Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

February 2019 | EARLY VIEW | 13(02) 2019 | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02

Agronomic performance and protein content of Pereskia aculeata Mill. using organic chicken manure fertilizer

José Rodrigo de Araújo Guimarães*, Jordany Aparecida de Oliveira Gomes, Daniela Aparecida Teixeira, Filipe Pereira Giardini Bonfim, Regina Marta Evangelista

Departament of Horticulture, São Paulo State University “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, School of Agriculture (FCA), José Barbosa de Barros, nº 1.780, ZIP: 18610-307, Botucatu, SP, Brasil

Abstract
Pereskia aculeata Mill is a rustic and perennial plant, developing well in various types of soil, both in the shade and in the sun. It is a plant with high nutritional potential indicated as an alternative food. The current study aimed to evaluate yield and protein content of Pereskia aculeata Mill. under different levels of organic chicken manure fertilizer. A completely randomized design was conducted with five treatments and four replicates. Replications consisted of two experimental plots that contained ‘ora-pro-nobis’ plant. The treatments referred to different levels of organic chicken manure fertilizer, such as T1_control (soil + 0 kg m-2 of chicken manure); T2_(soil + 2 kg m-2 of chicken manure); T3_(soil + 4 kg m-2 of chicken manure); T4_(soil + 6 kg m-2of chicken manure); T5_(soil + 8 kg m-2 of chicken manure). The following traits were evaluated: shoot length (cm); total leaf area; leaf number; root length (cm); root volume (mL); root dry mass (g); shoot fresh mass (g); shoot dry mass (g) and crude protein content (g 100g-1). Results indicated significant increase in yield and protein content of Pereskia aculeata (12.21 g 100g-1) by enhancing the levels of chicken manure. Therefore, a recommendation of 3.5 kg m-2 of chicken manure can be made on soils of average fertility using in organic farming systems under similar conditions to this experiment.

Pages 179-184 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p868
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Novel chloroplast microsatellite markers in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) and their transferability to wild Cajanus species

Swati Saxena, Tanvi Kaila, Pavan K. Chaduvula, Archana Singh, N. K. Singh, Kishor Gaikwad*

ICAR - National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, Pusa Campus, New Delhi- 110012, India
Division of Biochemistry, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi- 110012, India


Abstract
Chloroplast microsatellites are potential genetic markers which provide insight into plant systematics studies. A set of 39 new chloroplast microsatellite markers were developed by analyzing the pigeonpea chloroplast genome sequence. Primer pairs were designed for 39 random sequences containing mononucleotides, dinucleotides, tetranucleotides and compound repeat motifs. The newly developed chloroplast SSRs were checked for their transferability in six wild Cajanus species (one accession each). 17 of the 39 cpSSRs displayed polymorphism among the wild Cajanus species with an average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.40. In total, 41 alleles were produced at the polymorphic loci, each marker generating on an average 2.41 alleles per locus. This point towards the effectiveness of the primer pairs in detecting genetic relatedness amid species within the genus Cajanus. Genetic relationship based on neighbor-joining method revealed two major groups (Group I and group II) of which Group II consisted of two main clusters including the cultivated Cajanus cajan and other wild Cajanus species except for one wild species C. platycarpus that was most diverse from rest of the species.

Pages 185-191 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p877
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Investigation of heavy metal accumulation in soil, water and plants in areas with intensive horticulture

Laércio Santos Silva, Izabel Cristina de Luna Galindo, Romário Pimenta Gomes, Vinícius Augusto Filla, Milton César Costa Campos*, Ludmila de Freitas, Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira, Karina Patrícia Prazeres Marques, Edicarlos Damacena de Souza, Jairo Osvaldo Cazzeta

Department of Soils and Fertilizers, School of Agricultural and Veterinary Studies (FCAV), São Paulo State University (UNESP), 14.870-900, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Agronomy, Rural Federal University of Pernambuco (UFRPE), 52.171-900, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
Department of Crop Production, School of Agricultural and Veterinary Studies (FCAV), São Paulo State University (UNESP), 14.870-900, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
Institute of Education, Agriculture and Environment, Federal University of Amazonas (UFAM), 69.800-000, Humaitá, Amazonas, Brazil
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pará (IFPA), 68.800-000, Breves, Pará, Brazil
Department of Soil Science, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture (ESALQ), University of São Paulo (USP), 13.418-900, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil
University Campus of Rondonópolis, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), 78.735-910, Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil


