Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

June 2021 | 15(06):2021 | ERALY VIEW | 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06


Flow rate changes of drippers with dilutions of treated water produced by oil exploration in the Brazilian semiarid region

Hudson Salatiel Marques Vale*, Danniely de Oliveira Costa, Rafael Oliveira Batista, Luis Cesar de Aquino Lemos Filho, Mychelle Karla Teixeira de Oliveira, Francisco de Assis de Oliveira, Marcelo Tavares Gurgel, Joaquim Odilon Pereira, Jeane Cruz Portela, Marineide Jussara Diniz, Blake Charles Diniz Marques, Francisca Evânia de Carvalho, Ana Luiza Veras de Souza

Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Departamento de Engenharia e Ciências Ambientais, 59625-900, Mossoró - RN, Brazil
Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Departamento de Ciências Agronômicas e Florestais, 59625-900, Mossoró - RN, Brazil

Abstract
The liquid residue produced from the exploitation of oil in the ground and sea is generated in large volumes and has significant polluting potential. In the Brazilian semiarid region, this liquid can be applied to the agricultural lands, if properly treated and applied to the soil by dripping. It is an alternative that can mitigate water scarcity and impacts on the environment. However, the vulnerability of drippers to clogging is a problem and can be mitigated with the dilution technique. The flow rate changes of drippers for the application of dilutions of produced water treated (PW) with underground water (UW) was analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized split-split-plot design with three replications. Plots consisted of treatments (D1: 100% of UW, D2: 90% of UW and 10% PW, D3: 80% of UW and 20% of PW, D4: 70% of UW and 30% of PW and D5: 60% of UW and 40% of PW). The split-plots consisted of types of drippers (G1: 1.6 L h-1, G2: - 1.6 L h-1, G3: 1.7 L h-1) and split-split-plots consisted of evaluation times (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 h). Flow rate (D) and flow rate coefficient of variation (FCV) were taken every 40 hours untill 160 h. The results showed that the G3 emitter was the most resistant to clogging. The dilutions D2 and D3 provided the lowest losses in hydraulic performance in the drip units. The highest rates of clogging occurred in the G2 emitter operating in the D5 dilution.

Pages 796-805 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p2754
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Effect of phytoregulators on vegetative characteristics of ‘packham’s triumph’ pear trees

Ana Paula Fernandes de Lima, Marcos Antonio Giovanaz, Priscila Alvariza Amaral, Renan Navroski*, José Carlos Fachinello, Marcelo Barbosa Malgarim

Plant Science Departament, Faculty of Agronomy “Eliseu Maciel” - Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas/RS – Brasil

Abstract
This study aimed at evaluating the use of phytoregulators in vegetative characteristics of ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pear trees in both 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 cycles. The orchard, was implemented in 2011. The following phytoregulators and doses were used: Ethephon and 6-Benzyladenine at 100, 200, 300 and 400 ml L-1. The experiment had a randomized block design with five replicates. Each experimental unit was composed of a plant. Variables under evaluation were leaf area, annual branch length, annual branch diameter, number of buds on the annual branch, internode length, fertility index and trunk cross section areas of the crown cultivar and of the rootstock. Only the following variables exhibited significance: leaf area, annual branch length and number of buds in plants treated with Ethephon in the 2015/2016 cycle. Leaf area was smaller when high concentrations of Ethephon were applied while the least efficient doses for annual branch length and number of buds were 162.66 ml L-1 and 107.30 ml L-1, respectively.

Pages 806-810 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p2782
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Lines derived from coffee BA-10 with resistance to Pseudomonas syringae under field conditions with simultaneous natural infections of the pathovars garcae and tabaci

Carlos Theodoro Motta Pereira, Fernando Cesar Carducci, Lucas Mateus Rivero Rodrigues, Luís Otávio Saggion Beriam, Luciana Harumi Shigueoka, Valdir Mariucci Junior, Kawana Silva Bortolato, Gustavo Hiroshi Sera*

Instituto de Desenvolvimento Rural do Paraná – IAPAR-EMATER (IDR-Paraná), Plant Breeding Department, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, km 375, Zip Code 86047-902, Londrina-PR, Brazil
Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), Agronomy Department, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, km 380, Zip Code 86057-970, Londrina-PR, Brazil
Instituto Agronômico (IAC) Centro de Café Alcides Carvalho, CP 28, Zip Code 13001-970, Campinas-SP, Brazil
Instituto Biológico, CP 70, Zip Code 13012-970, Campinas-SP, Brazil


Abstract
Bacterial-halo-blight and bacterial-leaf-spot are important coffee diseases caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae and pv. tabaci, respectively. The most suitable method to control these diseases is the use of resistant cultivars. There are no studies on resistance to Pseudomonas syringae (PS) in coffee derived from BA-10 genotypes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance to PS in lines derived from BA-10 under field conditions with simultaneous natural infections of the pathovars garcae and tabaci. 38 F4 and two F5 lines derived from BA-10 were evaluated in a field trial in Londrina, PR, Brazil. The Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81 and IAPAR 59 were the susceptible and intermediate resistant controls, respectively. Resistance to PS was evaluated in January 2017 after 45 months of planting. The grading scale varied from 1 to 5, where grade 1 was plants with more resistance and 5 plants more susceptible. Two F5 lines showed 100% of resistant plants (grades 1 and 2) and the F4 line IAPAR 12201 showed 60% of plants with a high level of resistance to PS (grade 1), while the control Catuaí showed no resistant plant. IAPAR 59 and several F4 lines showed high frequency of plants with intermediate resistance to PS.

