Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

AUGUST 2019 | EARLY VIEW | 13(08):2019 | DOI: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08


Effect of organic N-sources on maize yield components

Gustavo Vicentini Popin, Arthur Klebson Belarmino dos Santos, Gregori E. Ferrão, David Augusto Lourenço, Marcos Siqueira-Neto

Soil Science Department, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP 13416-900, Brazil
Center of Agrarian and Environmental Sciences, University Federal of Maranhão, Chapadinha, MA, 65500-000, Brazil
Laboratory of Environmental Biogeochemistry, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP 13416-900, Brazil

Abstract
Maize is one of the main staple crops of the world but needs large amounts of nitrogen (N) to achieve a high yield. Mineral N fertilization is one of the main production costs to cultivation and organic N sources could be a cost-effective alternative to mineral sources. We hypothesized that organic N sources could replace mineral fertilizer whilst maintaining high yields. Therefore, our study examined the effect of N supplied through organic sources on the yield of maize and its components and evaluated the economic viability of using organic N sources in terms of cost savings of energy resources. A field experiment was carried out in the Southeastern region of Brazil (São Paulo state) on a Typical Acrudox soil with a clay texture. The experiment was set out in a complete randomized block design, with six treatments (five N sources + control) and four replicates. The treatments were: (A) mineral source (urea - Ur); (B) a by-product from the food industry (Fby); (C) biofertilizer from swine manure (Bs); (D) poultry bedding (Pb); (E) cattle manure (Cm); and (F) control (Co - without N). The maize yield components evaluated were plant height (V6 and R2 stages), root dry mass and morphoanatomy (R2 stage) and, at harvest, grains in ears, thousand kernel weight (TKW), productivity and crop residues dry mass. Economic viability was assessed by considering the cost of each N source in relation to gross economic revenues from the sale of corn. Overall, the results showed that only Fby produced better yield components and was more productive than urea. This source also provided the highest economic revenue and the lowest fertilizer cost for each unit produced. The Pb and Cm sources were less productive than the mineral source, but were better than Bs, which was slightly better than the control (without N application). The same pattern of results was found for economic revenue and fertilizer cost. Bs was the most expensive N source and consequently gave the lowest economic returns to farmers. In summary, the N efficiency of the organic sources as an alternative to mineral sources for high-yield maize was ranked as follows: Fby >Ur> Pb > Cm > Bs > Co.

Pages 1215-1222 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1366
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Production and physiological quality of Pennisetum glaucum after zinc (Zn) application

Rilner Alves Flores*, Leonardo Rodrigues Barros, Raiane Ferreira de Miranda, Fernanda Rodrigues dos Santos, Phaulo Maciel Santos, Aline Franciel de Andrade, Danilo Nogueira Rodrigues, Andreia Paiva Lopes

Soil Sector, Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dry biomass production and the physiological quality of millet (Pennisetum glaucum) based on the application of zinc (Zn) on the soil. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design consisting of five Zn doses: 0; 3; 6; 9 and 12 kg ha-1, with four replications. The following biometrics such as physiological quality, biomass production and nutritional efficiency as for the use of Zn by plants were evaluated. The results showed that doses around 9 kg ha-1 are the ones promoting the highest observed rates. However, higher Zn supply in the soil negatively affected the physiological quality of the crop, as for the evaluated variables, except for the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. However, Pennisetum glaucum is responsive to the production of dry biomass up to the Zn dose of 9 kg ha-1, without reducing the efficiency of the nutrient utilization by the crop.

Pages 1223-1231 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1385
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Selectivity of herbicides in the post-emergence sugarcane seedlings in primary selection fields

Tácio Peres Silva*, Amanda Mendes de Moura, Bruno Manoel Rezende de Melo, Douglas Goulart Castro, Laís Moretti Tomé, Marco Renan Félix, Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

University Federal of Lavras (UFLA), University Camps, Mailbox 3037, CEP 37200-000, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of South of Minas Gerais (IFSULDEMINAS), Inconfidentes Camps, Inconfidentes, CEP 37576-000, Minas Gerais, Brazil


Abstract
The hypothesis here proposed is that, in primary fields of mass selection (F1) of sugarcane, herbicides exert a selective action when applied in the early post-emergence of seedlings (POST-i) and supplemented after their establishment phase (POST-l) even in sandy soils. To verify such hypothesis, the selectivity of herbicides was studied on seedlings of three sugarcane families, after their application both at early and late post-emergence in primary selection fields (F1). The field had a randomized blocks design, with five replications, and the subdivided plots scheme was used. Twelve herbicide treatments were allocated in the plots (27 m-2), whereas the sub-plots (9 m-2) contained three families of seedlings. Each sub-plot consisted of a transplanted row (0.5 x 1.50 m) with 12 individuals of the same family. Six treatments were employed, namely, T1: tebuthiuron (1200 g ha-1) post-i + ametryn (3000 g ha-1) post-l; T2: diuron (1404 g ha-1) + hexazinone (396 g ha-1) post-i + ametryn (3000 g ha-1) post-l; T3: sulfentrazone (800 g ha-1) post-i + ametryn (3000 g ha-1) post-l; T4: diuron (1404 g ha-1) + hexazinone (396 g ha-1) post-i + metribuzin (1920 g ha-1) post-l; T5: sulfentrazone (800 g ha-1) post-i + metribuzin (1920 g ha-1) post-l, and T6: weeded plot. The sugarcane families were: F400 (♀IAC086155 x ♂unknown), F43 (♀IACBIO264 × ♂IAC911099), and F14 (♀IACSP991305 × ♂GlagaH). We concluded that the herbicides tebuthiuron (1200 g ha-1), diuron (104 g ha-1) + hexazinone (396 g ha-1), or sulfentrazone (800 g ha-1), when applied in the early post-emergence and supplemented with ametryn (3000 g ha-1) or metribuzin (1920 g ha-1) in late post-emergence (60 days from planting) of the sugarcane families studied, were selective to the seedlings. That is, no toxicity symptoms with a potential to impede the final selection of seedlings occurred.