Abstract
The content and availability of heavy metals in intensively cultivated soils are important issues because these metals are potential environmental contaminants and toxic to living beings. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of Cd, Mn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn available in the soil of five agricultural areas compared to the soil of adjacent native forests, to determine the risk of soil, water and plant contamination. A total of 180 soil samples were collected at two depths (0.00 – 0.10 and 0.10 – 0.30 m), and edible samples were extracted from plants cultivated in these soils. Water samples were taken from reservoirs commonly used to irrigate these crops and from well water used for human consumption. All the samples were subjected to heavy metal extraction methods (HNO3 + HCl + DTPA) and measurements were carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that soil with intensive agricultural inputs increased Mn, Cu and Zn levels. High levels of Ni were found even in agricultural and forest soils, indicating that this may be associated with its presence in the original soil material. Pb and Ni levels exceeded the maximum values allowed by ANVISA (Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency) for all plant samples examined. Bell pepper and chard showed the highest levels of Pb and Ni, suggesting that these species accumulate more Pb and Ni compared to other species studied. Levels of Cd, Ni and Pb surpassed the values established by CONAMA (National Council for the Environment) for human consumption and irrigation water, and the levels were influenced by seasonal rainfall. Preventive monitoring and planning of fertilizer applications, in order to avoid fertilizing the soil near the rainy season, are alternatives to establish normal heavy metal levels in human consumption and irrigation water. Moreover, bell pepper and chard should not be grown in Pb and Ni contaminated soils.

Pages 192-198 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1146
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Prediction of genetic and selection parameters in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) progenies for morphoagronomic characteristics and pulp quality

Rita Mércia Estigarribia Borges*, Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de Lima, Izaias da Silva Lima Neto, Natoniel Franklin de Melo

Embrapa Semiárido, BR 428, km 152, – ZIP Code 56302-970 – Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil
UNIVASF, Federal University of São Francisco Valley, Campus of Agrarian Sciences, BR 407, km 12, Lot 543, C1, ZIP Code 56300-990, Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil


Abstract
The estimation of genetic parameters allows for the selection of superior individuals for important traits in plant breeding. The objectives of the present study were to estimate and predict the gains in genetic parameters, as well as to select superior individuals for morphoagronomic and pulp quality characteristics in C. moschata. Ten progenies derived from accessions collected in the northeast of Brazil were evaluated for 17 morphoagronomic characteristics and chemical quality of the pulp, including total carotenoids and β-carotene. The low values of additive genetic variance denote the need for additional selection cycles for the evaluated characteristics. Heritability greater than 30% was observed for 13 of the 17 variables analysed, indicating success in selection. Likewise, accuracy values between 74 and 93% were obtained for 15 of the evaluated variables, demonstrating the existence of high genetic variance. Individual ranking was conducted for the variables fruit weight (FRW), soluble solid content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), total carotenoid content (CBT) and β-carotene (β-Car), identifying five individuals of progeny 10 that were promising for advancement in selection for SSC, CBT and β-car. In ranking the simultaneous evaluations for all the characteristics and taking into account the formats piriform and 'moranga', two individuals of progeny 10, which coincided with the top ranking for SSC, CBT and β-car, were identified. This identification of more than one promising individual enhances the potential of the progenies evaluated for the development of commercial and productive lines in semi-arid conditions.

Pages 199-207 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1192
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Root system development and proline accumulation in sugarcane leaves under aluminum (Al3+) stress

Luana Jandhy Mantovanini, Renan Gonçalves da Silva, Jóice de Oliveira Leite Silva, Thiago Mateus Rosa dos Santos, Durvalina Maria Mathias dos Santos, Sonia Marli Zingaretti

São Paulo State University (UNESP, School of Agriculture and Veterinarian Sciences Jaboticabal), 14884900, São Paulo, Brazil
Biotechnology Unit, University of Ribeirão Preto, 14096380, São Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
The potential of sugarcane as a food and bioenergy crop is currently driving the expansion of sugarcane production areas throughout the world. This crop may be constantly subjected to unusual environments such as acid soils with aluminum in toxic form (Al3+), leading to problems in cultivation when the soil is not properly prepared. The aim of this research was to select most tolerant sugarcane genotypes to aluminum toxicity by determining root growth and proline content in the leaves. The experiment employed a factorial that was entirely randomized, with four sugarcane genotypes (CTC-2, CTC-14, RB855453, and RB966928) combined with aluminum concentrations (45, 88, 221, 444, 600, 897, 1000 µmol L-1), with three replications. Our results suggest that CTC-2 showed higher tolerance to aluminum, with more biomass accumulation in roots when compared to the other genotypes (descending order of tolerance: CTC-2 > CTC-14 > RB855453 > RB966928). Proline level was clearly different for tested genotypes. CTC-2 showed an increase of 58% in the proline level, while genotype RB855453 showed a 24% increase, but only when the aluminum concentration was 897µmolL-1.

