the effects of salinity on plant height and leaf area during the vegetative stage. Hydrogen peroxide concentration of 20 µM led to higher leaf succulence in soursop plants.

Pages 472-479 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1583
............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Light, photosynthetic capacity and growth of papaya (Carica papaya L.): a short review

Jefferson R. Silva, Weverton P. Rodrigues, Katherine Fraga Ruas, Jessica Sousa Paixão, Roberta Samara Nunes de Lima, José Altino Machado Filho, Juan Alberto Cabrera Garcia, Bruce Schaffer, Julian Cuevas Gonzalez, Eliemar Campostrini*

Setor Fisiologia Vegetal, Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agropecuárias, Ecofisiologia de Culturas Tropicais e Subtropicais, Univ. Estadual Norte Fluminense (UENF), Darcy Ribeiro, 28013-602, RJ, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Alagoas, CRAD - UFAL - Campus Arapiraca, Rod. AL 115 Km 6,5 - Arapiraca – AL, Cx. Postal: 61 - CEP: 57300-970
Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa, Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural. Vitória, ES, 29052-010 Brazil
Instituto Canario de Investigaciones Agrarias (ICIA) – Universidad de La Laguna (ULL). Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
Tropical Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 18905 SW 280 Street, Homestead, FL 33031-3314, Homestead, USA
Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Campus de Excelencia Agroalimentaria (ceiA3), Universidad de Almeria, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, Almeria, Spain


Abstract
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the main horticultural crops of many tropical and subtropical regions. The fruit is sold either as a fresh product or processed into drinks, jams, candies, dried and crystallized fruit, while the enzyme papain is used for medicinal purposes. Papaya fruits have high vitamins A and C contents, as well as are good sources of calcium. Brazil is one of the most important producers and exporters of papaya in the world; in 2016 c.a., 1,424,650 tons of papaya was produced in 30,372 hectares of the territory. Optimum light absorption and utilization by the canopy are important factors for maximizing papaya crop growth and productivity. Thus, knowing how papaya responds to light is important to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. This short review aims to present the current research knowledge related to the effects of light intensity on the photosynthetic processes and growth of papaya. We demonstrate that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) greatly affects the physiology of papaya. Understanding the interaction between light and physiological processes is extremely important for a sustainable profitable production under either greenhouse or field conditions. By using improved light science-based management, growers may optimize photosynthetic carbon assimilation and increase papaya yield and fruit quality.

Pages 480-485 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.03.p1607




RSS