Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

July 2021 | 15(07):2021 | ERALY VIEW | 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07


Brazilian forest code: Advances and setbacks

Deivid Araujo Magano, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Danieli Jacoboski Hutra, Murilo Vieira Loro, Marta Tremea, Valéria Escaio Bubans, Francine Lautenchleger, Luiz Leonardo Ferreira, Maicon Roberto Ribeiro Machado, Joaquim Almério Jerónimo

Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Ijuí, RS, Brasil
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil
Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste (Unicentro), Guarapuava, RS, Brasil
Centro Universitário de Mineiros, Mineiros, Goiás, Brasil
Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão, RS, Brasil
Universidade Licungo, Moçambique


Abstract
In a scenario of expansion of agricultural frontiers, based on the production of grain and other commodities, Brazil today lives in a privileged position when it comes to the production and productivity of various agricultural crops and livestock. However we can see that developments in the legislative system often do not keep pace with anthropic action, which makes the degradation of the natural environment potentially disturbing. The evolution in jurisprudence has to occur concisely and quickly based on landscape parameters, and from the perspective of the technique, with a holistic behavior focused on the actions of preservation and conservation of natural resources. Forests are indispensable systems in the process of 'water generation', contributing significantly to the dynamics of the hydrological cycle, a complex and fundamental mechanism for the maintenance and regulation of life on earth. In this sense, the objective of this article is to explain some environmental, technical and legislative aspects related to the Forest Codes that were in force in Brazil, analyzing its historical relevance, flaws and finally major changes. Its preparation was based on articles, books and materials available online from the available knowledge bases. A broad revision was carried out including the Magna Carta in addition to the laws that deal with the Brazilian Forest Code, in its three versions of 1934, 1965 and 2012. As articulated considerations it can be verified that despite the evolution in the form of proposition of the current law, some modifications still need to be made, considering that the current Forest Code contains residual political and economic sequelae that neglect the socio-environmental character, and that even after the adoption of its latest version, severe damage is still being caused to the natural environment, which requires greater commitment from regulators to enforce legislation.

Pages 965-969 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p3285
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Morphophysiological responses of table beet irrigated with saline water under application of humic substances

Leandra de Melo Cavalcante Sousa, Thiago Jardelino Dias, Lunara de Sousa Alves, Mário Leno Martins Véras, Ygor Henrique Leal, Anderson Carlos de Melo Gonçalves, Ewerton Gonçalves de Abrantes, Adriano Silvano Lopes, Marcos Fabrício Ribeiro Lucena, Lucas Soares Rodrigues

Federal University of Paraíba, Department of Phytotechnics and Environmental Sciences, Highway BR 079 - km 12, 58397-000, Areia, PB, Brazil
Federal University of Paraíba, Department of Agriculture, 58220-000, Bananeiras, PB, Brazil
Federal Institute of Amapá, Highway BR 210, km 103, Porto Grande, AP, Brasil
Federal University of Roraima, Boa Vista, RR, Brazil
Federal University of Paraíba, Department of Soil and Rural Engineering, Highway BR 079 – km 12, 58397-000, Areia, PB, Brazil


Abstract
The use of saline water is an alternative for irrigating agricultural crops, especially in the Brazilian Northeastern semi-arid region, where water quality is limited in most cases. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the morphophysiological responses of table beet cv. “Wonder” irrigated with saline waters under the application of humic substances. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block design, with six replications in a 6 x 4 x 5 factorial scheme, referring to six electrical conductivities of irrigation water (ECw): 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5; 4.5 and 5.5 dS m-¹, four humic substances rates (HS) (0; 10; 20 and 30 ml per plant), and five stages of assessment (23, 38, 53, 68 and 83 days after emergency). The characteristics evaluated were: plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, chlorophyll content (a, b and total), stomatal conductance, transpiration, net photosynthesis and CO2 internal concentration, and in the soil, the soil pH and the electrical conductivity of saturated paste extract. The increase of salinity reduced growth, chlorophyll a content, and the stomatal conductance of beet plants. The application rate of 30 ml per plant of humic substances promotes an increase in stomatal conductance. The application of humic substances raises the pH in sandy acidic soils. It is recommended to irrigate table beet plants with water of 0.5 dS m-1 associated with the application of 30 mL per plant of humic substances.