Pages 208-213 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1198
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Response of the cherry tomato to watering and ground cover under organic cultivation

Valsergio Barros da Silva*, Janiquelle da Silva Rabelo, Raimundo Nonato Tavora Costa Alexsandro Oliveira da Silva, Antonio Vanklane Rodrigues de Almeida

Federal University of Ceará, Agricultural Sciences Center, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Fortaleza/ Ceará, Brazil
Federal University of Ceará, Center of Agrarian Sciences, Department of Plant Science, Fortaleza/ Ceará, Brazil


Abstract
Studies on production factors of the irrigated organic cherry tomato in the Brazilian semi-arid region are just at the beginning phase. It mainly focuses on adequate irrigation management. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the technical and economic evaluation of some production factors like water and ground cover on cherry tomato. The climate of the region is of the BSw'h type, hot and semi-arid, with irregular rains distributed from February to May. The ground has fairly flat relief. The soil presents a sandy loam texture, well-drained, without risk of salinity and sodicity problems. The experimental design was of randomised blocks with three replications and subdivided plots, comprising five primary treatments in the plots and three secondary treatments arranged in the subplots. The primary treatments consisted of five levels of irrigation with 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150% of crop evapotranspiration, and three secondary treatments were assigned with ground covers of carnauba straw (CS), elephant grass (EG), plus a control treatment with no ground cover. The crop was irrigated by a system of drip irrigation. The results showed estimated slides equivalent to 454 mm (107% ETc loc), 461 mm (109% ETc loc) and 592 mm (140% ETc loc) can contribute to the highest commercial yield, corresponding to 11401, 10466 and 7802 kg ha-1 of cherry tomatoes for carnauba bagana, elephant grass and uncovered soil, respectively. Carnauba straw presented potential as a vegetative cover, being economically feasible as it allowed a reduction in water consumption and yield of cereal tomato under poor irrigation strategy.

Pages 214-220 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1220
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Assessment of phenotypic and genetic variation against pod borer among a subset of elite pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) genotypes in Kenya

Juliana J. Cheboi*, Miriam G. Kinyua, Paul K. Kimurto, Oliver K. Kiplagat, NVPR Gangarao

University of Nairobi, Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, P.O. Box 29053-00625, Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya
University of Eldoret, Department of Biotechnology, P.O. Box 1125-30100 Eldoret, Kenya
Egerton University, Department of Crops, horticulture & Soils, P.O. Box 536-20115 Egerton, Kenya
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), P.O Box 39063 – 00623 Nairobi, Kenya


Abstract
Molecular marker information supported by quality morphological data facilitates the choice of suitable parents for applied breeding. The main aim of this study was to assess genetic diversity among 55 cultivated yield elite pigeonpea lines using 21 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that are well distributed across the genome. Among the 55 pigeonpea genotypes, 16 medium duration were selected and evaluated in the field for response to pod borer resistance in varied agro-ecological zones of Kenya during long rains of April-October cropping season Twenty one primer pairs detected 80 alleles with a mean of 3.9 alleles per locus and polymorphism information content (PIC) ranging from 0.09 to 0.75 averaging to 0.39 suggesting a low genetic diversity. However, marker CcM1820 revealed the highest number of alleles (9) with a PIC value of 0.75. The genotype response to pod borer attack was significant (P≤0.05) with three genotypes (ICEAPs 01541, 01154-2 and 00902) revealing tolerance to pod borer. The markers based on Neighbor Joining, grouped the 55 genotypes into three main clusters based on parentage selection. Most genotypes developed from ICEAP 00068 as the maternal parent were grouped in Cluster I while cluster II comprised of improved genotypes and cluster III comprised genotypes developed from ICPL 87091 as maternal parent. The resistant genotypes identified in the field experiment were grouped in cluster I except ICEAP 00902 which grouped in cluster II. Future studies should focus on broadening genetic base by including more landraces and wild relatives to maximize selection and improve breeding work.

Pages 221-227 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1270
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Sustainable soybean production and abiotic stress management in saline environments: a critical review

Ayman EL Sabagh*, Akbar Hossain*, Mohammad Shohidul Islam, Celaleddin Barutçular, Disna Ratnasekera, Narendra Kumar, Ram Swaroop Meena, Hany Sobhy Gharib, Hirofumi Saneoka, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt
Wheat Research Center, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh
Department of Agronomy, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Bangladesh
Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Cukurova University, Turkey
Department of Agricultural Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka
Division of Crop Production, ICAR-Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur 208024, India
Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, (UP), India
Plant Nutritional Physiology Lab., Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Japan
Independent researcher, P. O. Box 7, Miki-cho post office, Ikenobe 3011-2, Kagawa-ken, 761-0799, Japan


Abstract
Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important oilseed crop around the world. Soybean growth, development and productivity are affected by changing environments that induce abiotic stresses. In soybean, salinity acts as a major abiotic stress that increases electrolyte leakage as well as Na+ and proline content in plants, and adversely affects plant physiology. This review offers an understanding of how the growth, yield attributes, and yield of soybean decrease under salinity stress. To appreciate how soybean can better adapt to a changing climate that induces salinity stress, an understanding of the mechanisms underlying this stress is needed. Improved performance and yield in response to salinity stress can emerge from the application of novel strategies, such as the development of transgenic crops that enhance salt tolerance in soybean. Effective management strategies, including the use of compatible antioxidants such as proline or glycinebetaine, coupled with a more effective balance of nutrients or the use of organic fertilizers, allow salinity to be mitigated, thereby improving yield and other growth-related quality parameters in soybean.