Pages 811-815 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p2786
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Comparative analysis of the efficacy of selected gametocide agents in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench)

Muhammad Ahmad Yahaya*, Hussein Shimelis, Mark Laing, Isack Mathew

African Centre for Crop Improvement, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Department of Plant Science, Institute for Agricultural Research Samaru, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, PMB 1044, Kaduna, Nigeria


Abstract
A new generation of chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) or gametocides has shown potential to induce male sterility in predominantly self-fertilizing crops, including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench). There is a lack of information on the relative efficacy of the various available CHAs for large-scale application in plant breeding programs. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the relative effectiveness of three selected CHAs to induce male sterility in sorghum under a controlled environment for hybridization. Foliar applications of three CHAs and a control (ethrel, trifluoromethanesulfonamide [TFMSA], ethyl 4-fluorooxanilate [E4FO] and distilled water [control]) were tested using three grain sorghum genotypes (ICS-1, ICS-2 and ICS-3) in two seasons. The 24 treatment combinations consisting of 4 levels of CHAs, 3 sorghum varieties and two seasons were laid out using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on pollen sterility, pollen diameter, plant height, and panicle height were collected and analyzed. Results showed that the CHAs had significant (p<0.05) differences for efficacy of inducing male sterility in sorghum. Ethrel at a dose of 1 gl-1 induced the highest pollen sterility (98% in both seasons) but was highly phytotoxic with at least 60% mortality in the test population in both seasons, making it unsuitable for practical application. TFMSA (2 mg per plant) and E4FO (1 gl-1) d induced 93% male sterility with minimal phytotoxic effects (20 to 30%). Application of either TFMSA at 2mg per plant after flag leaf emergence or 1gl-1 of E4FO at panicle initiation can be used to successfully induce male sterility in sorghum under greenhouse conditions.

Pages 816-820 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p2801
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High dynamic dilutions and genetic variability to phytosanitary management and yield of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L)

Cezário Ferreira dos Santos Junior, Claudio Córdoba Correoso, Marcos Copacheski, Pedro Boff, Mari Inês Carissimi Boff

Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Lages, SC, Brasil
Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina, Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Lages, SC, Brasil


Abstract
The substitution of landrace populations of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by commercial cultivars provided genetic uniformity and loss of rusticity. It makes the bean plants more vulnerable to pests, increasing the use of pesticides. The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity and health of beans landraces compared to commercial cultivars, reducing the effect of high dynamic dilutions. The evaluated traits were grain yield (kg ha-1), thousand grain weight (g), and occurrence of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and bacteriosis (Xanthomonas sp.). Evaluation of high dynamic dilutions was also done in addition to the previous variables, was evaluated number of pods per plant and pods with the presence of anthracnose. The analysis of the data did not show any differences in the productivity and disease rate between the landraces and the commercial cultivars of beans. The high dynamized dilutions dis not show conclusive results in terms of productivity. However, all treatments were superior in phytosanitary management compared to control.

Pages 821-826 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p2857
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Application of saline tolerant bacteria and soil ameliorants improved growth, yield and nutrient uptake of tomato in saline land

Nurul Aini*, Wiwin.Sumiya Dwi Yamika, Luqman.Qurata Aini, Agus Prayitno Kurniawan

University of Brawijaya, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, Malang 65145, Indonesia
University of Brawijaya, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Malang 65145, Indonesia


Abstract
Salinity is one of the problems in agricultural sector widespread in almost all countries in the world, which could reduce crops yield. This research was carried out to study the effect of frequency application of consortium saline-tolerant bacteria isolates with different soil ameliorants on growth and yield of tomato grown saline lands. Research was conducted using split plot design with three replications. Soil ameliorants (Cow manure and gypsum) were the main plot while sub-plots were frequency applications of consortium bacterial isolates (without bacterial, once, twice, three and four times). In this study, bacteria consortium was SN13 (Streptomyces sp.) + SN22 (Bacillus sp.) and SN23 (Corynebacterium sp.) which isolated from the soil of saline-prone regions of Lamongan, in coastal East Java Indonesia. Results showed that gypsum and cow manure as soil ameliorant did not give significant effect on yield and nutrient uptake of tomato while application of saline-tolerant bacteria was able to improve yield and nutrient uptake of tomato. However, the four times application of saline-tolerant bacteria significantly improved plant height (23.36 %), leaves area (96,49 %), total chlorophyll content (11.86 %), dry weight of plant (103.59 %), fresh weight of fruit (85.51 %), N uptake (135.22 %), P uptake (132.99 %), K uptake (141.68 %) and declined Na uptake (16.28 %), compared to without bacteria application. In conclusion, four times application of saline-tolerant bacteria can alleviate salinity stress of tomato plants in saline lands

