australian journal of crop science   AJCS


Inoculation of nitrogen-fixing bacteria to mitigate the negative effect of brackish water on peanuts

Max Ferreira dos Santos, Paulo Furtado Mendes Filho, Geocleber Gomes de Sousa, Márcio Henrique da Costa Freire, Bruno Eduardo da Silva Lopes, Elane Bezerra da Silva, Lucas Nunes da Luz, Arthur Prudêncio de Araújo Pereira, Maria Vanessa Pires de Souza*

Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil
Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira, 62790-000, Redenção, Ceará, Brazil


Abstract: The use of nitrogen-fixing bacteria reduces the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers. However, salt stress can negatively affect the establishment of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). In this context, the aim was to evaluate the use of brackish water at different phenological stages on the gas exchange and mineral composition of inoculated and non-inoculated peanut crops. The experimental design used was completely randomized, following a 5x2 factorial arrangement, with four replications, using five irrigation strategies with brackish water with an electrical conductivity of 5.0 dS m-1 applied at different phenological stages of the crop: E1 - at 14 days after sowing - DAS (vegetative stage); E2 - at 25 DAS (flowering stage); E3 - at 36 DAS (gynophore emergence stage); E4 - at 46 DAS (pod formation stage); and E5 - control, and inoculated and non-inoculated plants. The earlier the salt stress is applied, the lower the gas exchange in the peanut crop, with more significant effects up to 36 DAS, the phase of gynophore emergence and elongation, so plants inoculated with rhizobia show greater efficiency in the use of brackish water. Similarly, from 36 DAS onwards, leaf mineral content decreases, with the exception of sodium, which increases. It is recommended to use brackish water associated with the use of Bradyrhizobium spp. in the pod formation stage of the peanut crop.

Submitted: 03/11/2023 Revised: 29/01/2024 Accepted: 24/04/2024

Pages 299-304 | Full Text PDF| https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.24.18.06.pne41
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Canonical correlations between morphoagronomic and production traits in traditional cowpea varieties based on genotypic values

Suzy Anne de Araújo e Silva, Suziane Maria Silva de Souza, Vanderley Borges dos Santos*, Luan de Oliveira Nascimento, Adriele Giaretta Biase

Doutoranda em Produção Vegetal. Universidade Federal do Acre. Rio Branco-AC, Brasil
Mestre em Produção Vegetal. Universidade Federal do Acre. Rio Branco-AC, Brasil
Professor Doutor. Universidade Federal do Acre. Rio Branco-AC, Brasil
Doutor em Produção Vegetal. Universidade Federal do Acre. Rio Branco-AC, Brasil
Professora Doutora. Universidade Federal do Acre. Rio Branco-AC, Brasil


Abstract: Obtaining information about the main morphoagronomic and yield components, as well as their interrelationships, is of utmost importance in cowpea breeding programs, aiming at the selection of superior genotypes. The analysis of canonical correlations allows us to predict and describe the relationship between groups of characters, allowing the indirect selection of superior genotypes. The objective of this work was to verify relationships between morphological characters and production components through the analysis of canonical correlations using genotypic values obtained via mixed REML/BLUP models in traditional cowpea varieties. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and 12 treatments. Traditional varieties were characterized and evaluated during the germination, seedling, flowering and harvest stages with data obtained from plants, pods and seeds. Using the genotypic correlation matrix, two sets of characteristics were established, Group I, formed by production components and Group II, formed by morphoagronomic characters. A second correlation analysis was performed to verify associations between morphoagronomic and seed traits (seed length, width and thickness). It was found that dependence between the groups evaluated and intergroup associations can be established, which allows the study of cause-effect and the practice of indirect selection between groups of variables studied. An increase in pod length, hundred-grain mass and seed size is achieved through the selection of early maturing plants, with greater width of the apical leaflet and length of the hypocotyl.