Pages 228-236 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1285
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Corn + white clover intercropping under management of herbicides and nitrogen levels

Marcia Fernanda Franchin Adami, Alcir José Modolo, Paulo Fernando Adami*, Christiano Santos Rocha Pitta, Luís Cesar Cassol, Pedro Valério Dutra de Moraes

Federal Technology University of Paraná - Campus Pato Branco. Address: Via do Conhecimento, KM 01, s/n - Fraron, CEP: 85503-390 Pato Branco – PR, Brazil
Federal Technology University of Paraná - Campus Dois Vizinhos. Address: Estr. p/ Boa Esperança, S/n - Zona Rural, CEP: 85660-000 Dois Vizinhos – PR, Brazil
Federal Institute of Education Science and Technology of Paraná, Campus Palmas, Department of Agronomy Address: Av. Bento Munhoz da Rocha Neto s/nº - Palmas – PR, Brazil

Abstract
Intercropping cash crops with perennial pasture legumes can improve crop-livestock systems. In these systems, interspecific competition can affect crop yield, unless suppressed by herbicides. An experiment was carried out to determine whether established stands of white clover pasture, suppressed with herbicides, could be used as living mulch in no-tillage intercropping systems with corn. Treatments were arranged in a completed randomized block design with four replications in a 3 x 4 factorial scheme being three herbicide suppression as follows: (i) broadcast application of Paraquat/Diuron (Gramocil®) + 2,4-D (Aminol®) at rates of 300 + 806 g i.a ha-1, respectively and (ii) glyphosate (Zapp Qi®) + 2,4-D at rates of 1080 + 806 g i.a ha-1, both applied sequentially seven days before and 15 days after corn sowing, and glyphosate + glyphosate (1080 + 1080 g i.a ha-1) applied sequentially 21 days before and 15 days after corn sowing and the 2nd factor four nitrogen rates (0, 60, 120, 180 kg ha-1). The results showed that Nitrogen input is an important element for the optimization of corn + clover intercrop, combined with herbicide suppression to minimize competition effects on the main crop. The corn grain yields ranged from 6.9 to 12.3 Mg ha-1 which achieved greatest under the glyphosate + glyphosate (Gly + Gly) treatment. Based on these results, it is possible to use white clover in intercropping systems with corn crop with autogenic clover regrowth after corn harvest.

Pages 237-241 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1296
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Performance of upland rice cultivars at different sowing times: an alternative for crop rotation in low altitude Cerrado region, Brazil

Flávia Constantino Meirelles*, Orivaldo Arf, Nayara Fernanda Siviero Garcia, Anderson Teruo Takasu, Fernando de Souza Buzo, Daiene Camila Dias Chaves Corsini, Juliana Trindade Martins, João Antonio da Costa Andrade, José Roberto Portugal

São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Plant Science, Food Technology and Social Economy, Ilha Solteira, State of São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract
The adequacy of the best sowing times and the choice of rice cultivars is determinant for greater investment and return in upland rice cultivation. Thus, this study identified the best sowing time and the cultivar that expresses its yield potential, being adaptable and stable, in a low altitude Cerrado region. The study was conducted during the agricultural year 2016/17. The soil of the site is a typical clayey dystrophic Red Latosol. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in factorial scheme with four sowing times in spring/summer season (October, November, December and February), each with eight upland rice cultivars (BRS Esmeralda, ANa 5015, ANa 6005, IPR 117, IAC 500, IAC 203, BRSGO Serra Dourada and ANa 7211) and four replicates. The following parameters were evaluated: days elapsed from emergence to flowering and harvesting, number of panicles m-2, number of filled spikelets per panicle, thousand grain weight and yield. Analyzes of adaptability and stability were performed as well as the principal components analysis. Except for the hundred grains weight, sowing times and cultivars interacted significantly for all characteristics evaluated. The cultivar BRS Esmeralda was adapted and stable to the different sowing times, being the most productive mainly when sown in October. The high yields were correlated with better grain filling, according principal components analysis.

