Volume 10 Issue 2 | February 2016
Table of Contents
Southern Cross Publishing©2016
Australian Journal of Crop Science | February 2016
Volume 10 Number 2 Year 2016
Investigating suitable test locations and mega-environments for evaluating spring wheat in Brazil
Raphael Rossi Silva*, Carlos Roberto Riede, In๊s Cristina de Batista Fonseca, Claudemir Zucareli, Giovani Benin
Centro de Ci๊ncias Agrแrias - Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, Pr 445, Km 380, Campus Universitแrio, CEP 86051-980, Londrina - PR, Brasil
มrea de Melhoramento e gen้tica - Instituto Agron๔mico do Paranแ, Brasil
Universidade Tecnol๓gica Federal do Paranแ, Brasil
This study assessed the effects of genotype, environmental factors and genotype-environment interactions on the identification and validation of mega-environments and essential test locations in various wheat-growing regions. The grain yield of wheat genotypes was evaluated at 14 locations in Brazil in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GGE biplot analysis was used to visualize the genotype x location patterns and interrelationships between test locations. The results showed that complex genotype-environment interactions occurred, suggesting that the response over three years was not well defined relative to the possible formation of distinct mega-environments.
Pages 137-143 | Full Text PDF
Genetic diversity and population structure in Indian wild rice accessions
Bikram Pratap Singh, Balwant Singh, Shefali Mishra, Vinod Kumar and Nagendra Kumar Singh*
National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology, New Delhi-110012, India
Banasthali University, Rajasthan, India
Genetic diversity in a set of 132 Indian wild rice accessions belonging to Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon and eight cultivated rice varieties was evaluated with 25 highly variable simple sequence repeat (HvSSR) markers using agarose gels and 36 genome-wide SNP markers using Sequenom MassARRAY system. A total of 106 SSR alleles were amplified with an average of 4.24 allele per locus, but only 72 alleles with SNP markers because of its bi-allelic nature. PIC values for HvSSR markers ranged from 0.27 (HvSSR 11-24) to 0.71(HvSSR 05-39) with an average of 0.52 and for SNP it ranged from .01(11-3935) to 0.39 (09-209) with an average of 0.19, suggesting more allelic diversity for SSRs over SNP markers. Principal coordinate analysis with SSR and SNP markers revealed that the accessions were uniformly distributed across the two axes in both the plots with 66.53% and 77.65% of cumulative variation, respectively.
Pages 144-151 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary Data xls
QTL controlling glucosinolate content in seeds of Brassica napus L.
Jun Liu, Arvind H. Hirani, Zhe Li, Chunren Wu, Peter B.E. McVetty, Fouad Daayf, Genyi Li*
Monsanto Canada Inc., 900 - One Research Road, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T6E3 Canada
Department of Plant Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 Canada
Glucosinolates are a group of endogenous secondary metabolites commonly found in Brassica plants. Oilseed rape (Brasscia napus L.) contains toxic glucosinolates in its otherwise high quality meal. In the present study, the Brassica 60K SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) Infiniumฎ microarrays supplemented with sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to map the whole B. napus genome of a DH population derived from an F1. Eight thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine SNP and 35 SRAP markers were organized into 1,220 bins covering 2,597.7 centiMorgans (cM) on 19 chromosomes from 88 DH lines.
Pages 152-160 | Full Text PDF
Influence of row spacing and plant population density on management of "white mould" in soybean in southern Brazil
David de Souza Jaccoud-Filho, Felipe Fadel Sartori, Miguel Manosso-Neto, Clแudio Maurํcio Vrisman, Marcelo L. da Cunha Pierre, Ayrton Berger-Neto, Hamilton Edemundo T๚llio, Altair Justino, Adriel Ferreira da Fonseca, S้rgio Zanon
Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), Departamento de Fitotecnia e Fitossanidade, Grupo de Fitopatologia Aplicada, Brasil
Universidade Estadual de Sใo Paulo (Esalq/USP), Departamento de Produ็ใo Vegetal, Grupo de Fisiologia Aplicada e Sistemas de Produ็ใo, Brasil
The Ohio State University at Wooster (OSU), Department of Plant Pathology, USA
White mould is a disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary and it has become a major problem for soybean in Brazil, mainly due to the use of contaminated seeds and machinery, monoculture, and the use of susceptible species as crop rotation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different row spacing and plant population densities on soybean crop in relation to the levels of incidence and the severity of S. sclerotiorum. Field trials were carried out during 2010-2012 crop seasons. Row spacings of 0.35, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75 metres, and plant population densities of 150,000, 200,000, 250,000 and 300,000 plants.ha-1 were used. The incidence and severity of white mould, the yield, and the thousand grain weight were evaluated. Spacing at 0.35 metres increased yield but it caused greater incidence of the disease. A reduced number of plants in the crop rows reduced the severity of the disease. Farmers with a history of problems with S. sclerotiorum should avoid narrow row spacings and high plant population densities.