Submitted: 11/11/2023 Revised: 25/04/2024 Accepted: 26/04/2024

Pages 305-309 | Full Text PDF| https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.24.18.06.pne44
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Allometric modelling to estimate the leaf area of purslane (Portulaca umbraticola Kunth.)

Angela Maria dos Santos Pessoa*, João Everthon da Silva Ribeiro, Glauber Henrique de Sousa Nunes, Lindomar Maria da Silveira, Artur Mendes Medeiros, Rosa Maria dos Santos Pessoa, Elizanilda Ramalho do Rêgo

Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Mossoró, RN, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Piauí, Bom Jesus, PI, Brazil
Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia, PB, Brazil


Abstract: Portulaca umbraticola is a species that has several uses, including ornamental. Among the variables measured in ornamental plants are the biometric data of the leaves, which can be obtained through image analysis, using indirect method, which is simple, accurate and economically viable. This work aimed to propose equations obtained by mathematical models to estimate the leaf area of P. umbraticola. The study was conducted at the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Mossoró, RN, Brazil. Three hundred leaves of each of the five genotypes of P. umbraticola were evaluated for length, width, product between length and width, and leaf area. Determination and correlation coefficients, Akaike information criterion, Willmott agreement index, coefficient of variation, normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test, principal components and Student's t-test were used to systematize the data. Descriptive measurements obtained from the leaf blades of P. umbraticola showed variability between genotypes, demonstrating that the sample was representative for the population analyzed. The regression models obtained were linear and potential. Allometric equations can be used to estimate leaf area in P. umbraticola, and the recommended equations are ŷ = 0.356*L (R² = 0.91) for length, ŷ = 1.665*W (R² = 0.90) for width and ŷ = 0.016 × 0.0711*LW (R² = 0.99), ŷ = 0.715*LW (R² = 0.99) and ŷ = 0.724*LW (R² = 0.99) for the relationship between leaf length and width. The equations to estimate the leaf area of P. umbraticola showed excellent data fits, with values of R² = 0.993 and little dispersion of the data.

Submitted: 11/12/2023 Revised: 25/04/2024 Accepted: 26/04/2024

Pages 310-317 | Full Text PDF| https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.24.18.06.p4082
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Diversity in flower characteristics and chromosome numbers of Rain Lily (Zephyranthes spp.)

Nguyen Anh Duc, Pham Thi Minh Phuong, Pham Thi Thanh Huyen, Nguyen Van Loc, Dinh Thai Hoang*

Faculty of Agronomy, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Trau Quy, Gia Lam, Hanoi, 131000, Vietnam
Advanced Education Program office, Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry
Institute of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Environment, The University of Western Australia


Abstract: The study examined the flower characteristics and chromosome numbers of twenty rain lily genotypes with different origins. The bulbs of investigated genotypes were grown sequentially in an experimental garden under net-house conditions at the Vietnam National University of Agriculture. The data was collected for flower parameters including flower size and color, flower longevity, lengths of stamen, pistil, and anther, and the number of chromosomes. The results showed that the rain lily genotypes exhibited diversity in flower color and flower diameter, making advances for bedding flowers and landscaping. Furthermore, a wide range of chromosome numbers (from 2n = 18 to 2n =54) was found among the genotypes from 2n =18 in genotype D21 to 2n = 54 in genotype D6. The new chromosome numbers of Z. atamasco (2n = 22), Z. ajax (2n = 28), Z. candida (2n = 30), Z. rosea (2n = 28), and Habaranthus robutus (2n = 18) from Vietnamese genotypes and new hybrids were updated. The information will be valuable for the breeding programs of this species.