Pages 827-834 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p2903
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Components of resistance to Olivea neotectonae in Tectona grandis Linn F. as a criterion for selecting promising genotypes

Antonio Marcos Chimello*, Jeferson Gonçalves de Jesus, Suelene Surubi de Melo, Isabela Vera dos Anjos, Milson Evaldo Serafim, Kelly Lana Araújo, Leonarda Grillo Neves

Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso UNEMAT, Departamento de Agronomia, Cáceres -MT, Brasil
Instituto Federal de educação, ciência e tecnologia de Mato Grosso, Cáceres - MT, Brasil
Programa de Pós Graduação em Bitecnologia e Bidiversidade, Rede Pró Centro-Oeste, UNEMAT, Cáceres - MT, Brasil


Abstract
The aim of this paper was to identify the best components involving resistance to the O. neotectonae fungus, allowing for adequate selection of promising teak genotypes to explore in improvement programs or for disease management. Thirty different clonal teak genotypes were evaluated in a greenhouse from PROTECA Biotecnologia Florestal. The experimental design was a randomized block design with three replications and three plants per plot. The following characteristics were evaluated: average latent period, number of pustules per cm2, area below the number of pustules progress curve (ABNPPC), frequency of infection, and number of urediniospores per pustule. The data for the resistance characteristics were submitted to ANOVA and multivariate analysis applying grouping techniques and canonical variables. High genetic variability was observed among the 30 T. grandis genotypes regarding resistance to the O. neotectonae fungus. Both for the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA), the canonical variables method and Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) the genotypes that showed the greatest resistance to the fungus were genotypes 03 and 10.

Pages 835-841 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p2917
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Physical, chemical and rheological properties of pitomba (Talisia esculenta) seed starch and its application as a thickener and stabilizer in ketchup

Deise Souza de Castro*, Inacia dos Santos Moreira, Francinalva Cordeiro de Sousa, Wilton Pereira da Silva, Josivanda Palmeira Gomes, Alexandre José de Melo Queiroz, Cleide Maria Diniz Pereira da Silva e Silva, Bruno Adelino de Melo

Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, 58429-140, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil
Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Graduate Program in Process Engineering, Researcher PNPD/CAPES, Campina Grande-PB, Brazil
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco (IFPE), Campus of Barreiros, Barreiros, PE, Brazil
Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Academic Unit of Physics, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil
Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Postdoctoral fellow from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), Campina Grande-PB, Brazil

Abstract
The present study aimed to characterize the physical, chemical and rheological properties of starch extracted from pitomba seeds and verify the influence of its addition on the syneresis and viscosity characteristics of ketchup during storage, compared to maize starch. Extraction was performed by grinding the seeds in sodium metabisulfite solution (0.2%) followed by drying at 50 ºC. ketchups were formulated with the addition of 0.5 and 1% pitomba starch, 0.5 and 1% maize starch and a control formulation. Starch showed low percentages of protein, ashes and lipid, starch purity of 77.78%, amylose of 19.25%, apparent density of 0.46 g/cm3 and compact density of 0.66 g/cm3. The starch pastes showed pseudoplastic behavior and imparted significant viscosity, usable in increasing the consistency of fluid foods. Ketchups formulated with addition of pitomba starch showed reduction of syneresis during storage, and the 1% starch concentration can slow down the syneresis process in ketchup at temperatures of 7 and 25 °C, similar to the stabilizing capacity of maize starch. Ketchup viscosity increased with the addition of pitomba and maize starches, but the highest apparent viscosities were obtained in ketchup with addition of pitomba starch during storage.

Pages 842-849 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p2981
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Maize-soybean intercrop silage yield and quality with different nitrogen levels and plant population

Vanderson Vieira Batista*, Paulo Fernando Adami, Karine Fuschter Oligini, Carlos Andre Barhy, Laércio Ricardo Sartor, Pedro Valério Dutra de Moraes

Department of Agronomy, Technological University of Paraná, Via do Conhecimento, s/n - km 01 - Fraron, Pato Branco - PR, Brazil, Zip Code 85503-390
Department of Agronomy, Technological University of Paraná, Estrada para Boa Esperança, km 04 - Zona Rural, Dois Vizinhos - PR, Brazil, Zip Code 85660-000


Abstract
This study hypothesizes that maize-soybean intercrop with lower maize plant population and nitrogen levels can allow better soybean development and yield, which may offset lower maize biomass and silage crude protein yield. Experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with three replications. Treatments consisted of two different maize-soybean plant stand (40,000 and 60,000 plants ha-1) and five nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg ha-1). As a result, soybean biomass yield increased at the lower maize plant stand, although, maize and total (maize + soybean) biomass yield were higher at the greater maize plant stand. Thus, individual maize plants and total dry matter yield increased as nitrogen levels were increased. However, there was no effect of the studied factors on the silage crude protein yield per area, indicating a great potential of soybean to offset biomass yield reduction trough silage quality improvement. Moreover, since there was no difference on total silage crude protein yield per hectare, it is suggested that the adoption of maize-soybean intercrop with lower maize plant stand (40 thousand maize plants ha-1) and with lower nitrogen values is a more environmentally friendly approach to increase farmland sustainability while decreasing environmental and productivity costs. Intermediate levels may be evaluated in future studies.