Pages 161-168 | Full Text PDF
Acclimatization of coffee (Coffea racemosa x Coffea arabica) somaclones obtained from temporary immersion bioreactor system (RITAฎ)
Anna Lygia de Rezende Maciel, Filipe Almendagna Rodrigues*, Moacir Pasqual, Carlos Henrique Siqueira de Carvalho
Instituto Federal de Educa็ใo, Ci๊ncia e Tecnologia do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Morro Preto, 37890-000, Muzambinho, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Departamento de Agricultura, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Caixa Postal 3037, Campus da UFLA, 37200-000, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuแria, Embrapa Caf้, Alameda do Caf้, 1000, Jardim Andere, 37026-400, Varginha, Minas Gerais, Brazil
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the acclimatization process of coffee somaclones (Coffea racemosa x Coffea arabica) derived from somatic embryogenesis immersed temporarily in bioreactor system (RITAฎ). Embryos derived from leaves of the Siriema 05 cultivar coffee (Coffea racemosa x Coffea arabica) were used in this experiment. The acclimatization stage of cotyledon embryos was realized in three experiments: Experiment 1 - Different substrates and size of cotyledon embryos; Experiment 2 - Different substrates and Stimulateฎ concentrations; Experiment 3 - Growth of seedlings in different substrates and Osmocoteฎ concentrations. A higher conversion percentage of cotyledonary embryos into seedlings were obtained from embryos grown in the Plantmaxฎ medium with vermiculite and Plantmaxฎ substrate. Moreover, increasing concentrations of Stimulateฎ and Osmocoteฎ to a substrate concentration of 10.9 g L-1 produced better quality seedlings.
Pages 169-175 | Full Text PDF
Cover crops can affect soil attributes and yield of upland rice
Adriano Stephan Nascente*, Mแbio Chrisley Lacerda, Anna Cristina Lanna, Marta Cristina Corsi de Filippi and Dayanne Medrado Silva
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), Rice and Beans Research Center, PO Box 179, 75375-000, Santo Ant๔nio de Goiแs, State of Goiแs, Brazil
The objective of this research was to determine the effect of pearl millet intercropped with other cover crops on N mineral forms and urease activity in the soil, nitrate reductase enzyme activity in the leaves and yield components and grain yield of upland rice. The cover crops pearl millet, pearl millet + C. spectabilis, pearl millet + Brachiaria ruziziensis, and pearl millet + C. spectabilis + Brachiaria ruziziensis provided similar results for ammonium content and urease activity in the soil, nitrate reductase activity in leaves, yield components and grain yield of upland rice grown under no-tillage. Our results allow inferring that the use of pearl millet, as cover crop, alone or intercropped with B. ruziziensis or C. spectabilis is a management practice option to provide high rice grain yield.
Pages 176-184 | Full Text PDF
Carbohydrate metabolism and tissue differentiation during potato tuber initiation, growth and dormancy induction
Konstantinos A. Akoumianakis, Alexios A. Alexopoulos*, Ioannis C. Karapanos, Konstantinos Kalatzopoulos, George Aivalakis, Harold C. Passam
Laboratory of Vegetable Production, Agricultural University of Athens, 75, Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece
Laboratory of Agronomy, Technological Educational Institute of Peloponnese, Antikalamos, 24100 Kalamata, Greece
Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Agricultural University of Athens, 75, Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece
The aim of this study was to shed light on the time at which tuber dormancy is induced. Potato tubers were selected at different stages of tuberisation: initial swelling of the stolon tip and early stages of tuber growth (tuber diameter 3, 7 and 14 mm). At each stage of tuberisation, the diameter of the pith and the cortex was measured, the activity of the enzymes ฿-amylase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase was determined, and starch and RNA levels recorded. It was observed that during tuber initiation the pith and perimedullary zone showed the greatest increase in size, whereas the cortical parenchyma increased mainly when the tuber diameter was 7-14 mm. Consequently, we may refer to tuber dormancy only when the last bud has completed its differentiation.