Pages 970-976 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p2498
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Production of forage palm cultivars (Orelha de Elefante Mexicana, IPA-Sertânia and Miúda) under different salinity levels in irrigation water

Márcia Cristina de Araújo Pereira, Carlos Alberto Vieira de Azevedo, José Dantas Neto, Mariana de Oliveira Pereira*, Jailton Garcia Ramos, Kheila Gomes Nunes, Gustavo Bastos Lyra, Luciano Marcelo Fallé Saboya

Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazi
Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazi
Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazi
Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazi
Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Environmental Sciences, Forest Institute, Seropédica, 23.897-000, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


Abstract
Brazilian semiarid region is characterized by irregular rainy periods that limits the production of forage feed for the maintenance of agricultural livestock and causes losses in the production. Despite that, semiarid region stands out in the production of forage palm, buffering the impact of drought in the area. Thus, this study aimed at analyzing the effect of different levels of salinity in irrigation water on the production of forage palm in the semiarid region. The experiment was arranged as a complete randomized block, in a 4x3 factorial arrangement and four levels of salinity (0.2, 2.0, 3.8 and 5.6 dS m-1); three cultivars (Miúda, Orelha de Elefante Mexicana and IPA-Sertânia) with 4 replications. The variables evaluated were the following: number of primary, secondary, tertiary and total cladodes, cladode biomass and estimative of threshold salinity (SL). The results showed that irrigation with saline water with an electrical conductivity of 2.0 dS m-1 negatively affected the emission of cladodes of superior orders for all forage palm cultivars. Miúda cultivar presented the best production of fresh phytomass (13.36 kg per plant) under a salinity level of 4.04 dS m-1, followed by Orelha de Elefante Mexicana (12.55 kg per plant) under a salinity level of 2.73 dS m-1 and Baiana (11.56 kg per plant) under a salinity level of 2.17dS m-1.

Pages 977-982 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p2824
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Determining ethyl methane sulfonate-mediated (EMS) mutagenesis protocol for inducing high biomass yield in fodder barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

Fatuma Fora Sharamo*, Hussein Shimelis, Boluwatife ModupeOluwa OlaOlorun, Hezekiah Korir, Annah Hoka Indetie, Jacob Mashilo

Beef Research Institute-Lanet, Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, Kenya
School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Crops, Horticulture and Soils Department, Egerton University, Kenya


Abstract
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has narrow genetic base for selection of promising ideotypes for the following traits: high biomass yield for livestock feed, enhanced agronomic and nutritional traits, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis offers opportunities for inducing genetic variation for key traits for development of feed barley ideotypes. The objective of this study was to determine optimal EMS dosage and exposure time to induce genetic variation for selection of high biomass yield six-row feed barley mutants... Five EMS dosages (i.e. 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.9% v/v) and five exposure times (i.e. 0.5 hr, 1 hr, 1.5 hr, 2 hrs and 2.5 hrs) were used on a six-row fodder barley using a 5 x 5 factorial treatment structure in a complete randomized design with three replications. Non-treated seed were used as a comparative control. Data was recorded for percent germination, seedling survival, shoot height, root height, shoot and root biomass. Significant (p < 0.05) EMS dosage x exposure time was observed for assessed traits indicating their influence on phenotypic variation in feed barley. Overall, a declining trend was observed for assessed traits with increased EMS dosage and exposure time. The LD50 value of 0.64% (v/v) EMS dosage was identified as an optimal dose for large-scale mutagenesis protocol to select fodder barley mutants with high biomass yield.