Pages 242-250 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1312
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Effects of light quality on rutin production and growth of Physalis angulata (Linn.) seedlings cultured in vitro

Herbert Cristian de Souza, Luís Cláudio Kellner Filho, Marlete Ferreira de Brito, Alessandra Cristina Boffino de Almeida Monteiro Hara, Maria Leonor Beneli Donadon, Rosemeire Cristina Linhari Rodrigues Pietro, Ana Helena Januário, Fabiano Guimarães Silva*

Post Graduate Program in Biotechnology and Biodiversity - Pró-Centro-Oeste Network, IPTSP-UFG. 74001-970. Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil
Universidade de Franca (University of Franca – UNIFRAN) - SP. Av. Dr. Armando de Sales Oliveira, 201 - Parque Universitário. 14404-600. Franca, São Paulo, Brazil
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Goiano (Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goiás), Rio Verde Campus, Rod. Sul Goiana Km 01, Cx. P. 66. CEP 75.901-970, Rio Verde – Goiás, Brazil
Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (São Paulo State University – UNESP), Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú - Machados, 14800-901. Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
Physalis angulata Linn. is a plant with great importance in folk medicine for its various therapeutic properties and the production of active compounds. It is known as camapú in Brazil. The P. angulata seedlings were cultured in vitro under different light qualities such as white (control), blue, green, red, and yellow at 16 h photoperiod. After 30 days of culture, the shoot length, number of leaves, fresh and dry matter and rutin content were evaluated in triplicate in methanol extracts of seedlings exposed to the different lights by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography- Diode Array (HPLC-DAD). The mean shoot length was longer in seedlings cultured under yellow light (22.83 ± 0.65 cm, 1.62-fold), red light (22.58 ± 0.44 cm, 1.6-fold), or green light (20.57 ± 0.72 cm, 1.46-fold) than seedlings exposed to white light (14.13 ± 0.26 cm). There were no differences in the mean number of leaves between seedlings grown under the remaining lights and white light. Fresh (1,152 ± 0.16 g) and dry weight (0.078 ± 0.01 g) were higher in seedlings grown under white light. However, rutin production was higher under blue light (2.78 ± 0.05 μg g-1 by dry weight) and green light (2.40 ± 0.06 μg g-1 by dry weight). Therefore, the various light qualities affected the growth of P. angulata seedlings differently under in vitro culture condition. The blue and green lights promoted greater accumulation of rutin in this species.

Pages 251-257 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1318
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Cryopreservation as an alternative for conservation of Anacardium humile achene (Monkey nut)

Karine Feliciano Barbosa, Juliana de Fátima Sales, Fabiano Guimarães Silva, Luciana Cristina Vitorino, João Paulo Soares Silva, Ana Lúcia Cabral

Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goiás, Rio Verde Campus, Rod. Sul Goiana Km 01, Cx. P. 66. CEP 75.901-970, Rio Verde – Goiás, Brazil
Paulista State University, São José do Rio Preto Campu, Rua Cristóvão Colombo, 2265 Bairro: Jardim Nazaret 15054-000 - São José do Rio Preto – São Paulo, Brazil
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Mato Grosso do Sul, Aquidauana Campus, Rua José Tadao Arima, 222, Bairro Ycaraí – Aquidauana/MS – CEP: 79200-000, Aquidauana – Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the possibility of using cryopreservation method for conservation of cajuzinho-do-cerrado achene (Anacardium humile). To accomplish this aim, the physiological quality of cryopreserved achenes was compared with the quality of samples stored under other conditions. The quality of cryopreserved achenes with different water contents was also evaluated to establish a water-content limit for seed-viability maintenance. Achenes with physiological maturity were stored in liquid nitrogen at -196 °C with the following water contents: 28 (initial content) 14, 12, 8 and 5% moisture content (mc). Subsequently, the achenes were subjected to 3 thawing methods: slow/gradual, fast and microwave thawing. Achenes were also subjected to different six conservation methods: cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196 °C, cryopreservation using 10% cryoprotectants (Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or Glycerol), 10 °C biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) incubator, -80 °C ultra-low freezer and room temperature (25 °C ±3), with testing after storage in these environments for 5 and 10 months. The treatment effect on achene, physiological quality was assessed by seed germination (percentage) and vigour (germination speed index, electrical conductivity and root and shoot length). The results showed that reduction in the water content considerably reduced the germinating potential of Anacardium humile achenes for cryopreservation. Conversely, the thawing methods had no effect on the physiological quality of cryopreserved achenes; thereby, allowing the choice of the most practical thawing method (microwave). We also concluded that cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen may be used as a viable alternative for conservation of Anacardium humile achene.

Pages 258-265 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1319
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Growth of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus clarus and Claroideoglomus etunicatum) under contrasting phosphorus levels

Caroline Lermen, Rayane Monique Sete da Cruz, Carlos Henrique de Souza Gonçalves, Glaucia Leticia Sete da Cruz, Giovana Penteado Amaral da Silva, Odair Alberton*

Programa de Pós-graduação em Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agricultura; Universidade Paranaense – UNIPAR; Praça Mascarenhas de Moraes; 4282; 87502-210; Umuarama – PR – Brazil
Graduate students, Universidade Paranaense – UNIPAR; Praça Mascarenhas de Moraes; 4282; 87502-210; Umuarama – PR – Brazil
Programa de Pós-graduação em Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterápicos na Atenção Básica. Laboratory of Preclinical Research of Natural Products, Universidade Paranaense, Umuarama – PR – Brazil