Pages 851-858 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p2986
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Genetic variability and association of yield and yield components among bread wheat genotypes under drought-stressed conditions

Yared Semahegn*, Hussein Shimelis, Mark Laing, Isack Mathew

School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Holetta Research Centre, P.O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


Abstract
Drought is one of the major constraints to wheat production and productivity globally. Developing drought-adapted wheat cultivars is paramount to increase wheat productivity under variable rainfall conditions. Understanding the genetic variability and trait association is key to the development of improved wheat cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of the genetic parameters and associations of yield and yield components of bread wheat genotypes, in order to design appropriate breeding strategies for yield improvement in wheat. One hundred and twenty genotypes were evaluated at five test sites in the 2018/19 cropping season using a 10 x 12 alpha lattice design with two replications. Different sowing dates were used to impose contrasting drought stress levels based on the onset of the main seasonal rains at each site. Data were recorded on agronomic traits such as days to heading (DH), days to maturity (DM), plant height (PH), spike length (SL), spikelet per spike (SS), kernel per spike (KS), 1000 kernel weight (TKW) and grain yield (GY). There was significant (p<0.01) genetic variation for all agronomic traits studied under both drought-stressed and non-stressed conditions. The highest estimates for genetic variance were obtained for DH (54.0%), followed by SL (38.3%). The high heritability estimated for DH (94.4%), SL (90.2%) and SS (85.2%), coupled with a high rate of genetic advance, suggest that direct selection for these traits would be effective under drought-stressed conditions. GY exhibited low genetic advance (9%) and heritability (41.5%) estimates, which were concomitant with its polygenic and complex inheritance pattern. Correlation and path analyses revealed that TKW was the most important contributing trait for improving grain yield under drought-stressed conditions.

Pages 863-870 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p2987
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Cover crop management in the maize-wheat offseason

Lucas Link, Luara Silva Pereira, Vanderson Vieira Batista, Karine Fuschter Oligini, Erick Vinicius Pellizari, Paulo Fernando Adami*, Laércio Ricardo Sartor

Department of Agronomy, Technological University of Paraná, Estrada para Boa Esperança, km 04 - Zona Rural, Dois Vizinhos - PR, Brazil, Zip Code 85660-000
Department of Agronomy, Technological University of Paraná, Via do Conhecimento, s/n - km 01 - Fraron, Pato Branco - PR, Brazil, Zip Code 85503-390


Abstract
This research studied a suitable cover crop considering biomass accumulation and nutrient cycling and its herbicide management to be adopted in the maize-wheat offseason as well as its influence on wheat yield. Experiment was laid out as a randomized block design in a factorial scheme with five cover crops (Fagopyrum esculentum, Crotalaria juncea, Pennisetum glaucum, Urochloa brizantha and Crotalaria spectabilis at 2017/18 growing season and at 2018/19, Fagopyrum esculentum and Crotalaria spectabilis were switched for Dolichos lablab) and two herbicide management (Desiccation 17 days before and at the wheat Sowing day) with four replications. Fallow was used as a control. Fagopyrum esculentum showed the fastest cycle and can be recommended for shorter offseason periods (50 days). Pennisetum glaucum showed the highest biomass yield at both years, standing out as the best option for offseason periods of 70 to 80 days. Tradeoff between the additional biomass produced by millet and brachiaria between herbicide desiccation periods does not cover the wheat grain yield reduction, suggesting that its herbicide management should be anticipated. On the other hand, Crotalarias showed a linear increase in biomass along the periods without wheat yield effects and its herbicide dissection at the wheat sowing day is recommended.

Pages 871-877 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p3017
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Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

Amandha Lara, Isabela Carvalho dos Santos, Andréia Assunção Soares, Luciana Kazue Otutumi, Ezilda Jacomassi, Evellyn Claudia Wietzikoski Lovato, Zilda Cristiani Gazim, Isabelle Luiz Rahal, Leiluana Roque Oliva, José Eduardo Gonçalves, Lidiane Nunes Barbosa, Daniela Dib Gonçalves*

Mestrado Profissional de Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterápicos na Atenção Básica, Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR), Umuarama, Paraná, Brasil. Praça Mascarenhas de Moraes, 4282 - Centro - CEP: 87502-210, Umuarama – Paraná, Brasil
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal com Ênfase em Produtos Bioativos, da Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR), Umuarama, Paraná, Brasil. Praça Mascarenhas de Moraes, 4282 - Centro - CEP: 87502-210, Umuarama – Paraná, Brasil
Programa de Pós-graduação em Biotecnologia Aplicada a Agricultura, Laboratório de Química de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Paranaense, Umuarama, PR, Brasil. Praça Mascarenhas de Moraes, 4282 - Centro - CEP: 87502-210, Umuarama – Paraná, Brasil
Programa de Pós-graduação em Tecnologias Limpas, Centro Universitário de Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. Av. Guedner, nº 1610 - Jardim Aclimação, Maringá Paraná, Brasil