Pages 983-989 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p2877
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Agronomic and qualitative performance of some special grain bean cultivars

Adailza Guilherme Cavalcante*, Leandro Borges Lemos, Flávia Constantino Meirelles, Vinicius Augusto Filla, Alian Cássio Pereira Cavalcante, Leonardo Angelo de Aquino

State University of São Paulo “Julio de Mesquita Filho”, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
Post-Graduate Program in Plant Science, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Viçosa, Rio Paranaíba Campus, Minas Gerais, Brazil


Abstract
In Brazil, bean consumption is predominated by grains like carioca, but special grains are gaining space on Brazilian tables and can be a source of income for producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic and qualitative performance of common bean cultivars with special grains, aiming to identify those with productive potential and superior technological characteristics. The treatments consisted of nine bean cultivars with special grains: BRS Radiante, BRS Realce, BRS Pitanga, BRSMG Tesouro, BRS Marfim, BRSMG União, IAC Tigre, EPAMIG Ouro Vermelho, and EPAMIG Ouro da Mata. The agronomic (number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, mass of 100 grains, and grain yield) and qualitative (sieve yield, crude protein, cooking time, percentage of imbibition before and after cooking, percentage of whole grains after cooking, and grain hydration capacity) attributes were evaluated. There were statistical differences between cultivars for the number of grains per pod and mass of 100 grains. The cultivars EPAMIG Ouro Vermelho, BRS Marfim, and BRS Pitanga presented the highest yields, with values of 2,907, 2,871, and 2,608 kg ha-1, respectively. There was variability between cultivars for all qualitative attributes. The cultivars BRS Radiante, BRSMG Realce, BRSMG Tesouro, IAC Tigre, and EPAMIG Ouro Vermelho stood out with superior quality grains.

990-996 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p2902
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Genotoxic, cytotoxic and fungicidal activity of the essential oil extracted from the leaves and fruits of the pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)

Maísa Lamounier Magalhães, Marisa Ionta, Guilherme Álvaro Ferreira, Marina Leopoldina Lamounier Campidelli, Alex Rodrigues Silva Caetano, Rafaela Magalhães Brandão, David Lee Nelson, Maria das Graças Cardoso*

Department of Foods, Federal University of Lavras, C.P. 3037, 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Department of Integrative Animal Biology, Federal University of Alfenas, CEP 37130-000, Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Lavras, C.P. 3037, 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Pro-Rectory of Research and Post-Graduation, Federal University of Vales de Jequitinhonha and Mucuri, Diamantina, MG, Brazil


Abstract
Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a tree present in Latin America, mainly in Brazil. The essential oils obtained from its leaves (LEO) and fruits (FEO) were evaluated for chemical composition cytotoxic, genotoxic and antifungal activities. The extraction of the essential oils was accomplished by the hydrodistillation technique. The characterization and quantification of the constituents were performed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometry detector and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector, respectively. The cytotoxic assay using tumor cells (lung adenocarcinoma, breast carcinoma, and melanoma) and normal cells was determined by the MTS assay. Genotoxic potential on normal cells was evaluated by Cometa assay. The analysis of antifungal activity was performed by evaluating the inhibitory effect on the growth of the Aspergillys carbonarius and Aspergillus flavus filamentous fungi using the disc diffusion test. The LEO contains limonene, D-germacrene, β-trans-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, α-epi-murolol and α-copaene as the principal constituents, whereas the major constituents of FEO are myrcene, Δ-3-carene, β-eudesmol and α-phellandrene. Regarding cytotoxic activity on tumor cells, FEO was more effective than LEO. The IC50 values found for FEO on tumor cells varied between 244-302 μg.mL-1 compared to 653.4 ± 1.11 for normal cells. LEO was more cytotoxic against normal cell than tumor. Neither FEO nor LEO induced DNA damage at tested experimental conditions. A Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of 125 μL.mL-1 of both essential oils was determined for the fungi analyzed. It is inferred that these essential oils can be used in drug formulations when used in the correct concentration.