Abstract
Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemongrass) has many industrial applications. Various factors affect the metabolism of this plant. Specifically, its association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increases water absorption and nutrient uptake, mainly phosphorous (P). This study aimed to assess the AMF symbiotic effects on nutrient uptake and growth in C. citratus inoculated with the Rhizophagus clarus and Claroideoglomus etunicatum AMF under different levels of P applied to the substrate. The treatments were prepared in a sterile substrate with high (200 mg kg−1) and low (20 mg kg−1) P levels, with and without AMF inoculation. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse for six months. A 3 x 2 (3 mycorrhizal x 2 levels of P) factorial experiment in a completely randomized design (eight repetitions) was used in this study. The variables spore density and root AMF colonization, basal soil respiration, microbial biomass carbon, shoot, root and total dry mass, nitrogen (N) and P content in the plant were analyzed. No significant AMF symbiotic effects (p > 0.05) on lemongrass growth were observed for the P levels. P and N content in the shoots, and total P, increased in treatments with AMF and at the high P level, particularly in the inoculation with R. clarus. Spore density, root colonization, and microbial biomass carbon were higher with AMF inoculation. It was observed that AMF inoculation increased the content of P and N in C. citratus, but did not affect plant growth. AMF inoculation can improve soil quality and, combined with a higher P level, can increase P and N uptake by lemongrass plants, modifying the plant metabolism.

Pages 266-271 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1344
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Association of biochemical traits with grain yield in triticale genotypes under normal irrigation and drought stress conditions

Armin Saed-Moucheshi, Hooman Razi*, Ali Dadkhodaie, Masoud Ghodsi, Manoochehr Dastfal

Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Iran
Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Iran


Abstract
Effectiveness of selection of high-yield genotypes under drought stress environments can be improved by using biochemical traits as indirect selection indicators. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which biochemical traits are associated with triticale grain yield under normal irrigation and drought stress conditions. This field study was conducted to evaluate grain yield and various biochemical traits of 58 triticale genotypes during three consecutive growing seasons (2013-2016). Normal irrigation was applied when 40% of available soil water capacity was depleted. Drought stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for about 40 days from early heading stage to harvest time. In addition to grain yield, proline, malondialdehyde (MDH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), protein content, carotenoid, chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and total chlorophyll along with antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbic peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) were measured. The contents of proline, H2O2, MDH and protein as well as activities of the antioxidant enzymes significantly increased in response to drought stress. Statistical analyses including correlation coefficients, principal component analysis (PCA), stepwise regression and path coefficients revealed that selection of triticale genotypes with low MDH, proline contents and SOD activity as well as high amounts of Chl a and total chlorophyll may improve grain yield under normal irrigation condition. PCA showed negative association between grain yield and antioxidant enzymes under drought stress condition. The results also suggested that low H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents along with high activity of SOD were the selection indicators with significant contributions to triticale grain yield under drought stress condition.

Pages 272-281 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1403
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Influence of seed tuber size and sprouting stage on the phytotechnical characteristics of the potato var. Ágata

Alian Cássio Pereira Cavalcante*, Maria Elisa Paraguassu Soares, Guilherme Antonio Vieira de Andrade, Carlos Diego da Silva, Carlos Eduardo Magalhães dos Santos, Leonardo Angelo de Aquino

Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Plant Science, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Federal University of Viçosa, Institute of Agrarian Sciences, Rio Paranaíba, Minas Gerais, Brazil


Abstract
The use of seed tubers of suitable bud stage is of paramount importance in potato crop production because it enables obtaining the number of stems closest to that desired. The objective of this study was to study the influence of bud stage and seed potato tubercle size on the plant characteristics of the potato var. Ágata. The experiment was carried out between January and April 2017. The treatments included two sizes of seed tubers of Agata variety types I (50-60 mm) and III (30-40 mm) and four stages of growth (A, larger sprout, shoots bigger than 1 cm; B, shoots of approximately 0.7 cm; C, shoots of approximately 0.4 cm; and D, less budding, incipient shoots of up to 0.1 cm). The number of stems and tubers per plant, the number of tubers per stem, the production and classification of tubers, and the average mass of tubers were evaluated. A positive association was found between the seed tuber size and sprouting stage and the number of stems per plant. The number of tubers and stems per plant was positively related to the mass of the seed tuber, especially when the tuber was most sprouted. The use of type I seed tubers with an earlier budding phase favors the production of the highest number of tubers per plant. Minor seed tuber yields a lower number of tubers per plant but yields a higher average mass of tubers. The use of smaller seed tubers (type III) is recommended because they could present a higher productive potential and a higher percentage of large tubers.