Abstract
Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been widely used for hundreds of years, whether for its analgesic, antipyretic, or antimicrobial potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition and the ranges of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of aqueous rhizome and leaf extracts of Z. officinale and synergism of these extracts with antibiotics against six isolates of Staphylococcus spp. The chemical composition of the crude extract from the rhizome of Z. officinale cultivated in the region of Umuarama (Brazil) was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer and detected Zingerone (47.65%), α-Zingiberene (14.92%), β-Sesquiphellandrene- (6.16%), α-Curcumene (4.49%), Methyl 10-trans, 12-cis-octadecadienoate (4.42) and Gingerol (4.37). Six samples of Staphylococcus spp. from Veterinary Students’ nasal swabs were collected for antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The antibacterial activities of the aqueous extracts of ginger rhizome and leaves were evaluated with broth microdilution, and then synergism of the rhizome extract with the antimicrobials was verified to calculate the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). All the Staphylococcus spp. samples showed resistance to ampicillin and penicillin, 66.67% to erythromycin, and 33.33% to tetracycline. The MIC90% of each extract was estimated to be 235 mg/mL and 13.27 mg/mL for the leaf and rhizome, respectively. With the aqueous leaf extract, none of the samples presented MBC within the studied concentration range. On the other hand, the MBC obtained by the aqueous rhizome extract was 7.81 mg/mL for 50% of the samples. Calculation of the FICI showed that ½ MIC yielded the best result, with two synergistic relationships when combined with ampicillin. This research shows a potential use for the aqueous extract of ginger as an alternative or auxiliary therapy against resistant microorganisms.

Pages 882-889 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p3034
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Genetic diversity in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) accessions using SNP based Kompetitive allele-specific (KASP) markers

Thulo Sejake, Nemera Shargie*, Riann Christian, Assefa B. Amelework, Toi J. Tsilo

Agricultural Research Council - Grain Crops, Private Bag X1251, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
University of South Africa, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Private Bag X6, Florida 1710, South Africa
Agricultural Research Council - Small Grain, Private Bag X29, Bethlehem 9700, South Africa
Agricultural Research Council - Vegetable and Ornamental Plants, Private Bag x 293, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa

Abstract
Genetic diversity analysis is an important component in conventional and marker-assisted breeding. The objective of this study was to assess the level of genetic diversity among 100 sorghum accessions, which were selected randomly from the Sorghum National Germplasm Bank maintained at Agricultural Research Council, South Africa. A total of 136 Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASP) markers were used in this study. The KASP markers were previously derived from single-nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) analysis of the world-wide sorghum accessions by other research groups. A total of 110 KASP markers were polymorphic and recorded an average polymorphic information content (PIC) value of 0.3, which indicated high level of discrimination of the markers. The markers had an average gene diversity and observed heterozygosity of 0.3 and 0.10, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance revealed a significantly high variation among accessions (83% and 89%) than within accessions (10% and 11%) based on breeding status and geographic origin, respectively. Genetic distance varied from 0.0 between SA0672 and SA0673, SA1282 and SA0670 to 0.57 between Hakika and SA1442 with an average mean of 0.30. The dendrogram and model-based population analysis identified three and four distinct groups in 95 sorghum accessions, respectively. These results imply the presence of genetic diversity and lack of genetic bottleneck within the Sorghum National Germplasm Bank, which could be highly relevant for sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance.

Pages 890-898 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p3088
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Nutritional and biomass aspects of Helianthus annuus according to boron application in the soil

Aline Franciel de Andrade, Karen Andreon Viçosi, Amanda Magalhães Bueno, Rilner Alves Flores*, Carlos Leandro Rodrigues dos Santos, Glenio Guimarães Santos, Marcio Mesquita

Federal University of Goiás (UFG), College of Agronomy, Esperança avenue, Campus Samambaia, 74690-900, Goiânia, GO, Brazil
Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES), Center for Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, Alto Universitário, Guararema, 29500-000 Alegre, ES, Brazil
Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Exact Sciences and the Earth Institute (ICET), Valdon Varjão avenue, Campus Araguaia 78607-059, Barra de Garças MT, Brazil

Abstract
Sunflower is considered highly demanding in boron (B); however, it has low efficiency in using this micronutrient. An experiment under protected cultivation was carried out to evaluate the effects of boron fertilization on nutrition and sunflower biomass production (Helianthus annuus). A completely randomized design with four replications was used. Five boron doses: 0 (Control), 1, 2, 3, and 4 kg-ha-1, were applied to the soil using boric acid as the source. Biometric assessments, measurements of the relative chlorophyll index (RCI), production of dry biomass and the boron use efficiency by plants were carried out. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and F test (p<0.05), with polynomial regression analysis when significant. Leaf area, RCI evaluated at 15 and 60 days, and biomass increase linearly according to the boron application up to the dose of 4 kg-ha-1, which corresponds to an increase of 31, 12, 14, and 61%, respectively, compared to control treatment. However, for plant height and nutritional efficiency, the best results were obtained with the dose of 2.64 kg-ha-1 of B, with a decrease in higher doses. Boron fertilization in sunflower crop positively influences the nutritional and growth aspects of plants. In general, the application of up to 3 kg-ha-1 of B in soils with low natural content increases the crop yield, without phytotoxicity aspects caused by the nutrient.