Pages 997-1004 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p2962
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Antifungal activity and the effect of the essential oil of Lippia origanoides Kunth on Aspergillus mycotoxins production

Rafaela Magalhães Brandão, Vanuzia Rodrigues Fernandes Ferreira, Luís Roberto Batista, Eduardo Alves, Wilder Douglas Santiago, Richard Bispo Barbosa, Alex Rodrigues Silva Caetano, David Lee Nelson, Maria das Graças Cardoso*

Chemistry Department, Federal University of Lavras, 37200-900, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Department of Food Science, Federal University of Lavras, 37200-900, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Department of Phytopathology, Federal University of Lavras, 37200-900, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Postgraduate Program in Biofuels, Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valley, 39100-000, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil


Abstract
Lippia origanoides (Verbenaceae) is an aromatic plant of great importance in Brazilian medicine. The antifungal and antimycotoxigenic effects of Lippia origanoides essential oil (LEO) on Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus were investigated. The LEO was obtained by hydrodistillation, and it was characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antifungal activity was determined by mycelial growth and mycotoxin and ergosterol assays. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the effect of the LEO on the plasma membrane of fungi. The main constituents in the LEO were carvacrol (58.72%), ρ-cymene (15.37%) and γ-terpinene (12.73%). Significant fungicidal effects of LEO against A. carbonarius (0.24 μL/mL), A. flavus (0.98 μL/mL) and A. ochraceus (0.98 μL/mL) were observed. A reduction in the ochratoxin A synthesis that ranged from 92.03 to 98.02% and from 81.72 to 96.92% for the fungal species A. carbonarius and A. ochraceus, respectively, was observed in the presence of LEO. The production of aflatoxin B1 and B2 was qualitatively inhibited. The biosynthesis of ergosterol was significantly inhibited by the application of LEO, and morphological alterations and damage to the integrity of the fungal cell membrane were observed. The LEO has a high potential for use as an antifungal and antimycotoxigenic agent against A. carbonarius, A. flavus and A. ochraceus.

Pages 1005-1012 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p3005
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Processing of fermented milk drink with different whey concentrations and addition of fruit pulps

Nélio Ranieli Ferreira de Paula, Érica de Oliveira Araújo, Cristiane Reis Martins,Vanessa Reis Martins

Agronomy, Department of Agriculture, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology, Rondonia State, Campus Colorado do Oeste, Brazil
Agronomic Engineering, Department of Agronomy, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology, Rondonia State, Campus Colorado do Oeste, Brazil
Technical in Agriculture, Department of Agriculture, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology, Rondonia State, Campus Colorado do Oeste, Brazil


Abstract
Using whey as a complement in food formulation aiming at its utilization is an alternative to obtain new products. The present study aimed to develop a fermented milk drink with different concentrations of whey and addition of cupuaçu, soursop and açaí pulps, aiming at innovating and increasing the possibilities of production and consumption of dairy beverages. The experiment was conducted at the Food Agroindustry of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondonia, Colorado do Oeste Campus, in the municipality of Colorado do Oeste, RO, Brazil. The experimental design used was completely randomized, in a 3x3 factorial scheme, consisting of three concentrations of whey (30%, 40% and 50%) and the incorporation of three fruit pulps (cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), soursop (Annona muricata) and açaí (Euterpe oleracea)), with 4 replicates. The results allowed us to conclude that whey concentration of 50% with addition of cupuaçu, soursop and açaí pulps is ideal for the production of fermented milk drink, as it leads to increased acidity and reduced values of °Brix and color parameters L and b*, making it possible to avoid the disposal of a highly nutritious compound into the environment. Whey concentration of 30% in the presence of açaí pulp enables the processing of milk drink with lower value of acidity and higher values of °Brix and color parameters L and b*. Whey concentrations of 30% and 40% in the fermented milk drinks of cupuaçu, soursop and açaí reduced acidity and increased °Brix, which suggests the possibility of using this by-product in the food industry to prepare sweeter milk drinks, meeting the minimum quality requirements according to the current legislation. The processing of whey-based dairy drinks in the presence of pulps of fruits, such as cupuaçu, soursop and açaí, constitutes an opportunity for diversification of production, improvement in the development of regional products and guarantee of food and nutritional security, respecting microbiological quality standards.