Pages 282-286 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1416
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Morphological traits and resistance to Egyptian broomrape weed (Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers.) in tobacco under greenhouse condition

Zienab Porkabiri, Naser Sabaghnia*, Rahmatollah Ranjbar, Hamid Hatami Maleki

Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture University of Maragheh, P.O. Box 55181-83111, Maragheh, Iran
Urmia Tobacco Research Center, Urmia, Iran


Abstract
Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers.) is a debilitating holoparasiting weed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) fields with devastating effects on its production. In this study, the reaction of 26 tobacco genotypes was evaluated against broomrape weed in randomized complete block design with three replications under greenhouse condition. Tobacco genotypes were planted in both non-inoculated and inoculated conditions where the soil of inoculated pots was mixed with 0.06 g of broomrape seed. The genotype by trait (GT) biplot explained 66% of the total variation of the standardized data and the polygon view of GT presented for 11 traits showed 5 vertex genotypes. Genotype G20 was the best in terms of leaf properties (length, width, number and area), and stem girth while G14 was the best genotype against broomrapes number as well as fresh and dry weight of broomrapes. Genotype G4 was identified for good performance in plant height and fresh weight total while G19 and G26 were best genotypes in terms of total fresh weight. Based on vector view biplot, a strong positive association among leaf properties, number of broomrapes, fresh and dry weight of broomrapes, and among plant height, fresh weight and dry weight of leaf yield were detected. According to ideal genotype biplot, genotype G20 followed by G3, G13 and G24 were the most favourable genotypes regarding all of the measured traits. The plant height, leaf number per plant and stem girth could be considered as effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotypes. Finally, genotypes G26 and G19 are good candidates for improving most of the measured traits and for obtaining resistance to the Egyptian broomrape.

Pages 287-293 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1429
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Application of slaughterhouse residues as nitrogen source replacing commercial fertilizers on mombasa grass (Megathyrsus maximus)

Rubens Ribeiro da Silva, Rubson da Costa Leite*, Jefferson Santana da Silva Carneiro, Gilson Araújo de Freitas, Antônio Carlos Martins dos Santos, Antonio Clementino dos Santos, Luiz Alberto Kuyumjian

Federal University of Tocantins, Department of Plant Production, Gurupi-TO, Brasil
Federal University of Tocantins, Department of Tropical Animal Science, Araguaína-TO, Brasil
Federal University of Lavras, Department of Soil and Plant Nutrition, Lavras-MG, Brasil


Abstract
We hypothesized that the use of the residues of hull and horn flour and blood flour from the cattle slaughtering industry could provide a similar effect of nitrogen fertilizers when applied in pastures. For this reason, the objective was to evaluate the agronomic performance of mombasa grass fertilized with alternative nitrogen sources. A randomized block design in a 3 x 4 + 1 factorial scheme was used with four replications. Three sources of nitrogen were studied (hoof and horn flour, blood flour and urea) and four nitrogen doses (100, 200, 300 and 400 kg ha-1 N), plus a control with no nitrogen application. The experimental units consisted of plastic pots with a capacity of 5.0 dm3, and 4.0 dm3 of soil was used. The application of the alternative sources - hull and horn flour and blood flour - promoted an increase in attributes such as leaf area, number of tillers, crude protein and forage mass. The organic sources have the potential to be applied as nitrogen sources in soils under pasture, which would promote an eco-friendly destination for these residues.

Pages 294-299 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1459
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Common bean seed quality as affected by cover crop mixtures and nitrogen fertilization

Alexandre Pedrinho*, Eduardo Mariano, Luis Fernando Merloti, Marco Eustáquio de Sá

Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
College of Agricultural Sciences, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, SP, Brazil
College of Natural Sciences and Engineering, São Paulo State University, Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil


Abstract
Several studies have shown that cover crops can increase common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yield. However, little is known about the influence of cover crop mixtures in association with topdressing N fertilization on common bean seed quality. We, therefore, evaluated the physiological quality of common bean seeds produced under cover crop residues and N- fertilized in a no-till farming system. A 5 × 4 factorial experiment (cover crops and N rates) was performed under field conditions in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Single-specie and cover crops mixtures [pear millet (Pennisetum glaucum), pear millet-jack bean (P. glaucum; Canavalia ensiformis), pear millet-pigeon pea (P. glaucum; Cajanus cajan), pear millet-sunn hemp (P. glaucum; Crotalaria juncea), and pear millet-velvet bean (P. glaucum; Mucuna pruriens)] were grown and common bean was planted in succession. Nitrogen fertilizer (50, 100, and 150 kg N ha-1) was topdressed applied to common bean at the V4 stage. At maturity, common bean plants were harvested, and physiological quality of seeds was assessed. The first germination count, final germination, germination speed index, accelerated aging, and N and protein concentration were influenced by cover crop residues and/or N rates (main effect). A cover crop × N rate interaction was observed for seedling dry biomass after germination and accelerated aging. All treatments produced seeds with high physiological quality. Although the cover crops showed variable results, the application of 100 kg N ha-1 in topdressing slightly improved seed quality attributes compared to the other N rate treatments. We conclude that addition of N fertilizer and cover crop treatments does not affect on common bean seed quality to a large extent.