Pages 1232-1235 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1481
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Soil fertility under different tillage systems in sugarcane expansion area

Emmerson Rodrigues de Moraes, José Geraldo Mageste, Joicy Vitória Miranda Peixoto*, Luis Augusto da Silva Domingues, Regina Maria Quintão Lana, Ernane Miranda Lemes

Instituto Federal Goiano, Campus-Morrinhos. BR 153, km 633. Zip Code: 75.650-000. Morrinhos-GO, Brazil 2Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Campus Glória. BR 050, km 78. Zip Code: 38.400-000, Uberlândia-MG, Brazil 3Instituto Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Campus Uberlândia. Fazenda Sobradinho, Postal Code: 1020. Zip Code: 38400-970, Uberlândia-MG, Brazil

Abstract
In sugarcane expansion areas where soil fertility restrictions regularly occur, soil preparing ameliorates soil physical and chemical properties to improve conditions for sugarcane crop development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate soil chemical attributes under different soil preparation methods for sugarcane cultivation at the first and second year of expansion area in the Cerrado biome. The experiment was conducted in an area previously used as pasture land for more than 10 years with Brachiaria decumbens without any soil correction. CTC-2 sugarcane variety was planted. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications. The treatments were: desiccation-liming-plowing-harrowing; liming-plowing-harrowing; liming-harrowing-plowing-harrowing; desiccation-liming-direct planting; desiccation-liming-subsoiling, and harrowing-liming-plowing-harrowing. Soil attributes: organic matter, water pH, H++Al3+, Al3+, m, V, H2PO4-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and S-SO4-2 were evaluated at 0-0.2, 0.2-0.4 and 0.4-0.6 m soil depth. The variables were submitted ANOVA, joint analysis and Tukey’s test (p < 0.05). The treatments including liming followed by harrowing, plowing and harrowing, and harrowing followed by liming, plowing and harrowing, resulted in the largest gains in soil fertility. In the first year of sugarcane cultivation, the no-tillage system proved to be sustainable and appropriate for sugarcane cultivation economically viable.

Pages 1236-1243 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1504
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Nonlinear modeling proposal for the germination performance of Paspalum regnellii seeds: a species with forage potential in Brazil

Gabriel Streck Bortolin*, Bruno Giacomini Sari, João Carlos Pinto Oliveira, Maurício Marini Kopp, Rosana Tascheto Vey, Carlos Eduardo da Silva Pedroso, Alessandro Dal’Col Lúcio, Antonio Carlos Ferreira da Silva

Federal University of Pelotas, CEP 96010-610, Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil
Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
Embrapa Southern Region Animal Husbandry, Bagé, RS, Brazil


Abstract
Finding qualified standard plants is an essential requirement in the search for high-quality pasture, fact that involves knowledge about the performance of the assessed seeds. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of seed weight on the germination behavior of Paspalum regnellii seeds through the logistic growth model. The adopted values were taken from an experiment conducted in 2016 under laboratory conditions. A pneumatic separator was used to select four seed classes, depending on the weight of one thousand seeds namely: Extra light, light, middle and weighted. The logistic model was adjusted to data about the germination rate of each class, and the parameters were compared through the F test. Germination rates between classes were compared based on recorded parameters and on model critical points. The logistic model adjusted well to the values and made it possible to use the parameters and critical points of the curve to describe the germination process. In addition to have low germination rate, seeds in the light-weight batch demanded longer to complete this process. Based on estimates about the parameters and the critical points of the model, the weighted-weight seeds were superior in terms of quality than seeds in the other batches, since they recorded higher germination rate in a shorter period-of-time.

Pages 1244-1250 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1505
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Effects of glyphosate and foliar fertilizers on the glyphosate resistant (GR) soybean

César Tiago Forte*, André Dalponte Menegat, Leandro Galon, Luciane Renata Agazzi, Milena Barreta Franceschetti, Felipe José Menin Basso, Maico André Michelon Bagnara, Leonardo Chechi, Gismael Francisco Perin

Agronomy department, students of graduation of the Federal University of Santa Maria – UFSM, Campus Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, CEP: 97105-900.
Agronomy department, Erechim, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, CEP: 99700-000.
Agronomy department, professor of Federal University of Fronteira Sul – UFFS, Campus Erechim, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, CEP: 99700-000.
Agronomy department, students of graduation of the Federal University of Viçosa – UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, CEP: 36570-900