Pages 1013-1019 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p3022
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Evaluation 16 elite sugarcane lines for ethanol yield and yield related traits under rainfed conditions

Darika Bunphan*, Ruchuon Wunna, Goitseone Malambane

Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Technology Mahasarakham University, Kantarawichai District, Mahasarakham 44150 Thailand
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone, Botswana


Abstract
The world demand for clean renewable energy has seen a rise in use of sugarcane in production of bioenergy products like bio-ethanol which is produced from molasses and extracted juice of stalk. This then brings a competition between production for food and for bioenergy in the sugarcane industry. Therefore, this calls for breeders and producers to develop and produce high yielding sugarcane varieties to meet the demand. We undertook a study with the aim to screen the recently released elite line for the ethanol yield and related traits. The study was conducted in two locations under rainfed conditions in Maha Sarakham, Thailand. The results showed that all the locations had no effect on the studied genotypes thus suggesting that they are stable over different locations. The means values show that SG. KK07-478 and RT2004-085 showed performance better recording higher juice yield, juice weight, TSS, percent of ethanol and estimated ethanol yield in both locations. We found interaction between location and variety except TSS and percent of ethanol, RT2004-085 showed the highest TSS, juice weight, SG, PE and EEY in combine both locations. A high correlation of EEY to juice yield (0.967***) and juice weight (0.978***) also percent ethanol was highly correlated with TSS (0.953**) this then suggest that to improve ethanol yield breeders should focus on improved the performance of juice yield, juice weight and the TSS. Because of the higher performance KK07-478 and RT2004-085 should further be evaluated in several other locations before they are adopted by farmers.

Pages 1020-1028 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p3030
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Estimating maturity by measuring pH, sugar, dry matter, water and vitamin C content of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale) from remote spectral reflectance data using neural network

Eliane K. Assoi*, Olivier K. Bagui, Benoit K. Kouakou, Adolphe Y. Gbogbo, Doudjo Soro, Jeremie T. Zoueu

Laboratoire d’Instrumentation Image et Spectroscopie, INP-HB, DFR-GEE, BP 1093 Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire
Laboratoire des Procédés Industriels des Synthèses de l’Environnement et des Énergies Nouvelles, INP-HB, DFR-GCAA, BP 1093 Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire


Abstract
In agricultural sector, maturity is the main decision criterion for starting the harvest. This criterion is usually revealed by a number of parameters such as pH, sugar, dry matter, water and vitamin C, which are informative but technically tedious to measure. The cashew apple is the hypertrophied peduncle which is attached to the cashew nut. It is a nutritious (very juicy fruit (85 to 90% water), sweet (7 to 13% carbohydrates), acidic and vitamin C content) fruit with high therapeutic and medicinal properties. The cashew apple is used as a raw material for many industrial applications (juice and alcohol). This research was conducted as a preliminary step towards the development of a real-time remote sensing technique for assessing the quality of tropical fruits. Spectral acquisitions were carried out from intact cashew apple using optical system composed reflector coupled with spectrometer USB 4000 FL from Ocean Optics (350-1100 nm). Immediately after spectral acquisition, the samples were analyzed by using chemical methods (sugar content, dry matter content, water content, vitamin C and pH). Preprocessing treatment method, bootstrap method was required to create statistical new samples and to increase the number of samples required. This method was used to improve the predictive performance of calibration model. Statistical models of prediction were developed using an artificial neural network (ANN) method. The results obtained from the models built by ANN showed strong relationships between predicted and experimental values: (Rsquare = 0.9870, RMSE= 0.0262) for pH, (Rsquare=0.9869, RMSE=0.1392) for Sugar, (Rsquare=0.9726, RMSE=0.3333) for water content, (Rsquare=0.9703, RMSE=0.3464) for vitamin C and (Rsquare=0.9922, RMSE= 5.0304, RMSE=5.0304) for dry matter. These results confirm the potential of visible spectroscopy to predict quality parameters of cashew apples remotely and make decisions about best harvest time.