Submitted: 03/11/2023 Revised: 29/12/2023 Accepted: 18/03/2024

Pages 318-323 | Full Text PDF| https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.24.18.06.p4100
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Expanding agricultural potential through biological nitrogen fixation: Recent advances and diversity of diazotrophic bacteria

Julliane Destro de Lima, Adijailton José de Souza, Amanda Letícia Pit Nunes, Wesley Ribeiro Rivadavea, Geovanna Cristina Zaro, Glacy Jaqueline da Silva*

Biotechnology Department, Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture, Paranaense University, Umuarama, Paraná, Brazil
Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Program of Agricultural Microbiology, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil
Biotechnology Department, Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture, Paranaense University, Umuarama, Paraná, Brazil
Agronomy Departmment, Graduate program in Agronomy Engineering, Paranaense University, Umuarama, PR, Brazil
School of Environmental Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G2W, Canada
Biotechnology Department, Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture, Paranaense University, Umuarama, Paraná, Brazil


Abstract: Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by diazotrophic bacteria is one of the oldest and most crucial processes in nature. In this process, bacteria form symbiotic associations with plants, capturing atmospheric nitrogen and making it readily available to them. The diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria is vast. Recent advancements in molecular biology techniques have enabled the identification of new genera and species capable of fixing nitrogen and providing other types of nutrients for plants. From an agronomic perspective, this process is fundamental in increasing crop productivity sustainably and -cost-effectively. This review aims to categorize the most recent updates on the diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and showcase the main advances in the genetic improvement of legumes for this characteristic. Recent research has revealed a wide diversity of species applicable to various crops of agronomic interest, and many of these bacteria have been used either alone or in consortium with other microorganisms. This study demonstrates the agricultural potential of these new discoveries and the vast possibilities for expanding research into the diversity of microorganisms responsible for BNF in agriculture.

Submitted: 07/11/2023 Revised: 19/02/2024 Accepted: 21/02/2024

Pages 324-333 | Full Text PDF| https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.24.18.06.p4104
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Comparative analysis of colchicine and bio-catharanthine as mutagenic agents for polyploid generation in wild passion fruit (Passiflora foetida)

Nurlina Kasim*, Rinaldi Sjahril, Muh Riadi, Syatrianty A. Syaiful, Sri Nur Aminah Ngatimin, Maming, Syahriati, Anggi Pratiwi, Irnawati Anwar, Kasmiati

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, South Sulawesi 90245 Indonesia
Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, South Sulawesi 90245 Indonesia
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Sains, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, South Sulawesi 90245 Indonesia
Department of Agroindustry, Politeknik Pertanian Negeri Pangkep, South Sulawesi 90761 Indonesia
Student of Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar South Sulawesi 90245 Indonesia
Study Program of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Science and Health, Andi Sudirman University, Bone, South Sulawesi 92715 Indonesia
Study Program of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, West Sulawesi University, Majene, West Sulawesi 91412 Indonesia


Abstract: Wild type Passiflora foetida or a bush passion fruit is unappealing plant with small fruit size (2-3 cm) to be cultivated as a fruit crop. Plant breeding by polyploidization may improve plant production including increase the fruit size. Many researchers have used colchicine as plant chromosome-modifying agent for polyploidization. However, this potent mutagen is very expensive in developing countries and toxic. Hence, an alternative mutagen needs to be considered, such as the natural bio-catharanthine. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of colchicine and bio-catharanthine mutagens in polyploidization of P. foetida plants. Experiment was arranged in split-plot design with three replications. Main plot was combination of the mutagens and concentrations, the subplot was soaking durations. Twenty-five seeds each were soaked for 1-, 2- and 3-days in distilled water as control, colchicine (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%) and bio-catharanthine (0.5%, 1% and 1.5%) solutions. Result showed, bio-catharanthine concentration of 1% at immersion durations of 3-days and 1.5% at 1-, 2- and 3-days could only produce 89, 56, 74, and 71% grade 1 mixoploid plants accordingly. On the other hand, colchicine succeeded in obtaining tetraploid plants at concentration of 0.15% with 3-days soaking time even though at lower result (5%). Lower colchicine concentrations with shorter or the same soaking period could only produce 5% grade 2 mixoploid plants. Colchicine with one-tenth lower concentration than bio-catharanthine concentration is still more efficient in inducing polyploidy. Further research by involving bio-catharanthine concentration and varying the soaking time must be pursued to obtain higher-level ploidy.