Abstract
Currently the soybean crop is responsible for a great share of the protein consumed by humans and animals, it is also a source of oil and renewable materials for the industry. Due to the importance of soybeans worldwide, especially genetically modified soybeans (resistant to glyphosate - GR), the improvement in yield indexes became the targets of promising research. The objective of this work was to evaluate the responses of the “GR” soybean crop as a function of glyphosate herbicide and foliar fertilizer, under soil without nutrient deficiency. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications, consisted of two factors. Factor A was consisted by glyphosate (1080 and 2160 g a.e ha-1) and factor B by foliar fertilizers (Fertilizer A – Mg= 5%, Mn= 0,5%, Mo= 0.5%, L-Glutamic acid= 5% and glycine betaine 3%; Fertilizer B - Zn (5%), Mn (3%), Cu (0,5%), B (0.5%) and S (4%); Fertilizer C - Mo and L-Glutamic acid). The treatments were applied isolated and in mixtures, plus the control treatment, totalizing 21 treatments. The variables evaluated were phytotoxicity at 14 and 21 DAT, a thousand-grain weight and grain yield. The analysis of variance was performed and, when significant, the comparison of groups of treatments using orthogonal contrasts was applied to all variables. Soybean yield was also compared to the means of the treatments by the Scott-Knott test (p≤0.05). Phytotoxicity was detected in the soybean crop at 14 DAT with the application of glyphosate, foliar fertilizers and the association of the two products. However, only the highest dose of glyphosate, with or without foliar fertilizers, generally reduced crop grain yield. In addition, the application of foliar fertilizers isolated and associated with glyphosate, in soils with adequate levels of nutrients, does not increase thousand-grain weight or grain. It is concluded that the glyphosate dose for soybeans should be respected and foliar fertilizers should be carefully studied before recommendation.

Pages 1251-1257 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1527
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Management of sulphur fertilizer in forage sorghum crop cultivated in eutrophic Cambisol with alkaline pH

Thiago Henrique Ferreira Matos Castañon, Boanerges Freire de Aquino, Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Izabel Maria Almeida Lima, Ana Paula Alves Barreto Damasceno

Federal University of Mato Grosso - UFMT, Faculty of Agronomy and Zootechnic, 2367 Fernando Corrêa da Costa Avenue, Cuiabá, 78060-900, Brazil
Federal University of Ceará - UFC, Department of Soil Sciences, 2977 Mister Hull Avenue, Fortaleza, 60440-554, Brazil
Federal University of Mato Grosso - UFMT, Institute of Agricultural and Technological Sciences, 5055 Students Avenue Rondonópolis, 78.735-901, Brazil


Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of soil fertilization with sulfur-based fertilizers, sulfate and elemental sulfur forms on biomass production, nutrient characteristics of sorghum and soil chemical properties. The experiment was carried out in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme (four sulfur sources: single superphosphate, agricultural gypsum, elemental sulfur powder and elemental sulfur granulated with bentonite, and four sulfur doses: 0, 40, 80, 120 mgdm-3) using four replications in a completely randomized design, being cultivated in pots under greenhouse conditions. The sorghum was cultivated for a period of 51 days after emergence of the seedlings. The shoot dry mass, shoot macronutrients content, root and soil and pH of the soil were evaluated. There were interactions between sources and sulfur doses in the variables such as shoot dry mass, sulfur in the root, sulfur and calcium in the soil. Elemental sulfur (granulate) showed lower concentrations of phosphorus, sulfur and N:S ratio in the shoot. The concentrations of potassium, calcium and magnesium did not have significant differences, both for the shoot and the root. The pH of the soil was reduced depending on the sources and doses of elemental sulfur. The sources and doses of sulfur did not influence the levels of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium in the soil. The elemental sulfur in the form of powder is the best source of sulfur for forage sorghum cultivated in soil with alkaline pH.

Pages 1258-1266 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1530
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Residual effect of commonly used herbicides of sugarcane on pre-emergence of peanut cultivars in succession

Henrique Gonzalez Zanardo, Willians César Carrega*, Allan Lopes Bacha, Pedro de Figueiredo Rocha Barbosa Martins, Anne Elise Cesarin, Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves, Ignácio José de Godoy

Department of Crop Production, FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
Grain and Fiber Center, Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC), São Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
Studies on the residual effect of herbicides commonly used in sugarcane on peanut crops are essential for crop management due to the expansion of peanut areas on sugarcane fields throughout the country. Therefore, this work evaluates the effect of herbicides commonly used in sugarcane crops on the pre-emergence of five peanut cultivars. The experimental design was a randomized block with treatments in factorial arrangement: 11 (10 herbicides + 1 water control) x 5 (peanut genotypes) in four replications. To evaluate the residual effect, plants that normally emerged at 15 days after application (DAA) were counted and the visual evaluation of plant toxicity was performed at 16, 23 and 30 DAA. At the end of the experiment, dry matter of shoots and roots was measured. According to the results, line 870 and cultivar IAC 503 were tolerant to mesotrione (0.144 a.i. ha-1) in the pre-emergence. However, herbicides sulfentrazone and clomazone caused strong visual symptoms of toxicity, impairing the emergence and development of all genotypes. The herbicides imazapic, 2,4-D, saflufenacil and S-metolachlor, in turn, caused mild visual symptoms of toxicity, but also impaired the emergence and development of all genotypes. Hexazinone, tebuthiuron and amicarbazone applied in pre-emergence caused the death of cultivars. Mesotrione was the only herbicide feasible to the cultivars studied. The genotypes do not react equally to certain products, thus, there is a need for further studies under field conditions to confirm the responses obtained in this study and verify whether the yield potential is affected.

Pages 1267-1274 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1539
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Floristic composition of weeds in a dystrophic Red-Yellow Argisol under the cultivation of cowpea, cv. BRS Novaera

Francisco de Alcântara Neto*, José Oscar Lustosa de Oliveira Júnior, Antônio Aécio de Carvalho Bezerra, Gabriel Barbosa da Silva Júnior, José de Anchieta Alves de Albuquerque, Alan Mario Zuffo, João Pedro Alves de Aquino, Abel Ferreira Borges

Federal University of Piauí, 64049-550, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil
Embrapa Mid-North, 64006-220, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil
Federal University of Roraima, 69304-000, Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil
State University of Mato Grosso, 79540-000, Cassilândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil


Abstract
Among the several factors that negatively influence cowpea culture, weeds have been responsible for the reduction of growth, development and productive performance of the crop, making it necessary to establish management strategies based on phytosociological studies of weed species in growing areas. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the floristic composition of weeds, aiming to identify the main species and their dynamics, and to consider their distribution in time and space as pertaining to the cultivation of a modern variety of cowpea, cv. BRS Novaera, in dystrophic Red-Yellow Argisol, in the Midnorth region of the state of Piauí, Brazil. The phytosociological survey of weeds was carried out in three sessions: the first one was immediately before the area was desiccated with glyphosate (15 days before sowing the cowpea), and the others were at 20 and 40 days after sowing (DAS). Following the quantification of species and number of individuals, the following phytosociological parameters were calculated: frequency and relative frequency; density and relative density; abundance and relative abundance; and importance value index. It was concluded that there were few changes in the floristic composition of the weed community according to the epoch of the phytosociological surveys. The main weed plants at 20 DAS of cowpea (vegetative phase) were Chamaesyce hirta, Digitaria insularis, Alternanthera tenella, Cleome affinis, Mollugo verticillata and Portulaca oleracea. At 40 days (reproductive phase), the weed species with a large establishment and acting as potential competitors with cv. BRS Novaera cowpea were Digitaria insularis, Chamaesyce hirta and Mollugo verticillata.

Pages 1275-1279 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1553
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Glauconitic siltstone as a multi-nutrient fertilizer for Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandú

Isabel Cristina Acciardi Violatti, Camila de Andrade Carvalho Gualberto*, Luiz Henrique Silveira, Gustavo Alves Santos, Bárbara Campos Ferreira, Pedro Magno Mendes Machado, Hamilton Seron Pereira

Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Brazil

Abstract
Potassium (K) is one of the most absorbed nutrients by forage plants and it is found at low levels in tropical soils, requiring large amounts of fertilizers. The use of K-rich rocks as multi-nutrient fertilizers is an economic alternative to improve pasture-based production systems due to their low-cost production and long-term nutrient release. This study evaluated the effect of the glauconitic siltstone (GS) powder on three successive crops of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandú (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha). Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions, one using a Typic Dystrustox and the other a Typic Quartzipsamment. Both experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design with one factor, i.e., five glauconitic siltstone doses (0, 5, 20, 40, and 80 mg dm-3 of K2O) and four replications. In addition, three additional treatments were used, as potassium chloride, wollastonite and manganese sulfate at doses of 80 mg dm-3 of K2O, 270 mg dm-3 of silicon (Si) and 2 mg dm-3 of manganese (Mn), respectively. The sources were incubated for 60 days on the two soil types and, after the incubation period, Urochloa brizantha plants were grown. Three consecutive cuts were performed at 68, 104 and 168 days after sowing. The application of the GS in tropical soils promoted increases in plant dry matter, as well as K, Si and Mn levels in soil samples and accumulated in plants. In general, greater effects were obtained following the application of GS after consecutive cropping cycles due to its long-term release. Results described in this study provide an important understanding of the use of natural nutrient-rich rocks as multi-nutrient fertilizers in tropical soils, being an efficient and low-cost alternative to improve soil fertility and increase tropical pasture productivity.


Pages 1280-1287 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1609
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Pre-harvest application of fungicides influences the post-harvest quality of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.)

Gean C. Monteiro, Mônica B. da Silva, Luan F. O. S. Rodrigues, Hector A. Gomez-Gomez, Cristine Vanz Borges, Igor O. Minatel, Giuseppina P. P. Lima*

Department of Horticulture, School of Agriculture, Sao Paulo State University, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Biosciences, Sao Paulo State University, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
Two cauliflower cultivars (cv.) (Flamenco and Verona) were treated with fungicides (boscalid (Cantus®)) (0.3 g L-1), pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad (Orkestra® SC) (0.3 mL L-1), metiram + pyraclostrobin (Cabrio® Top) (3.0g L-1) and metiram + pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Cantus® + Cabrio® Top) in order to evaluate their chemical composition and their influence on post-harvest quality. The fungicides were applied during the seedling stage as well as 30 days before harvest. Freshly harvested inflorescences were analyzed at 3-day intervals for up to 12 days in storage (10 ± 2 °C and 92 ± 2 % RH) to verify the polyamine content, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities and physicochemical attributes. All fungicides induced changes in polyamine metabolic pathways, resulting in increased levels of spermidine and spermine. These compounds may be related to the reduced activity of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase and to cauliflower senescence. Pre-harvest application of metiram + pyraclostrobin + boscalid to cv. Flamenco and of fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin to cv. Verona were found to be the most efficient treatments for improving the commercial quality of cauliflower. No levels of the fungicides applied during the cultivation were detected in the post-harvest. The fungicides applied to the pre-harvest effectively prolong the storage time and visual quality of cauliflowers cv. Flamenco and cv. Verona.

Pages 1288-1296 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1632
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Comparison of extraction methods for isolating kafirin protein from food grade sorghum flour

Paola PONTIERI1*, Jacopo TROISI, Scott R. BEAN, Michael TILLEY, Marco DI SALVO, Antonio BOFFA, Domenico PIGNONE, Fabio DEL GIUDICE, Mariarosaria ALETTA, Pietro ALIFANO, Luigi DEL GIUDICE1

Istituto di Bioscienze e BioRisorse-UOS Portici-CNR c/o Dipartimento di Biologia, Sezione di Igiene, Napoli 80134, Italy
Theoreosrl - Spin off of the University of Salerno - Via degli ulivi. 3 Montecorvino Pugliano (SA) Italy
USDA-ARS, CGAHR, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce 73100, Italy
CNR-Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources, 072006 Bari, Italy
Bioteam Laboratory, via Girolamo Santacroce, Napoli 80129, Italy
DCSRSI SPR BIBLIOTECA – Napoli 80131, Italy