Pages 1029-1034 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p3075
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Chemotypes of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) essential oil from four different states of Brazil

Franciele da Silva Quemel, Andira Pricila Dantas, Lincon Sanches, Ana Cláudia Graças Alves Viana, Zilda Cristiani Gazim, José Eduardo Gonçalves, Ana Daniela Lopes*, Eloísa Schneider Silva, Eliane Rodrigues Monteiro

Program of Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture at Paranaense University, Umuarama-PR, Brazil
Agronomic Engineering at Paranaense University, Umuarama-PR, Brazil
Program of Clean Technologies at Universidade Cesumar (UNICESUMAR), Maringá, PR, Brazil
Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Maranhão, Brazil


Abstract
Turmeric or curcuma (Curcuma longa L.) is a Zingiberaceae whose essential oil and coloring pigments obtained from the rhizome have been widely used in the food industry and medicine. This study aimed to extract and identify the chemical compounds found in C. longa essential oil from rhizomes collected in six different locations of Brazil. The oil extraction was carried out by hydrodistillation technique, using a Clevenger- type apparatus. The chemical constituents were identified by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) and the hierarchical cluster analysis (cluster)were done for the obtained data; and the composition of the studied accesses was verified. Three groups of chemotypes were obtained: group I was formed by the accesses of Campo Grande / Indígena-MS, Mara Rosa-GO, Campo Grande-MS and Perobal-PR, and had Ar-turmerone as its main compound; group II, formed by the access of Santa Tereza do Oeste-PR, presented α-costol and α-Phellandrene as the predominant compounds; and group III, the access of Holambra-SP, differed from the others regarding its essential oil chemical composition whose main agents were Curlone, Zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, Humulene epoxide II, cis-α-trans-Bergamotol. The predominant chemical class in all accesses was hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (Santa Tereza do Oeste-PR and Holambra-SP) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (the others). This study evidenced the formation of three chemotypes.

Pages 1035-1042 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p3146
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Azospirillum brasilense associated with nitrogen fertilization promotes improvement in macronutrient contents of maize plants

Juscelino Gonçalves Palheta*, Ricardo Shigueru Okumura, Marta Simone Mendonça Freitas, Marlene Evangelista Vieira, Gerson Diego Pamplona Albuquerque, Diana Jhulia Palheta de Sousa, Jessica Suellen Silva Teixeira, Myriam Galvão Neves, Cândido Ferreira de Oliveira Neto

Federal Rural University of Amazônia, Avenida Perimetral, 2501, Curió- Utinga, Belém, Pará
Federal Rural University of Amazônia, PA-275 s/n Zona Rural, Parauapebas – PA
Mineral Plant Nutrition Laboratory, University Estadual Norte Fluminense, Avenida Alberto Lamego, 2000, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro


Abstract
The lack of studies on the benefits of growth-promoting bacteria associated with sources and doses of nitrogen fertilizers in maize in tropical regions has raised many doubts on the use of nitrogen management, as well as recommendation for the adequate dose for maize production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the doses and sources of nitrogen associated with the absence and presence of seed inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense in the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S in the roots, culm and leaf of maize plants. It was used a completely randomized design, in a 4 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme, consisting of four nitrogen doses (0; 60; 120; and 180 kg ha-1 of N), two sources of N (common urea and urea treated with urease inhibitor) and absence and presence of inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense, with four replications. The results identified that the N doses positively influenced the concentration of N, P, and S in the culm of maize plants. The use of urea with urease inhibitor was not efficient in optimizing nitrogen fertilization, providing similar accumulations of macronutrients to common urea. The inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense promoted a concentration of 10.4% of N in the stem when compared to urea without inoculation. Seed treatment with Azospirillum brasilense at a concentration of 1 g / kg of seed at a dose of 180 kg ha-1 of N provided a higher content of macronutrients in corn, regardless of the sources of common urea or urea treated with a urease inhibitor.

Pages 1043-1050 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p3160
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Antioxidant enzymes activity in ‘Castel Gala’ apple trees after the budbreak inducers application

Léo Omar Duarte Marques, Caroline Hernke Thiel, Gabrielle Leivas de Leivas, Sidnei Deuner, Mateus da Silveira Pasa, Flavio Gilberto Herter, Paulo Mello-Farias

Federal University of Pelotas - Graduate Program in Agricultural Science - Pelotas, RS, Brazil
Federal University of Pelotas - Graduate Program in Plant Physiology - Pelotas, RS, Brazil