Pages 899-908 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p3135
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Yield and physiological quality of common bean grains as a function of boron application in the soil

Amanda Magalhães Bueno, Aline Fanciel de Andrade, Aline dos Santos de Carvalho, Rilner Alves Flores*, Klaus de Oliveira Abdala, Glenio Guimarães Santos, Marcio Mesquita

Federal University of Goiás (UFG), College of Agronomy, Esperança avenue, Campus Samambaia, 74690-900, Goiânia, GO, Brazil

Abstract
We carried out a field experiment to evaluate the effects of soil application of sources and doses of boron (B) on production yield and quality of grains of Phaseolus vulgaris (BRS Estilo) grown in an irrigated system. The factorial design was 4x5, being four sources of boron (boric acid, borax, borogran, and FTE BR12) and five doses (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 kg ha-1) (three replications). We evaluated relative chlorophyll index (RCI), leaf B content, yield, seed viability, and economic value. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when significant, evaluated by Tukey test (qualitative) and regression (quantitative). Boron sources affected the RCI 28 days after emergence (DAE). The results for boric acid, borogran, and FTE BR12 were significantly higher (3%, p-value<0.05) than the results for borax. At 46 DAE, boric acid resulted in a RCI 5% higher than the other sources. Borax and boric acid promoted high leaf B contents (126.11 and 105.63 mg dm-3, respectively). The maximum yield (2,224.03 kg ha-1) was obtained by using 2.21 kg ha-1 of B, regardless of the source. Seed viability showed a linear behavior by using borax and boric acid and a quadratic behavior by using borogran and FTE BR12. The dose that resulted in the highest differential profit return (US$ 398.00) was 3.00 kg ha-1. Based on the productive, physiological, and economic results, the dose of 3.00 kg ha-1 provides the highest profit margin for common bean producers.

Pages 909-917 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p3136
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Interaction of irrigation rates and fertilization doses on postharvest quality of papaya ‘Formosa’

Lígia Borges Marinho*, Fernanda Nery Vargens, Acácio Figueiredo Neto, Vanessa Rodrigues da Silva, Aureliano Roberto Rodrigues Ramos, Lucas Melo Vellame, Eduardo Santana Aires

University of the State of Bahia, Department of Agronomy, Juazeiro, Brazil
Federal University of the San Francisco Valley, Engineering Department, State of Bahia, Brazil
Federal University of Recôncavo of Bahia, Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil
School of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
Water deficit is a water-saving strategy that might nevertheless negatively affect fruit quality. In the present study, the papaya quality was evaluated after application of different irrigation rates and nitrogen fertilization doses at harvest and postharvest. The study was conducted on ‘Formosa’ cultivar in semiarid region. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design in a 2 x 5 x 3 scheme; two storage times (0 and 5 days), five irrigation rates (50, 75, 100, 125, and 150% of crop evapotranspiration), and three nitrogen doses (150, 180, and 210 Kg.ha-1), with four replicates. Total Soluble Solids (TSS), Titratable Acidity (TA), and fruit skin colour (Luminosity - L, intensity of green/red coloration - a*, and intensity of yellow coloration - b*) were evaluated. Reduced irrigation rates and lower nitrogen doses resulted in increased soluble solids and SS/TA ratio. The latter was increased during storage. Irrigation deficit and a lower amount of nitrogen (150 Kg. ha-1) did not reduce papaya quality, even after 5 days of storage in an environment with controlled temperature and humidity. In order to ensure net productivity in rural properties, this water-saving strategy of maintaining the crop under water restriction conditions must take into consideration not only in the curves of papaya quality-related variables, but also fruit productivity curve.

Pages 918-924 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p3165
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Differential response of pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes to iron deficiency in relation to the growth, rhizosphere acidification and ferric chelate reductase activities

Abdelmajid Krouma

Research Unit Valorization and Optimization of Resources, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques of Sidi Bouzid, University of Kairouan, Tunisia

Abstract
Calcareous soils are known problematic lands for agricultural systems because of the low availability of nutrients, particularly iron (Fe). The so-called strategy I plant (e. g. Pea, Pisum sativum L.) which groups dicotyledons and monocots other than grasses, developed root membrane activities that contribute to the improvement of Fe availability. Among the functions considered to be a critical phase in iron absorption is rhizosphere acidification by H-ATPase and Fe(III) reduced by Fe(III) chelate reducctase (FeCR). In order to experimentally investigate the importance of root FeCR in Fe nutrition, its relationship with rhizosphere acidification and the genotypic differences in response to iron deficiency in pea (Pisum sativum L.), a glasshouse experiment was conducted hydroponically on four genotypes Merveille de Kelvedon (MK); Lincoln (Lin); Douce de Provence (DP) and Alexandra (Alex). Plants of each genotype were distributed into two plots, the first one received full nutrient solution (+ Fe), the second one received nutrient solution devoid of iron (- Fe). Plant growth, Fe distribution, SPAD index and root acidification and ferric chelate reductase activities were evaluated. Fe deficiency decreased plant growth and SPAD index along with the significant increase of H-ATPase and FeCR activities. Some genotypic differences were observed as follows; Alex showed high tolerance to Fe deprivation as compared to other genotypes. Important H-ATPase and FeCR activities, high Fe use efficiency and adequate membrane efficiency are the main reasons for this tolerance. These physiological parameters could be used as tools of tolerance for further breeding programs.