Abstract
Isolated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) storage proteins (kafirins) have been successfully used in the production of several bio-materials including adhesives, films, micro-particles, fibers, and biological scaffold material. Comparatively little research has been conducted on the use of isolated kafirins in food products or to produce bioactive peptides via hydrolysis for nutritional uses. To support such research, the aim of this study was to compare existing methods for bulk isolation of sorghum kafirins with the goal of identifying a solvent with the least toxicity that maintained a high extraction rate from food grade sorghum flour. A secondary goal was to characterize the kafirin isolates produced from various extraction methods to provide some information on their potential use in food products to guide future research in this area. Five different extraction methods were compared including 1) aqueous ethanol containing NaOH and sodium metabisulfite, 2) glacial acetic acid, 3) aqueous ethanol with sodium metabisulfite, 4) aqueous ethanol at acidic pH, and 5) alkaline pH alone. The protein contents of the kafirin isolates obtained by the five methods ranged from 49.76% to 56.83%. Kafirin isolates were characterized using reversed phase (RP)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which revealed substantial variability in the various kafirin patterns among the extraction methods tested. However, characterization of the kafirin isolates by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) did not show a high degree of variability among the methods tested. Likewise, analysis of the samples using sodium dodecyl sulphate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed essentially the same band profiles but with different band intensities among kafirin extraction methods. Surface hydrophobicity of the kafirin isolates varied considerably with isolates extracted with glacial acetic acid and aqueous ethanol plus sodium metabisulfite the most hydrophobic as indicated by hydrophobic dye binding.

Pages 1297-1304 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1695
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Interference of speed at cutting height and damage to rootstock in mechanical harvesting of sugarcane

Murilo Battistuzzi Martins*, João Vitor Paulo Testa, Fernanda Scaranello Drudi, Jefferson Sandi, Carlos Renato Guedes Ramos, Kléber Pereira Lanças

Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP - Campus Botucatu/SP, Brazil
Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia – UFRA - Campus de Tomé-Açu/PA, Brazil


Abstract
In the mechanized harvest, the quality of the basal cut becomes one of the most important factors because it is associated with sprouting of the cane field. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of speed at cutting height and damage to the rootstock in function of mechanized harvesting of sugarcane. The variety used was CTC 15, with an average yield of 92.5 t ha-1. The mechanized harvest was conducted without previous burning of the cane field, in an area with a slope of 6% and a spacing of 1.5 meters between rows of planting. Three speeds were selected for movement of the harvester: V1: 3.0, V2: 5.0 and V3: 7.0 km h-1, performed with four replications. The evaluation of the quality of the mechanized harvest in relation to the basal cut was determined with the evaluation of the remaining stumps and the damages caused to rootstocks after the passage of the harvester. The height of cut was measured with a tape measure. For the damages to rootstocks, the chi-square test was applied. The cut height measurements were submitted to ANOVA and the averages were analyzed by Tukey test at 5% probability. The results showed that increase in speed during the operation of mechanized harvesting of sugarcane increased the average height of cut in evaluated treatments, as well as the damages to rootstocks which was higher according to the increase in the speed of the harvester. The increase in the speed of displacement of the sugarcane harvester influenced the height of the cut and the damage to the rootstock.

Pages 1305-1308 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1713
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Quality of Myracrodruon urundeuva seedlings in different container sizes and organic compost proportion

Ésio de Castro Paes, Iara Oliveira Fernandes, Geise Bruna da Mata Camilo, Elisângela Gonçalves Pereira, Fabiane Pereira Machado Dias*, Juan Manuel Anda Rocabado, Júlio César Azevedo Nóbrega

Postgraduate program in soil science, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil
Postgraduate Program in Soils and Ecosystem Quality, Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, Brazil
Postgraduate program in agronomy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil


Abstract
Myracrodruon urundeuva, commonly known as black aroeira is a species regularly found in diverse Brazilian biomes, especially in the Caatinga. The species is a timber tree with great quality wood used extensively to construct buildings. The species has chemical components which confer high resistance and protection against pests, thus being used to prepare insecticides as well as cosmetics. Due to its diverse utilization and predatory exploration, the species has become an endangered species. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of organic compost and the size of the containers in the development of M. urundeuva seedlings. The experiment was performed in greenhouse in a factorial scheme 5 x 3, represented by 5 proportions of organic compost: soil (80, 60, 40, 20 and 0% of compost) and 3 container sizes (20x30, 18x22 and 12x18 cm), under a completely randomized statistical design with 5 replicates. The variables evaluated were: neck diameter; seedling height; number of leaves; length of the roots; dry weight of leaves; dry weight of stems; dry weight of the aerial portion; dry weight of roots; height/diameter ratio and Dickson’s quality index. There was significant interaction between treatments for all variables evaluated. When analyzing the containers individually or interacting with compost proportion, the container with volume of 1.335 dm³ was the most adequate for production of aroeira seedlings. Concerning compost proportion alone, the proportion of 40% proportioned the best results for all the evaluated parameters.