Abstract
Since antioxidant enzymes activity affects the end of dormancy stage, it is important to understand the responses given by antioxidant enzymes and their roles in budbreak induction in temperate fruit trees. This research aimed at evaluating the antioxidant enzymes activity at the end of budbreak stage after the inducers application to ‘Castel Gala’ apple trees and their performance in budbreak and blooming. Seven treatments were carried out: Erger® 3% + calcium nitrate 5%; Erger® 5% + calcium nitrate 5%; Erger® 7% + calcium nitrate 5%; garlic extract (GE) 5% + mineral oil (MO) 2%; GE 10% + MO 2%; GE 15% + MO 2%; and the control. Buds were collected one, four and seven days after the application (DAA) of budbreak inducers, and activity of the following enzymes was determined by: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Besides that, hydrogen peroxide was quantified. Percentages of budbreak and blooming were evaluated at 32th, 40 th, 45 th and 52 th DAA. The results showed that SOD activity had increased as the dormancy stage reached its end. CAT activity was influenced by the application of budbreak inducers. It decreased significantly throughout the experiment in the most efficient treatment. Percentages of budbreak (61.85%) and blooming (25.44%) showed the highest efficiency in the treatment with Erger® 7% + calcium nitrate 5%, which was the inducer with the highest potential in ‘Castel Gala’ apple trees.

Pages 1051-1057 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p3172
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The efficiency of Brazilian oat cultivars in reducing fungicide use for greater environmental quality and food safety

Eldair Fabrício Dornelles, José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva, Christiane de Fátima Colet, Denize da Rosa Fraga, Vanessa Pansera, Odenis Alessi, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Francine Lautenchleger, Juliana Aozane da Rosa, Eduarda Warmbier, Márcia Sostmeyer Jung, Amanda Klidzio Polanczyk

Regional University of the Northwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Ijuí, Brazil. Street of Comércio 3000, Universitário, Ijuí/RS, Brazil
State University of Central-West - Street Presidente Zacarias, 875, Guarapuava/PR, Brazil


Abstract
Oat cultivars more efficient at reducing fungicide can prevent contamination of soil, water and food. The objective of the study is to measure the efficiency of oat cultivars recommended for growing in Brazil by reducing the number of fungicide applications, considering favorable and unfavorable crop season conditions for productivity and progress of the main leaf diseases. The study was conducted in 2015, 2016 and 2017, in Augusto Pestana, RS, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replications in a 22 x 4 factorial scheme, for 22 oat cultivars and 4 conditions of fungicide use [without application; an application at 60 days after emergence; two applications at 60 and 75 days after emergence; and three applications at 60, 75 and 90 days after emergence]. The fungicide FOLICUR® CE was used in 2015 and 2016 and the fungicide PRIMO® in 2017 in the dosage of 0.75 and 0.3 liters ha-1, respectively. The plots were sprayed using BD 04 fan nozzle with 45 PSI pressure, and spray volume close to 120 liters ha-1. The condition of a crop season favorable to the progress of leaf diseases identifies with quality cultivars more efficient in reducing the use of fungicide, enabling processes with lower environmental impacts with food security. Under favorable agricultural year conditions and unfavorable to the productivity and progress of the main leaf diseases of oats, the most efficient cultivars to reduce the use of fungicide are URS Altiva and URS Guria.

Pages 1058-1065 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p3175
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Physico-chemical assessment of waters used to irrigate agricultural lands of Amazon

Suziane Magalhães do Nascimento*, Joaquim Alves de Lima Júnior, Pedro Moreira de Sousa Júnior, Mateus Higo Daves Alves, Janile do Nascimento Costa, Kelson do Carmo Freitas Faial

Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Federal Rural University of Amazon (ICA-UFRA), 66077-530, Belem, Para, Brazil
Federal Rural University of Amazon (UFRA), 68700-665, Capanema, Para, Brazil
Chagas Institute, Toxicology Laboratory (IEC), 67030-000, Ananindeua, Para, Brazil


Abstract
The use of pesticides / fertilizers in plantations has become a problem in maintaining the quality of surface water. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the water quality for irrigation purposes in the Rio Apéu microbasin – Para. The physico-chemical parameters evaluated were: pH, DO, SAR, TDS and EC measured in situ and the metals Al, Fe, Na, Ca, Mg determined in the laboratory Evandro Chagas Institute, according to the method of APHA. The average levels of pH (5.51), OD (5.04 mg L-1) are indications of normal condition in Amazonian waters. The results of Al (332 mg L-1) and Fe (5.74 mg L -1) imply the leaching of sediments from the geological formation of the region rich in these minerals, even though they present values above what is recommended by the legislation. The Richard classification allowed us to define that the waters of the study area have low salinity and sodicity, so they are not restricted to use. Thus, the results of the water quality analysis in the watershed can be concluded that it does not offer environmental problems in the use for irrigation activity.