Submitted: 23/11/2023 Revised: 22/06/2024 Accepted: 28/06/2024

Pages 334-341 | Full Text PDF| https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.24.18.06.pne53
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Evaluation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) productivity on peatlands based on DRIS analysis of leaf nutrient content in Siak District of Indonesia

Husni Mubarok, Sudradjat*, Herdhata Agusta, Heru Bagus Pulunggono

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Indonesia
Department of Soil Science and Land Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Indonesia


Abstract: Indonesia is the largest producer of oil palm in the world, with Riau Province particularly Siak District being the major contributor. The study focused on oil palm plantations within Siak District, characterized by a tropical rainforest climate of high humidity. The soil type in this area was a peatland with sapric and hemic maturity. The planting material used primarily consists of the DxP Marihat variety, which was planted between 1995-2005, with an average potential fresh fruit bunch productivity of 29.00 tons/ha/year. Variations in nutrient contents in oil palm leaf were observed across each block of the study location. Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS) analysis was conducted on found number 17 to determine the key nutrients required to increase oil palm productivity. This method consists of several stages, including norm analysis, DRIS index, nutrient balance index (NBI), optimum leaf nutrient value, and leaf nutrient interval. Data was obtained from 312 leaf nutrient analyses and fresh fruit bunch productivity across 39 blocks for the period between 2015 and 2022. A value of 26.33 tons/ha/year, derived from DRIS norm calculation, indicated the border between high and low productivity blocks. The results showed that the order of macronutrient and micronutrient requirements in high productivity blocks was N>P>K>Ca>Mg and B>Cu>Zn, while in low productivity blocks, it was Ca>Mg>N>K>P and B>Cu>Zn. Regression of DRIS index and leaf nutrient content obtained optimum nutrient values of 2.78%, 0.16%, 1.02%, 0.66%, 0.35%, 29.51 ppm, 3.65 ppm, and 15.37 ppm for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, and Zn, respectively. Therefore, nutrients Ca and B were prioritized to increase the achievement of oil palm fresh fruit bunch productivity.

Submitted: 23/11/2023 Revised: 12/03/2024 Accepted: 24/04/2024

Pages 342-351 | Full Text PDF| https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.24.18.06.pne56
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Physical and vegetation characteristics of soil cover on a liquefied land

Anton Monde*, Bunga Elim Somba

Agrotechnology Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, Palu 94118, Indonesia

Abstract: Liquefaction is a phenomenon where a solid soil becomes liquid due to an earthquake or other vibrations and other sources of intense shaking, leading to a loss of soil strength and stiffness. Liquefaction can damage structures and condition of the land surface and may affect the state of the vegetation that grows on the land. Therefore, it is necessary to study the physical properties of the soil and the condition of vegetation after the liquefaction event. This study examines changes in the physical conditions of alluvial soil and vegetation cover on the land surface after the liquefaction disaster and future management strategies. This research was carried out from August to December 2022 by taking composite and representative soil samples from three land conditions, namely liquefied land consisting of eroded and piled up soil, as well as a control sample from ground that was not liquefied. Soil sample analysis was conducted at the Laboratory of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University. The research used several observational variables: soil texture, permeability, bulk density, porosity, and organic matter. Observation of land surface cover and vegetation types was done using the quadrant method. The results indicated that, overall, areas affected by liquefaction experienced a substantial loss of soil mass, leading to a lower land surface, particularly in regions prone to erosion. Due to the erosion of surface soil, the remaining subsoil had a sandy loam texture, higher bulk density, increased permeability, and reduced organic matter content. As a result, the ground surface became undulating, with mounds of soil and irregular surface drainage in certain areas. For areas that experienced liquefaction up to four years after the disaster, the level of land cover only reached 60-61%. In contrast, the level of land cover by surface vegetation reached 93.7%.