Pages 925-932 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p3171
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General and specific combining ability of cotton germplasm in Mozambique using circulant dialells

Leonel Domingos Moiana*, Pedro Soares Vidigal Filho, Manuel Pedro Maleia, Sudanailly Mufambira, Joaquim João, Jaime Omar Teca, Celestino Manuel Domingos, Constantino Rico Raimundo Artur

Instituto de Investigação Agrária de Moçambique, Av. das FPLM, 2698. C.P. 2698, Maputo, Mozambique
Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Pós-Graduação em Genética e Melhoramento, Av. Colombo, 5.790, Bloco J45, CEP 87.020-900, Maringá-PR-Brasil


Abstract
The genetic diversity of species is an important way to maintain the natural capacity to respond to climate change and all stresses. This study aimed to estimate the general combining ability (GCA) and the specific combining ability (SCA) of the characteristics among 41 cotton cultivars and 9 inbred lines using circulant diallel. In 2016, 41 cultivars and 9 inbred lines and 75 hybrid combinations were evaluated at the Namialo Cotton Research and Seed and Multiplication Centre in the Meconta District, Nampula province. The experimental design was Federer's augmented blocks with four repetitions. The evaluated characteristics were: days for 50% of flowering (DAFlw), days for 50% of fruiting (DAFrut), plant height, average number of bolls (AnB), seed cotton yield in kilograms per hectare (Yield) and the mass of one hundred seeds (M100). The algorithm for establishing diallel crosses was based on Kempthorne and Curnow, where S was equal to 3. There was a predominance of non-additive effects for all characteristics analysed. The genotypes ALBAR FQ 902, IRMA 12-43 and MARICO showed greater additive effects for DAFlw, DAFrut, AnB, Yield and, M100.

Pages 933-939 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p3177
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Maize-Crotalaria spectabilis intercropping in organic system and relations with the insect community

Ivonete Theodoro Araújo, Giuliano Grici Zacarin, Erivaldo Silva de Oliveira, Leila Bonfanti, Nathalia de França Guimarães, Anderson de Souza Gallo*, Anastacia Fontanetti

Department of Rural Development, Federal University of São Carlos, Araras, São Paulo, Brazil
Herminio Ometto University Center, Araras, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the canopy insect community associated with maize intercropped with different arrangements of Crotalaria spectabilis and the effects on the damage caused to maize by Spodoptera frugiperda and Helicoverpa zea. The treatments were intercropping systems of maize with Crotalaria spectabilis: CR - Crotalaria spectabilis sown on the same rows as maize; CBR - Crotalaria spectabilis sown between the rows of maize; CRBR - Crotalaria spectabilis sown on the rows and between the rows of maize, and M - maize monocrop. The experimental plot consisted of five rows of maize, five meters long, spaced 0.8 m apart. Assessments were made of the following parameters: insect community present in the maize canopy, leaf damage caused by the fall armyworm (S. frugiperda) and the corn earworm (H. zea), maize grain yield and shoot dry weight of maize and crotalaria. The CRBR intercropping system was characterized by the presence of predators and parasitoids, especially from the families Forficulidae and Braconidae: 79% and 82%, respectively. The maize monocrop, in turn, was mainly characterized by the presence of chewing and sucking phytophagous insects and predators. There was no influence of plant arrangements on the damage to maize caused by S. frugiperda (mean variation between 0.47 and 0.64 of damage) and H. zea (ranging between 6.42 and 7.49 of damage), neither on the grain yield of the crop (variation between 4129.57 kg ha-1 and 5653.77 kg ha-1). Our results suggest that C. spectablis sown in the rows and between the rows of maize has the potential to optimize conservative biological control, without, however, affecting the grain yield of the cereal.

Pages 940-947 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p3196
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Genetic variability of cultivated plum (Prunus domestica L. & Prunus salicina Lindl.) in Morocco assessed by ISSR markers

Youssef Ait bella, Said Bouda, Youssef Khachtib, Abdelmajid Haddioui*

Laboratory of Biotechnology and Valorisation of Plant Genetic Resources, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Sultan Moulay Slimane, BeniMellal, Morocco

Abstract
Moroccan plum cultivars were genetically characterized for assessing diversity and relatedness. In this study, a total of 23 plum cultivars were analyzed using 14 Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) primers. A total of 100 bands were obtained, of which 84 were polymorphic (84%). The mean values of PIC, Rp, I and Ht were 0.45; 3.03; 0.42 and 0.27, respectively, implying the important genetic variability between the plum cultivars. Furthermore, the coefficient of genetic differentiation (GST) between all groups was 0.21 indicating that 21 % of total genetic variability was between groups and 79 % was within groups. The UPGMA dendrogram and Bayesian model-based clustering approach identified four gene pools of cultivars independently of their geographic origin and denomination. These results showed that the ISSRs markers can be a useful tool for detecting molecular polymorphism and to survey the genetic diversity in this fruit crop.