Pages 1309-1317 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1714
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Organic fertilization for optimizing dryland rice production

Gusmiatun, AD Murtado, Neni Marlina*

Department of the Faculty of Agriculture, University Muhmmadiyah Agroteknoligi Palembang, Indonesia
Department of Food Science and Technology Faculty of Agriculture University Muhmmadiyah Palembang, Indonesia
Departemen of Agroteknology Faculty of Palembang University, Jl. General Ahmad Yani 13 Ulu Palembang, Indonesia


Abstact
Productivity of local upland rice varieties are usually low, making farmers refrain to cultivate upland rice. This resulted in the low contribution of upland rice in production. However, farmers are still planting upland varieties of rice because of their desirability and adaptation to the environment. Therefore, we always need to develop new varieties that have high production and flavors that suit the tastes of society. The key to increase production of variety is providing sufficient nutrients during the growing period. This study aims to accelerate the availability of nutrients of organic fertilizer for the production of new upland varieties with high productivity. The study carried out in two phases and three different locations. All stages of research were setup in the field using Grid Design Divided (split plot design). In the phase-1, we determined the dose, 5, 10, and 15 tons/ha of organic fertilizer, as well as the adaptability of new varieties (genotype JT-DR-G-416 and parental varieties Jati Luhur and Dayang Rindu). The results of phase-1 showed that best dose was 15 tons/ha. Then we proceeded to the phase-2, which aimed to determine the best management practice to provide organic fertilizers such as: C1= organic fertilizer spread directly on planting plots, C2 = organic fertilizer spread over the terraced planting, then sprayed EM-4, C3 = composted organic fertilizer spread on the plots before planting. The variables measured for the study at phase-1 and phase-2 included plant height (cm), number of productive tillers/hill, the number of grains/panicle, 1000 grain weight (g), percent grain hollow/panicle (%), and grain yield per clump (g). The results showed that the new variety/genotype JT-DR-G-416 can adapt better than both parents at upland field conditions. The production of JT-DR-G-416 was increased by 7.75%, when 15 tonnes/ha of organic fertilizers was applied. Application of composted organic fertilizer could increase production by 33.22%, compared to without compost. Application of organic fertilizers followed by giving a solution of microorganisms (EM-4) could improve upland rice production by 30.56 to 32.06%.

Pages 1318-1326 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1720
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Effects of soil temperature and moisture on biological nitrogen fixation in soybean crop

Evandro Ademir Deak, Thomas Newton Martin*, Glauber Monçon Fipke, Jessica Deolinda Leivas Stecca, Luciane Almeri Tabaldi, Ubirajara Russi Nunes, José Eduardo Minussi Winck, Luiz Fernando Teleken Grando

Department of Crop science, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

Abstract
Soil temperature and humidity are the chief determinants for good nodule formation at the time of sowing and emergence. The aim of this study was to estimate the soil temperature and humidity range, at which the Bradyrhizobium spp., and Azospirillum brasilense may have the highest effect on root enhancement and development of nodulation in soybean. Two experiments were conducted, the first of which was done in the seed laboratory performing the treatments listed as; non-inoculated; inoculation with Bradyrhizobium; root enhancers; inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + root enhancers; co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + Azospirillum brasilense; co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + Azospirillum brasilense + root enhancers, and assessed at temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35ºC. The experimental design was completely randomized with distribution in a factorial scheme. The second experiment was executed in a greenhouse, employing the same treatments affected in the seed laboratory experiment, but with the addition of non-inoculated control with mineral nitrogen. Tests were done at the soil moisture levels of 25, 50, 75 and 100% water retention capacity, forming a factorial 7 x 4 (only second experiment). All co-inoculated treatments induced the soybean root system to improve, in terms of length, volume, surface area and root diameter, exhibiting superiority to the uninoculated control in the 20 to 30ºC temperature range. The co-inoculation raised nodulation in the soybean crop, when soil water retention capacity was at the range of 56 - 96%, achieving higher means compared to the standard inoculation. The root planter added no improvement to either the root system or nodulation in soybean.

Pages 1327-1334 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1739
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Cryopreservation of Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner seeds: importance of drying rate and moisture content

Stefânia Vilas Boas Coelho, Sttela Dellyzete Veiga Franco da Rosa*, Tatiana Botelho Fantazzini, Luciano Coutinho Silva

Universidade Federal de Lavras, Caixa Postal 3037, Lavras – MG, Brasil
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária/EMBRAPA – Embrapa Café, Brasil
Universidade Federal de Lavras, Caixa Postal 3037, Lavras – MG, Brasil
4Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus I - Castelo Branco, Paraíba, Brasil


Abstract
Seeds of the Coffea canephora species are considered more recalcitrant than those of the Coffea arabica species. They tolerate partial dehydration and they cannot be stored in conventional seed banks at -18ºC because they are sensitive to freezing temperatures. Cryopreservation is a reliable method for storing seeds with these characteristics for long periods. However, preliminary studies are necessary to determine ideal storage conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ideal physical and physiological conditions for cryopreservation of Coffea canephora seeds to reduce seed mortality caused by the formation of intracellular ice crystals and to avoid cell damage caused by excessive desiccation. Seeds were subjected to rapid drying in silica gel and slow drying in saturated NaCl solution to moisture contents of 0.20, 0.25, and 0.28 g.g-¹ (dry basis), followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen for rapid freezing. Physiological and biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate seed quality before and after cryopreservation. Rapid drying of Coffea canephora seeds to values near 0.20 g.g-1 (db) does not cause reduction in physiological quality. Moisture content of 0.25 g.g-¹ brings about greater survival of Coffea canephora seeds after cryopreservation. Drying rate affects the physiological quality of cryopreserved Coffea canephora seeds, and rapid drying in silica gel is more favorable than slow drying in a saturated NaCl solution. The activity of the enzymes catalase, esterase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and polyphenol oxidase are indicators of seed quality for Coffea canephora seeds subjected to cryopreservation.