Submitted: 29/11/2023 Revised: 04/05/2024 Accepted: 07/05/2024

Pages 352-358 | Full Text PDF| https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.24.18.06.pne81
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Diversity of endomycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of Helianthemum ledifolium in the Bni Guil area (Eastern Morocco)

Halima Bouchentouf*, Wissame Chafai, El hassane Rejmil, Abdelmajid Bechchari, Khalid Ahmed

Laboratory for the Improvement of Agricultural Production Biotechnology and Environment, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed I University, Oujda 60000, Morocco
Ministry of Agriculture, Oujda, Morocco
National Institute of Agronomic Research, CRRA Oujda, 10 Bd Mohamed VI, B.P. 428, 6000 Oujda, Morocco


Abstract: This work aimed to study the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) present in the rhizosphere of Helianthemum ledifolium in the Bni Guil area (Figuig Province, Morocco), known for its arid climate and desert truffle production. Soil samples from the rhizosphere of Helianthemum ledifolium were taken for spore extraction, while the roots of this host plant were sampled for root observation. The results of this study showed that the density of spores extracted by wet sieving was 165 spores per 50g of the soil. Identification of these spores indicated the presence of 37 species, belonging to three AMF families (Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Claroideoglomeraceae) and one ECM family (Cistaceae). The Glomus and Acaulospora genera are the most dominant, with 17 and 14 species, respectively, compared with the other genera. In addition, the frequency of occurrence of the Glomus genus is higher (50%) than that of the other fungal genera present, especially the Terfezia genus, reflecting the scarcity of desert truffles in recent decades. The results of root observations showed the presence of ectomycorrhization with a typical Hartig network and no fungal mantle, despite the dominance of AMF fungi, indicating some host specificity towards ECM fungi.

Submitted: 18/01/2024 Revised: 22/04/2024 Accepted: 24/04/2024

Pages 359-364 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.24.18.06.pne93
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Liquid culture for efficient in vitro propagation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) using bioreactor system

Syarif Husen*, Agus Eko Purnomo, Siti Agus Tina, Aniek Iriany, Poncojari Wahyono, Dyah Roeswitawati

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Science, University of Muhammadiyah Malang, Jl. Raya Tlogomas No. 246, Malang 65144, Indonesia
Laboratory of Culture In Vitro, University of Muhammadiyah Malang, Jl. Raya Sengkaling No. 188, Malang 65121, Indonesia
Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Jl. Raya Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Muhammadiyah Malang, Jl. Raya Tlogomas No. 246, Malang 65144, Indonesia


Abstract: The bioreactor is one method of in vitro culture for plant propagation. Some plants that have used this method in propagation are date palms, ornamental plants, and medicinal plants, but potato seed production has not yet been carried out. In vitro culture activities usually use solid or semi-solid media, namely culture media with the addition of agar. In a bioreactor system, the media used does not use agar so it is called liquid media. Propagation methods using tissue culture generally use a non-bioreactor culture system which causes production prices to increase. Therefore, it is interesting to use a bioreactor system in potato seed production. The research aimed to compare the best combination of bioreactor system treatment and non-bioreactor culture system with the addition of IBA for the growth and development of Amudra potato seed plantlets. The experimental design used a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with 6 treatments, and 4 repetitions. The treatments in this study were non-bioreactor without IBA (control), non-bioreactor + IBA 1 mg L-1, non-bioreactor + IBA 2 mg L-1, bioreactor without IBA (control), bioreactor + IBA 1 mg L-1, and bioreactor + IBA 2 mg L-1. Bioreactor treatment (control) is better than other treatments. This can be seen from the number of shoots 7.30, stem diameter of 2.83 mm3, leaf area of 1.42 cm2, number of leaves of 9.60, and total chlorophyll content of 0.32 mg L-1. The results indicate that bioreactor culture with a liquid medium could be used for mass micropropagation of S. tuberosum L.

Submitted: 15/11/2023 Revised: 24/05/2024 Accepted: 11/06/2024

Pages 365-373 | Full Text PDF| https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.24.18.06.pne63