Pages 185-192 | Full Text PDF
Physiological aspects of castor bean cv. BRS Energia in response to foliarapplication of gibberellic and salicylic acid
Genelํcio Souza Carvalho J๚nior*, Rosiane de Lourdes Silva de Lima, Hans Raj Gheyi, Julita Maria Frota Chagas Carvalho, Maria Roselita Andr้ Soares, Valdinei Sofiatti
State University of Paraํba. Company of Brazilian Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Research (Embrapa). Rua Osvaldo Cruz, 1143, Centenแrio, CEP: 58.107-720, Campina Grande, Paraํba, Brazil
Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engenieering, Campina Grande, CEP: 58.109-970, Campina Grande, Brazil
Federal University of Rec๔ncavo of Bahia, Nucleus of Soil and Water Engineering, Cruz das Almas,CEP: 44.380-00, Bahia, Brazil
Company of Brazilian Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Research (Embrapa), Rua Osvaldo Cruz, 1143, Centenแrio, CEP: 58.107-720, Campina Grande, Paraํba, Brazil
Federal University of Paraํba, Department of Biology Science, Areia, CEP: 58.397-000, Paraiba, Brazil
Gibberellic and salicylic acid may be used in crop management to influence physiology and biochemistry of plant, to improve photosynthetic capacity, and to increase crop profitability. Current analysis aims at evaluating the physiological aspects of castor bean cv. BRS Energia in response to the foliar application of gibberellic and salicylic acid. There were 100 experimental units and one plant per plot. High doses of gibberellic acid with or without salicylic acid reduced net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and transpiration, showing linear effects at 80 days after emergence. The concentrations of the photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid content were reduced until the application of 0.09 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid, associated with a dose of 0.16 mg L-1 of salicylic acid. Dose of 0.12 mg L-1 gibberellic acid and 0.16 mg L-1 salicylic acid produced the lowest relative water content in castor bean leaves.
Pages 193-198 | Full Text PDF
Effect of vanadium on dry matter and nutrient concentration in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)
Anastasia Akoumianaki-Ioannidou, Pantelis E. Barouchas, Evridiki Ilia, Artemis Kyramariou, Nicholas K. Moustakas*
Floriculture and Landscape Architecture Laboratory, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece
Laboratory of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Technological Educational Institute of Western Greece
Soil Science Laboratory, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece
An experiment was conducted in pots under glasshouse conditions to study the effects of vanadium (V) on dry matter and on V, Fe, Mn, Pd, Zn, Ca, K and Mg concentrations in leaves, stems and roots of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). A completely randomized block design with five V treatments (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg L-1) and six replications per treatment was laid out. Vanadium was applied to the pot medium (peat soil mixture) as NH4VO3. No visible toxic or inhibitory symptoms were observed on the plants due to the increasing rates of V. Results indicated that root dry matter increased with increasing rates of V. The V concentration in the leaves and roots increased with V addition but the opposite was observed for the stems.