Pages 1066-1073 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p3176
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Biochemical and physiological changes in conilon coffee (Coffea canephora) grown under different levels of irradiance

Daniel Soares Ferreira*, Ramon Amaro de Sales, José Francisco Teixeira do Amaral, João Marcos Soares Ferreira, Luan Peroni Venancio, Wilian Rodrigues Ribeiro, Marcelo Antonio Tomaz, Diogo Baltazar Cateim, Morgana Scaramussa Gonçalves, Núbia Pinto Bravin

Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agronomy, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n - university campus, Viçosa - MG, 36570-900, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Federal University of Espirito Santo, Department of Agronomy, High University, s/n, Guararema, Alegre-ES, 29500-000, Espírito Santo, Brazil


Abstract
Modern agriculture values the most sustainable and dynamic means of production, which can be promoted through the association between coffee and tree components, aiming at the best use of the land. However, within our understanding of the physiological and biochemical behaviors of the coffee tree, the irradiance limiting conditions are crucial to maximize the potential gains generated in these systems. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of irradiance restriction on the physiological and biochemical characteristics of two genotypes of Conilon coffee. The experiment was conducted in a 2 × 3 factorial scheme, corresponding to two Conilon coffee clones and three levels of light intensity restriction (0, 30 and 50%), in a randomized block design with four replications. The synthesis of total chlorophyll b and the leaf N content of the genotypes CL6 and CL12 increased with the reduction of light. On the other hand, there was a reduction in the levels of carbohydrates, amino acids and phenols with the reduction of light intensity. Restricted levels of irradiance caused different changes in the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the studied genotypes, showing genetic divergences between them.

Pages 1074-1080 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p3254
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Performance of potato cultivars in an organic farming system using organic fertilizers, vermicompost and azolla

Amal K. Abou El-Goud, Fahad R. Al-Masoodi, Karam A. Elzopy*, Mona M. Yousry

Department of Botany (Organic Agriculture), Agriculture Faculty, Damietta University, Egypt
Plant Production Dept., Faculty of Agriculture (Saba-Basha), Alexandria University, Egypt
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture (Saba-Basha) Alexandria University, Egypt


Abstract
The challenges of food shortages and environmental pollution require the development of safe and effective alternatives to chemical fertilizers. Two field experiments were conducted during the summer season of 2019/2020 in two locations on a private farm to evaluate the performance of three potato cultivars (Sponta, Cara, and Elbieda) under different fertilizer treatments. The experiment was laid out in a split-split plot design replicated thrice. The main plots had three potato cultivars, while the sub plots were comprised of seven fertilizer treatments. The results showed that the highest vegetative growth characters, viz. plant height, leaf chlorophyll index, and plant dry weight were produced by Sponta, followed by Cara, while the lowest growth attributes were recorded in Elbeida. Compared to the NPK inorganic fertilizer, organic fertilizers significantly improved the vegetative growth characteristics of potato in all treatments. Among the organic treatments, the highest growth parameters were recorded with the application of mixed organic fertilizer, vermicompost, and Azollapinnata (T1). The highest yield, viz. tuber yield, number of tubers per plant, and tuber weight, and yield quality characteristics, viz. total carbohydrates, starch, and TSS, were also recorded in T1. Our results demonstrate that the Sponta cultivar grown with the application of mixed organic fertilizer, vermicompost, and Azollapinnata (T1) produced the highest growth, yield, and quality of potato tubers. Thus, we recommend this treatment combination as a sustainable agricultural practice for potato production in similar areas.

Pages 1081-1088 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.21.15.07.p3289