Pages 1335-1342 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1747
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Molecular characterization of OsCURT1A from upland rice in response to osmotic stress

Bernadette Toni, Nurulhikma Md Isa, Cheng Seng Tan, Ismanizan Ismail, Zamri Zainal*

Institute of System Biology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia


Abstract
CURT1 proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana have been reported to be important for inducing grana curvature. Currently, we have identified transcript encoding CURT1A from Oryza sativa cv. indica through RNA-seq analysis and characterised using heterologous system in Arabidopsis. The OsCURT1A gene shares 80% of its amino acid sequence with Arabidopsis AtCURT1A. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the OsCURT1A is also closely related to the CURT1 proteins in other choloroplast- conatining organisms. In silico analysis of OsCURT1A promoter shows that several cis-elements related to stress are present in the 5' upstream from the coding region. Under normal conditions, there were no notable changes in the phenotype and chlorophyll a;b ratio between three Arabidopsis genotypes, which were overexpressed (35S::OsCURT1A), T-DNA insertional mutant line (atcurt1a), and Wild type (Col-0). However, overexpression of OsCURT1A under salinity condition demonstrate high chlorophyll a:b compared to Col-0, whereas, the lack of atcurt1a gene in the mutant line showed reduced chlorophyll a:b ratio. These results indicate that the OsCURT1A might have a function as salt-stress related gene, which may indirectly regulate the chlorophyll a:b ratio. Therefore, OsCURT1A can be used as a potential candidate for salinity stress tolerance in crop improvement.

Pages 1343-1352 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1768
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NK combinations do not alleviate the effects of salt stress on gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments and growth of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

Francisco Wesley Alves Pinheiro, Geovani Soares de Lima*, Hans Raj Gheyi, Saulo Soares da Silva, Adaan Sudário Dias, Lauriane Almeida dos Anjos Soares, Reginaldo Gomes Nobre, Pedro Dantas Fernandes

Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agrarian Sciences, Pombal, 58.840-000, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Recôncavo of Bahia, Water and Soil Engineering Center, Cruz das Almas, 44.380-000, Bahia, Brazil
Federal Rural University of the Semi-arid Region, Department of Science and Technology, Caraúbas, 59.780-000, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

Abstract
The water resources in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil commonly have high concentrations of salts, compromising the quality of the water used in irrigation. Thus, it is necessary to study the feasibility of using these resources in agriculture. The present study aimed to evaluate gas exchanges, photosynthetic pigments and growth of white cotton cv. BRS 368 RF using irrigation water of different salinity levels and fertilization with combinations of nitrogen and potassium, under greenhouse conditions in the municipality of Campina Grande-PB, Brazil. Treatments were arranged in randomized blocks in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with five levels of electrical conductivity of water–ECw (0.7, 2.2, 3.7, 5.2 and 6.7 dS m-1) and four combinations of fertilization with nitrogen and potassium (70/50, 100/75, 130/100, 160/125% of the recommended dose), with three replicates. There was degradation in chlorophyll a and b levels and in cotton growth, but the cultivar BRS 368 RF markedly increased carotenoid biosynthesis at 75 days after sowing. Nitrogen and potassium application in the combination of 100/75% of their respective recommendations led to increase in plant height. The supply of nitrogen in combination with potassium did not alleviate the deleterious effects of salt stress on gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments and growth of cotton.

Pages 1353-1361 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1774
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Effect of soil straw cover on evaporation, transpiration, and evapotranspiration in sugarcane cultivation

Kassio S. Carvalho*, Murilo S. Vianna, Daniel S. P. Nassif, Leandro G. Costa, Marcos V. Folegatti, Fábio R. Marin

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Institut Federal of Mato Grosso, Sorriso, Mato Grosso, Brazil
University of São Paulo (USP), College of Agriculture “Luiz de Queiroz” (ESALQ), Piracicaba-SP, Brazil
Federal University of São Carlos, Campus Lagoa do Sino, Buri-SP, Brazil


Abstract
Residual straw affects the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of soil and can influence plant transpiration and the evaporation of water from the soil. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effect of straw on evaporation and transpiration of sugarcane. The experiment was conducted in a 2.5 ha area irrigated via a central pivot. The experiment consisted of two treatments, namely, with and without straw removal of soil. Evaporation was determined by means of equations and transpiration with sap flow sensors using the heat balance method. Evapotranspiration of the crop was measured using the Bowen ratio method and compared with the sum of the collected soil evaporation and transpiration data. On the basis of relationship analysis between the evapotranspiration of the crop measured using the Bowen ratio method and the sum of the sap flow combined with estimates of the evaporation of soil water, we obtained coefficient of determination values of 0.65 and 0.69, and angular coefficients of 1.01 and 0.96 for treatments with and without straw, respectively. We accordingly found that the use of straw on the soil reduces the evaporation of soil water and increases the transpiration and evapotranspiration of the crop.

Pages 1362-1368 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1814
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Bioprospecting of endophytic bacteria (Bacillus spp.) from passionfruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa) for plant growth promotion

Clayton dos Santos Silva, Jockeliny Mayara Camara dos Santos, João Manoel da Silva, Felipe Alexandre Tenório, Erica Livea Ferreira Guedes-Celestino, Crisea Cristina Nascimento de Cristo, Matus da Silva Nascimento, Yamina Coentro Montaldo, José Ubaldo Lima de Oliveira, Tania Marta Carvalho dos Santos

Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Br 104, Rio Largo, Alagoas, Brazil
Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia, Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil
Laboratoty of Molecular Phytopathology, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Br 104, Rio Largo, Alagoas, Brazil
Instituto Federal de Educação de Alagoas, Campus Murici, Murici, Alagoas, Brazil


Abstract
Endophytic bacteria has been reported as plant growth promoters in various cultivated and uncultivated plants. Thus, the objective onf this study was to evaluate the potential of 21 endophytic bacterial isolated from leaves of passionfruit plants (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa). In vitro antagonism, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, gibberellins, cytokines and phosphate solubilization were also tested. In vitro antagonism was investigated using volatile metabolites detection by means of the overlapping dishes technique and direct confrontation. The production of IAA was evaluated by means of the colorimetric method with the absorbance reading of the optical density at O.D. (550nm). The phosphate solubilization was measured in a qualitative method by reading the solubilization halo diameter and the quantitative evaluation in liquid medium and reading of O.D. (450 nm). All bacterial isolates were able to inhibit the growth of Phytophthora sp. in both methods with values ranging from 50% to >90% inhibition (Skott-Knott, p ≤0 0.05). All the tested endophytic bacteria were also able to produce plant hormones. The phosphate solubilization was more than mean of the liquid medium. Thus, the studied endophytic bacterial isolates are suggested as potential plant growth promoters.