Pages 199-206 | Full Text PDF
Cloning and comparative protein modelling of two MADS-box genes, HsMADS1 and HsMADS2 isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. var. UMKL (roselle)
Siti N. Othman, Yong S.Y.C*, Roghayeh Abedi Karjiban, Adibah Shakri
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. var. UMKL or commonly known as roselle is cultivated in Malaysia mainly for its calyx, which is high in vitamin C and anthocyanin. Unfortunately, the genetic information regarding the flowering pathway of roselle is very scarce. It is essential to understand the genetics underlying roselles flower developmental process by studying MADS-box transcription factor genes that play crucial roles in controlling the development of calyx in flowering plants. Designated as HsMADS1 and HsMADS2, two MADS-box genes were isolated from the calyx tissues of roselle from different developmental stages using 3- RACE PCR and primer walking approaches. The different motifs in the C domain region of HsMADS1 and HsMADS2 deduced amino acid sequences suggested that both genes probably originated from SEP and AGL6 subfamilies of MADS-box gene respectively. The putative functions of the genes based on BLAST searches and phylogenetic analyses suggested that HsMADS1 possibly involves in the expression of SEP gene in stem, leaf, bud and flower organs of roselle, whereas HsMADS2 may probably involve in the late expression of floral tissue for stem branching. The alpha helix rich structures of SRF-TF identified in the deduced amino acid sequences of HsMADS1 and HsMADS2 supported the involvement of both proteins in DNA binding and dimerisation.
Pages 207-215 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary Data PDF
Application of natural garlic extract to overcome bud dormancy of grapevines 'BRS R๚bea' and 'BRS Cora'
Jullyanna Nair de Carvalho*, Letํcia Silva Pereira, Pollyanna Aparecida de Carvalho, Ant๔nio Decarlos Neto
Agr๔noma, Universidade Federal do Vale do Sใo Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brasil
Agricultura , Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil
Fisiologia Vegetal , Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different doses of natural garlic extract (NGE) with or without addition of mineral oil, for overcoming the dormancy of vine buttons of cultivars of Vitis Labrusca L. 'BRS R๚bea' and 'BRS BRS Cora'. The treatments (dormancy handlers) applied were: (1) Control (water); (2) NGE 5%; (3) NGE 10%; (4) NGE 15%; (5) NGE 20%; (6) NGE 5% + MO 2% (Assistฎ, 750 mL L-1 mineral oil, Basf S.A.); (7) NGE 10% + MO 2%; (8) NGE 15% + MO 2%; (9) NGE 20% + MO 2%; (10) hydrogenated cyanamide 2% (Dormex ฎ, 520 g L-1 H2CN2, Basf S.A.); (11) MO 2%. The experimental design was completely randomized, in factorial scheme 2ื11 (cultivars ื dormancy handlers). For comparison of means, the Scott-knott test was applied at 5% level of significance. Furthermore, regression analysis was conducted. The results of this study showed that there is natural garlic extract action in dormancy breaking. The treatments with NGE 10%, NGE 15% and NGE 15% + MO 2% presented significantly higher results than other treatment and these results were statistically equal when compared to the product Dormexฎ in the induction of shoots of both cultivars.
Pages 216-219 | Full Text PDF
Identification of salt tolerant rice lines among interspecific BILs developed by crossing Oryza sativa ื O. rufipogon and O. sativa ื O. nivara
Pushpalatha Ganeshan, Ajay Jain, Brajendra Parmar, AR Rao, K Sreenu, Pragya Mishra, Sukumar Mesapogu, D Subrahmanyam, T Ram, N Sarla, Vandna Rai*
Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030
National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, Lal Bahadur Shastri Building, Pusa Campus, New Delhi-110012, India
Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, Pusa Campus, New Delhi-110012, India
Elite varieties (KMR3 and Swarna) have been crossed with wild species (O. rufipogon and O. nivara) for generating high yielding back cross inbred lines (ILs). These ILs are rich repository for screening their tolerance towards dosage-dependent salinity stress. Here in this study, 15 ILs were screened for their tolerance towards salinity stress under different salinity regime (0, 50, 100,150 and 200 mM NaCl) using various physiological and biochemical traits. The ILs were categorized into sensitive (SSIL) and tolerant (STIL) types based on their seed germination and seedling growth response under different salinity treatment. There was a noticeable differential accumulation pattern of Na+ across different ILs ranging from no accumulation in STILs (K467, K463 and K478) to accumulation at different levels in both STIL (K458) and SSIL (K40). Tolerance to salinity in STILs could be mediated either through Na+ exclusion from roots (K467, K463 and K478) or its compartmentalization in vacuoles (K458).