Pages 300-308 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1466
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Reduction of initial occurrence of rice blast (Pyricularia oryzae) inocula on seeds by microbial and hot water seed treatments

Ibrahim Hashim*, Delphina Mamiro, Robert B. Mabagala, Tadele Tefera

International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), P.O. Box 30772-00100 Nairobi, Kenya
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, P. O. Box 3005, Morogoro, Tanzania
International Center of Insect Physiology & Ecology, ILRI Campus, Gurd Shola, P.O Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


Abstract
Rice blast disease resulting from infected rice seed can be avoided by using treated seeds. Seed treatment using chemical fungicide has many limitations such as development of resistance to pathogens, damage to the natural environment and the health of farmers and consumers. Such limitations have raised the need for alternative non-chemical seed treatment methods such as antagonist microbial agent and hot water. Laboratory and the screen house experiment were carried out with the aim of evaluating the efficacy of Trichoderma asperellum, Bacillus subtilis and hot water (50°C/15 min) seed treatments against rice blast disease inocula on rice seeds. The results showed that, seeds treated with microbial pesticide (T. asperellum, B. subtilis) and hot water reduced the percentage of infected rice seeds by 4.3 to 52.7% relative to non-treated seeds. The germination percent and seedling vigour index increased from 17.1 % to 12.3 %. Rice seeds treated with B. subtilis reduced the incidence and severity of rice blast disease from 10% to 72.4 %. Seed treatment using B. subtilis followed by T. asperellum were the best in reducing the number of infected seeds and rice blast disease incidence and severity on rice seedlings. Therefore, the use of these microbial agents has a potential for effective management of rice blast disease.

Pages 309-314 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1474
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Assessment of diversity and population structure of mango (Mangifera indica L.) germplasm based on microsatellite (SSR) markers

Shahril Ab Razak, Nor Helwa Ezzah Nor Azman, Siti Norhayati Ismail, Muhammad Fairuz Mohd Yusof, Muhammad Afiq Tajol Ariffin, Zul Helmey Mohd Sabdin, Muhammad Hafiz Muhammad Hassan, Khairun Hisam Nasir, Mohd Asrul Sani, Norzihan Abdullah

Centre for Marker Discovery and Validation (CMDV), MARDI Headquarters, Selangor, Malaysia
Horticulture Research Centre, MARDI Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
Seed and Gene Bank Centre, MARDI Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
Director General Office, MARDI Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia


Abstract
The assessment of genetic diversity is essential for the conservation and breeding purposes. This study aimed to assess and evaluate the genetic diversity of 116 accessions of mango (Mangifera indica) germplasm using microsatellite markers. The DNA was extracted from young fresh leaf before genotyping using microsatellites to determine the allele size. The analysis of 20 polymorphic microsatellite markers revealed a total of 122 alleles ranging from two (MiIIHR10, MiIIHR21, and MiIIHR25) to 11 alleles per locus (MiIIHR28 and MiIIHR30) with an average of 6.1. The mean polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.4585 which ranged between 0.0081 (MiIIHR10) to 0.9573 (MiIIHR28). The UPGMA dendrogram indicated that the accessions were divided into two major clusters, which were divided into several sub-clusters based on their genetic distance matrix values. Some accessions were highly similar to each other, probably due to the duplication of collected accessions or insufficient microsatellite markers to differentiate them. The analysis of the population structure of the individuals also showed two subpopulations, suggesting that the accessions could be separated into two groups, which supported the generated dendrogram. The findings of this study facilitate improved conservation management of the germplasm and help to find strategies for future breeding activities.

Pages 315-320 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| Supplementray Data .xlsx| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1594
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Efficacy of biological insecticides against Helicoverpa armigera in sweet corn crop (Zea mays saccharata)

Mohammad Yunus*, Effendy

Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Faculty of Tadulako University, Palu, Indonesia, 94118
Department of Agriculture Economics, Agriculture Faculty of Tadulako University, Palu, Indonesia, 94118


Abstract
Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (H. armigera) is a significant pest to corn crops and constant problem for farmers. The objective of this research was to obtain a more effective insecticide for suppressing the population and intensity of H. Armigera, as well as providing high economic value for sweet corn crops. This experiment used a randomized block design, consisting of 4 treatments and 6 replications. The treatments consisted of a control (P0 = without insecticides), P1 = biological insecticide (Beauveria bassiana 5 g.l-1), P2 = botanic insecticide (pandan wangi leaf extracts 5 ml.l-1), and P3 = chemical insecticide (Deltamethrin synthetic 3 ml.l-1). The results showed that the application of various types of insecticides has a significant effect on population density of larvae, intensity of H. armigera presence and sweet-corn crop yield. All types of insecticides applied are highly effective but the effectiveness of Beauveria bassiana 5 g.l-1 tends to be greater in comparison to others. The highest cost-benefit ratio was obtained from the application of the biological insecticide followed by the botanic insecticide and the chemical insecticide.

Pages 321-327 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.02.p1733


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