Pages 1369-1374 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1837
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Correction of soil compaction using wood ash in safflower crop

Tulio Martinez-Santos, Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Tonny José Araújo da Silva, Ana Paula Alves Barreto Damasceno

Federal University of Mato Grosso-UFMT, Faculty of Agronomy and Zootechny, 2367 Fernando Corrêa da Costa Avenue, Cuiabá, 78060-900, Brazil
Federal University of Mato Grosso-UFMT, Institute of Agricultural and Technological Sciences, 5055 Students Avenue Rondonópolis, 78.735-901, Brazil


Abstract
Soil compaction is a big limitation to food production in agriculture. Wood ash is an agro-industrial residue generated by the burning of biomass in boilers for energy production. It can be used as a corrective agent and fertilizer of the soil. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the root system of safflower cultivated under bulk density levels and wood ash doses in dystrophic Oxisol. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with a randomized block design under a 5x5 factorial scheme composed of 5 wood ash doses (0, 8, 16, 24, 32 g dm-3) and 5 bulk density levels (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 Mg m-3) with 4 replicates. The soil was collected from 0-0.20 m depth layer. Later it was incubated with the respective wood ash doses. Each experimental unit consisted of a pot made of three PVC (polyvinyl chloride) rings, in which the layers of 0.1-0.2 m were compacted. At 75 days after emergence, the plants were cut, their roots washed and the volume and dry mass checked. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and subsequent regression test, both at 5% probability. Soil densities negatively influenced the root system development and culture of safflower. Application of wood ash doses of 20 to 24 g dm-3 significantly improved root development of plant.

Pages 1375-1382 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1878
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Nitrogen fertilization of maize with enhanced-efficiency fertilizer

Luiz Antônio Zanão Júnior*, Antônio Costa, Roberto dos Anjos Reis Júnior, Jéssica C. Urbanski Laureth

Agronomic Instituto of Paraná, IAPAR, Santa Tereza do Oeste, PR, 85825-000
Agronomic Instituto of Paraná, IAPAR, Londrina, PR, 86047-902
Wirstchat Polímeros do Brasil, Londrina, PR, 86058-294
Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, UNIOESTE, Cascavel, 85814-110


Abstract
Urea fertilizers coated with polymers are used to optimize nitrogen (N) uptake by crops. However, there are many types of polymers that can be used for coating, leading to differences in observed results. Consequently, validation of this technology to guarantee its viability in agriculture is necessary. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of ammonium- and nitrate-N levels in the soil, maize yield and nutritional status, N fertilization efficiency with Policote® urea coating, and different N doses under various soil and climatic conditions. Three field experiments were carried out to compare the performance of common urea with Policote® coated urea. A (2 x 4) + 1 factorial design with two N sources (common urea and Policote® coated urea), four N doses, and a control treatment (without N) was used. The results showed that Nitrate-N levels in the soil were not affected by the treatments. However, the ammonium-N levels was increased with N fertilization. Higher levels of soil ammonium-N contents were observed in treatments with Policote® coated urea. Foliar nitrogen levels were increased linearly with N doses only in one of the experiments. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased maize yield. Higher yield and N fertilization efficiency were observed in treatments with Policote® coated urea than with common urea.

Pages 1383-1387 | Full Text PDF| 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p1625
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Evaluation of different soilless media on growth, quality, and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown under greenhouse conditions

Ahmad M. Al-Far*, Maher J. Tadros, Ibrahim M. Makhadmeh

Jordan University of Sciences and Technology (JUST), Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan

Abstract
This experiment was conducted during spring growing season of 2018 at Jordan University of Sciences and Technology JUST campus in northern Jordan 32.4950° N, 35.9912° E. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different soilless media such as T: Tuff 100%; TP: Tuff + Perlite 50% each; TPS: Tuff + Perlite + Sawdust 33% each; and TS: Tuff + Sawdust 50% each on some of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics related to the quality and quantity of seedless and baby cucumber cultivars. The experimental design was split plot with factorial arrangements and four replications. The measurements related to plant morphology: height, shoot and root length, shoot root fresh and dry weight, number of leaves and flowers, fruit quality: total yield, weight, diameter, hardness, length and numbers per plant. Fruit total soluble solids, the potential of hydrogen pH and electrical conductivity EC of fruit juice, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf relative water content and fruit water content, fruit and shoot biochemical content minerals, organic matters, fats, fibers, and proteins were also measured. The results indicted significant differences in both cucumber cultivars with respect to all parameters studied. Finally, this study concluded that using TS media for seedless cultivar is the best successful growing soilless media as well as the cheapest compared to other solid media used. On the other hand, using TP media for baby cultivar was the superior growing soilless media that was not expensive compared to other universal media. In addition, the TPS media showed minimum growth and low yield in both cucumber cultivars.

Pages 1388-1400 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.08.p2122