Pages 220-228 | Full Text PDF
In vitro culture of Mouriri elliptica (Mart.) under conditions that stimulate photoautotrophic behavior
Elisvane Silva de Assis, Aur้lio Rubio Neto, Letํcia Rigonato de Lima, Fabiano Guimarใes Silva*, Mแrcio Rosa, Sebastiใo Carvalho Vasconcelos Filho, Mariluza Silva Leite
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goiano, Rio Verde Campus, Rod, Sul Goiana Km 01, Cx. P. 66. CEP 75.901-970, Rio Verde -Goiแs, Brazi
University of Rio Verde - Uni RV, Rio Verde Campus, Fontes do Saber farm, Cx. P. 104. CEP: 75901-970, Rio Verde - Goiแs, Brazil
The present study aimed to analyze the in vitro culture of Mouriri elliptica (Mart.) seedlings under conditions that stimulate photoautotrophic behavior. The nodal segments were grown in 50% salt wood plant medium (WPM) in the presence and absence of sucrose and subjected to different light intensities (0, 50, 75, 100, and 150 ตmol m-2s-1). The evaluations were performed after 60 days of culture and considered growth and morphoanatomic characteristics. There was an exponential increase in the number of shoots and leaves in the seedlings cultured in the absence of sucrose with increasing light intensity.
Pages 229-236 | Full Text PDF
The impact of water regimes on hormesis by glyphosate on common bean
Juliano Costa da Silva*, Gustavo Antonio Xavier Gerlach, Ricardo Antonio Ferreira Rodrigues, Orivaldo Arf
Sใo Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Plant Health, Rural Engineering and Soil, Ilha Solteira, State of Sใo Paulo, Brazil
Sใo Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Plant Science, Food Technology and Social Economy, Ilha Solteira, State of Sใo Paulo, Brazil
The present study sought to evaluate the effect of low glyphosate doses on the irrigated common bean subjected to different water regimes. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks arranged in a 3 x 2 factorial, with the treatments consisting of combinations of three glyphosate doses [0, 10 and 15 g acid equivalent (AE) ha-1] and two water conditions [355 and 391 mm (distributed according to the kc values for each phenological stage of the crop)], with four replications. The study was conducted under field conditions at the experimental farm of the State University of Sใo Paulo-UNESP, Ilha Solteira campus, located in the city of Selvํria-MS, Brazil. The variables measured were: a) plant dry matter; b) nitrogen content in the leaves; c) number of pods plant-1; d) number of grains plant-1; e) number of grains pod-1; f) mass of 100 grains and g) grain yield. It may be concluded that hydric conditions during the crop cycle of the common bean have a great influence on the results of hormesis by glyphosate. In the presence of low glyphosate doses, the common bean demonstrated greater tolerance to hydric stress.
Pages 237-243 | Full Text PDF
Production and accumulation of silicon (Si) in rice plants under silicate fertilization and soil water tensions
Jakeline Rosa de Oliveira, Marcio Koetz, Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva* and Tonny Jos้ Ara๚jo da Silva
Institute of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Rondonopolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of silicate fertilization and soil water tensions on the production and accumulation of silicon in upland rice plants in an Oxisol of the Cerrado, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse from June to October 2014. A 5ื5 factorial scheme fractionated with five soil water tensions (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 kPa) and five silicon doses (0, 120, 240, 480 and 960 mg dm-3) was used and was distributed according to a randomized block design with four replications. The results were submitted to an analysis of variance (F test) and regression study with 5% probability (p=0.05). Silicon doses of 775.8 and 751.7 mg dm-3 provided a lower leaf angle and higher chlorophyll content, respectively. The addition of soil water tensions caused a reduction of 46.4% grain mass, comparing the lowest soil water tension (0 kPa) with the highest tension (60 kPa).