Pages 948-954 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p3217
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Thermal-biological aspects of germination of seeds in tropical forest tree species

Luan Danilo Ferreira de Andrade Melo*, João Luciano de Andrade Melo Junior, Larice Bruna Ferreira Soares, Lívia Francyne Gomes Chaves, João Correia de Araújo Neto, Vilma Marques Ferreira, Maria Inajal Rodrigues da Silva das Neves, Edilma Pereira Gonçalves, Jeandson Silva Viana, Reinaldo de Alencar Paes, Jaqueline Figueredo de Oliveira Costa, Wesley Oliveira de Assis

Department of Agronomy, University Federal of Alagoas – UFAL, Brazil
Department of Agronomy, University Federal of Agreste of Pernambuco, UFAPE, Brazil


Abstract
The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the ecological and applied aspects of temperature in the germination of Colubrina glandulosa (Rhamnaceae), Chloroleucon dumosum (Fabaceae), Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae), Mimosa bimucronata (Fabaceae) and Sapindus saponaria (Sapindaceae). Then we assessed germination, average germination time, germination uniformity and germination activation energy as a function of temperatures. The experiment was conducted at the Plant Propagation Laboratory, on the Engineering and Agricultural Sciences Campus, at the Federal University of Alagoas, Rio Largo, AL, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 25 seeds per treatment. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared using the Tukey test at 5% probability. The isothermal incubation was performed in Biochemical Oxigen Demand (B.O.D.) germination chamber, at constant temperatures of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ºC and alternating at 20-30 ºC. The seeds of C. glandulosa, C. dumosum, E. contortisiliquum and M. bimucronata germinated in the range of 10 ºC ≤ T ≤ 35 ºC, and S. saponaria germinated in the range of 20 ºC ≤ T ≤ 35 ºC. We found that seeds in the optimal temperature range has unimodal distribution of relative frequency, concentrating germination in the shortest time. The activation energy was positive in the range of 10 ºC ≤ T ≤ 30 ºC, with an inversion of the signal at a temperature of 35 ºC. The studied species had a wide range of temperature tolerance and the speed was curvilinearly dependent on them. The germination process is predominantly endergonic.

Pages 955-959 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p3245
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Viability of seeds of some tropical tree species during storage

João Luciano de Andrade Melo Junior*, Luan Danilo Ferreira de Andrade Melo, Larice Bruna Ferreira Soares, Vilma Marques Ferreira, João Correia de Araújo Neto, Maria Inajal Rodrigues da Silva das Neves, Reinaldo de Alencar Paes, Edilma Pereira Gonçalves, Priscila Cordeiro Souto, Jaqueline Figueredo de Oliveira Costa, Lívia Francyne Gomes Chaves, Wesley Oliveira de Assis

Engineering and Agricultural Sciences Campus, Federal University of Alagoas. Address: BR-104, Rio Largo - AL, 57100-000, Brazil
Project Coordinator at MCTIC/CNPq No. 28/2018
Federal University of Agreste of Pernambuco. Address: Av. Bom Pastor, s/n - Boa Vista, Garanhuns - PE, 55292-270, Brazil


Abstract
For most forest species the irregularity of fruiting, low seed production and spatial distribution of trees, make it impossible to supply seeds to meet seedling production programs. On the other hand, to prevent subsequent years of low production and maintain seed viability, it is necessary to adopt adequate storage procedures. Therefore, the objectives of the study were to evaluate the influence of water content and storage conditions on the physiological potential of seeds of Colubrina glandulosa Perkins (Rhamnaceae), Chloroleucon dumosum (Benth.) G.P. Lewis (Fabaceae), Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong (Fabaceae), Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) O. Kuntze (Fabaceae) and Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae), which are native tree species in tropical forests in South America. The seeds were placed in paper packaging and glass packaging and stored in a laboratory environment (uncontrolled), during storage periods of zero (recently harvested), three, six, nine, 12 and 15 months. For each storage period, the water content and physiological potential of the seeds were evaluated. The design was entirely randomized with four repetitions of 25 seeds. The germination (G) and germination uniformity (U) data were subjected to analysis of variance in a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement (two types of packaging x six storage periods), and application of polynomial regression. Seeds of Colubrina glandulosa, Chloroleucon dumosum, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Mimosa bimucronata and Sapindus saponaria, packed in paper packaging or glass packaging, and stored under uncontrolled conditions of natural environment, presented higher G and U, in the storage period of 15 months. The physiological potential of the seeds can be maintained for a long time, as long as they are packed in a glass container with an adequate initial water content. With a water content of 8.2, 8.1, 7.9, 8.4% and 12.1%, the seeds of Colubrina glandulosa, Chloroleucon dumosum, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Mimosa bimucronata and Sapindus saponaria, respectively, maintain the viability during storage. Therefore, the solution to store these seeds would be to rigorously dry them, and then use waterproof packaging. It is recommended that for the storage of seeds of these tree species, they are previously packaged in glass containers.

Pages 960-964 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.06.p3279