Pages 244-250 | Full Text PDF
Effect of glyphosate and water stress on plant morphology and nutrient accumulation in soybean
Fabiano Andr้ Petter*, Alan Mario Zuffo, Francisco de Alcโntara Neto, Leandro Pereira Pacheco, Fernandes Antonio de Almeida, Fabrํcio Ribeiro Andrade, Joacir Mแrio Zuffo J๚nior
Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, 78557-267, Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Department of Agriculture, Federal University of Lavras, 37200-000, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Piauํ, 78987-000, Bom Jesus, Piauํ, Brasil
Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, 78735-901, Rondonop๓lis, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Department of Agriculture, State University of Mato Grosso, 78690-000, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil
The objective of this trial was to evaluate the morpho-physiological responses and macro and micronutrient accumulations in soybean plants under normal conditions and water deficit in a savannah-like environment (Cerrado). The experimental design was a factorial under completely randomized block. We evaluated three cultivars Roundup Ready (RRฎ) soybean cultivars (P98Y12, M9144 and M9056) under two herbicidal treatments (1080 g e. a. ha-1 and 1800 g e. a. ha-1) and control. The cultivars remained in two soil moisture conditions (optimal and deficit). Additionally, conventional soybean cultivar (M-soy 9350) underwent moisture treatments with four replications. Soybean cultivars had different behaviors regarding morphophysiological responses to glyphosate application and soil moisture conditions. The RRฎ cultivars are most sensitive to water stress when glyphosate is used.
Pages 251-257 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary Data PDF
Potting media, growth and build-up of nutrients in container-grown desert rose
Ronan Carlos Colombo, Vanessa Favetta, Thadeu Rodrigues de Melo, Ricardo Tadeu de Faria, Marcelo Augusto de Aguiar e Silva
Department of Agronomy, State University of Londrina, Caixa Postal 6001, 86051-990, Londrina, PR, Brazil
The commercial and ornamental value of the desert rose (Adenium obesum) is mainly related to the development of the caudex, which is influenced by the nutritional state of the plant, among other factors. However, little is known about the nutritional requirements of this species and studies are at an early stage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of potting media on the growth and nutrient build-up in desert rose. Plants were grown in the greenhouse in the following potting media: sand + Amafibraฎ 47 coconut fiber (S+CF), sand + Lupaฎ (S+L), sand + modified Lupaฎ (S+ML), vermiculite + Amafibraฎ 47 coconut fiber (V+CF), vermiculite + Lupaฎ (V+L) and vermiculite + modified Lupaฎ (V+ML). The pots, each containing one plant, were arranged in a fully randomized design with five replications per treatment. The plants grown in S+CF and V+CF mixes exhibited higher growth rates than the other plants and greater nutrients build-up in dry matter. A high quantity of manganese (Mn) was absorbed by the plants grown in the above-mentioned mixes; however, it cannot be affirmed that this element had a direct effect on the absorption of the other micronutrients. Therefore, the S+CF and V+CF mixes showed the highest increments for desert rose caudex growth and is recommended for cultivating this species.
Pages 258-263 | Full Text PDF
Gas exchange and carbon metabolism in leaves of crabwood (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) in three mechanisms and suspension of water stress
Ellen Gleyce da Silva Lima*, Bruno Moitinho Maltarolo, Glauco Andr้ dos Santos Nogueira, Wander Luiz da Silva Ataํde, Tamires Borges de Oliveira, Vitor Resende do Nascimento, Kerol้m Prํcila Sousa Cardoso, Karollyne Renata Souza Silva, Roberto Cezar Lobo da Costa, Ismael de Jesus Matos Vi้gas, Candido Ferreira de Oliveira Neto
Department of Forest Science, Universidade Federal Rural da Amaz๔nia, Bel้m city, Parแ State, Brazil
Forestry student at Universidade Federal Rural da Amaz๔nia- UFRA, Brazil
Agronomist student at Universidade Federal Rural da Amaz๔nia- UFRA, Brazil
Institute of Agronomists Sciences, Universidade Federal Rural da Amaz๔nia, Bel้m, Parแ, Brazil
Crabwood or Andiroba (in Brazil) is an arboreal species with variations in their physiological processes from soil and climatic conditions induced, such as lack or excess water. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought and flooding in gas exchange, abscisic acid, starch, total soluble carbohydrates, sucrose in Andiroba leaves with seven months of age and resilience of these young plants after cessation of stress. Significant decreases were observed in water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and starch content, and significant increase in abscisic acid (ABA) content, total soluble carbohydrates and sucrose, with significant values on the 30th day of the experiment. After the water stress, the plants failed to recover the initial values of all variables, recovering only the sucrose levels. Andiroba is satisfactorily tolerant to water stress imposed in this experiment, but does not show a rapid recovery after the suspension of water stress, with higher sensitivity to water stress.
Pages 264-271 | Full Text PDF