Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

November 2016 | 10(11):2016 | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11


Efect of brassinosteroid (24-epibrassinolide) on morphophysiological parameters and essential oils of Calendula officinalis L. by EC nutrient solution

Neda Mokhtari*, Hosein Afshari

Department of Horticulture, Tehran Research and Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Horticulture, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran

Abstract

This study evaluated the effect of different levels of electrical conduction of nutrient solution on the morphophysiological parameters of Calendula officinalis L. and the interaction of electrical conduction of the nutrient solution and spray of 24-epibrassinolide with three electrical conduction (EC) levels of nutrient solution (1.5, 3, and 4.5 dS.m-1) and three hormone levels of 24-epibrassinolide (0, 0.5, and 1 µM) on C. officinalis L. under hydroponic conditions. The experiment arranged as factorial with completely randomized designs and four repetitions. Based on the results of the test with different EC levels, the nutrient solution showed significantly affected the studied parameters and diameter of C. officinalis L. (P<0.01). The traits of flowering stem height, wet weight, dry weight and volume of root, number of flowers, total phenol, total flavonoid, relative water content of leaf and stability of the petal’s cellular membrane were significantly affected by treatment with brassinosteroids, and interaction of EC of the nutrient solution and spray of brassinosteroids. On this basis, the maximum number of flowers was observed in the treatment with EC=1.5 dS.m-1 and EBR=0.5 µM. The maximum total flavonoid was observed with EC=4.5 dS.m-1 and EBR=1 µM and the minimum rate was observed in EC=4.5 dS.m-1 and hormone control treatment (with no application of brassinosteroids hormone). The increase of EC in the nutrient solution led to an increase in alpha-cadinol, delta-cadinene and sigma–cadinene. Based on the results of the experiment, the application of the optimal concentration of nutrient solution and spray on acinolide is effective in helping improve morphophysiological parameters, and increases the flavonoid compounds and ingredients of C. officinalis L.

Pages 1496-1503 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.PNE19
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Review Article

Mycorrhizal associations in Cerrado soils: a review of benefits and management

Ernane Miranda Lemes, Gabrielly Isaac Rodrigues, Alyne Dantas Mendes de Paula, Diego Tolentino de Lima, José Luiz Rodrigues Torres*

Graduate Program in Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences at the Federal University of Uberlândia. Av. Amazonas s/nº, Umuarama. Uberlândia-MG, Brazil. Zip code: 38400-902
Plant Production, Federal Institute of Triângulo Mineiro (IFTM) – Uberaba, MG, Brazil. Rua João Batista Ribeiro, 4000. Uberaba-MG, Brazil. Zip code: 38064-790

Abstract

The qualitative and quantitative management of mycorrhizas is an often neglected aspect in modern agricultural production, yet crucial for a balanced nutrition and growth of many native and cultivated plant species. Most Brazilian soils are in the Cerrado (a savannah-like biome), often highly acid, weathered, deficient in many nutrients, with high content of iron oxides, aluminum, and high phosphorous fixation capacity. These conditions limit productivity even if the best pesticides, synthetic fertilizers and high-yielding varieties are used. It is a challenge for Brazilian agriculture, as it needs to grow without compromising environmental integrity and human health. The development of technologies which enable the use of mycorrhizal fungi in Cerrado soils would increase the capacity of plants to absorb scarce or little mobile nutrients, thereby helping the plants to withstand stresses of biotic and abiotic origins. The use of mycorrhizal associations to benefit plant nutrition is thus strategically important for agriculture on weathered soils. The research and development of technologies which help efficiently explore and cycle nutrients through the management of mycorrhizal associations, especially in the conditions of the Brazilian Cerrado, are crucial for the development of a sustainable and productive agriculture. Our goal with this review is to evaluate the effects and benefits of mycorrhizal associations in degraded soils commonly found in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

Pages 1504-1510 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.PNE38
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Quantification of soil microorganisms under several cover crops managed with no-tillage system for fifteen years in the Brazilian Cerrado

Gabrielly Isaac Rodrigues, Ernane Miranda Lemes, Alyne Dantas Mendes de Paula, Diego Tolentino de Lima, José Luiz Rodrigues Torres*

The Graduate Program in Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences at the Federal University of Uberlândia. Av. Amazonas s/nº, Umuarama. Uberlândia-MG, Brazil. Zip code: 38400-902
Plant Production, Federal Institute of Triângulo Mineiro (IFTM) – Uberaba, MG, Brazil. Rua João Batista Ribeiro, 4000. Uberaba-MG, Brazil. Zip code: 38064-790

Abstract

The natural heterogeneity of soil sustains a dynamic balance between environmental conditions and the residents of the microbiota. In this context, the objective of our work was to identify and quantify distinct groups of microorganisms in winter (2014) and summer (2015), in an Oxisol cultivated for fifteen years with no-tillage system in the Cerrado biome. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a factorial scheme (3x3) with three cover crops (brachiaria, millet and crotalaria) evaluated at three depths (0-0.05, 0.05-0.1 and 0.1-0.2 m), with four replications in both seasons (winter and summer),. Endospore-forming bacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and cellulolytic microorganisms were evaluated. Among the studied cover crops, millet presented superior populations of endospore-forming bacteria in winter, and actinomycetes in summer. The populations of other microorganisms were not different among cover crops in the same season. The population of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms did not differ between seasons, indicating that these microorganisms are less vulnerable to seasonal variations in no-tillage system. In winter, smaller populations of endospore-forming bacteria, yeasts, and actinomycetes were observed with increasing depth in the soil. In summer only the population of endospore-forming bacteria decreased with soil depth. Soil depth did not affect the population of cellulolytic microorganisms under on-tillage system. Our findings suggest that millet is the best fallow cover crop for no-tillage system.

Pages 1511-1515 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.PNE40
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Comparative leaf, stem and root anatomies of taxa Marrubium bourgaei and Marrubium heterodon (Lamiaceae)

Hatice Nurhan Büyükkartal, Hatice Çölgeçen*, Gencay Akgül

Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 06100, Ankara,TURKEY
Bülent Ecevit University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Biology, 67100, Zonguldak,TURKEY
Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Biology, Nevşehir, TURKEY

Abstract

Marrubium genus is represented by 19 taxa in Flora of Turkey (19 species, 3 subspecies). 11 out of 22 taxa are endemic for Turkey and rate of endemism is 52%. Anatomical, histological and cytological features of the leaf, stem and root in Marrubium bourgaei and M. heterodon taxa of genus Marrubium L. from Lamiaceae family were studied and taxonomic significances were identified. The leaves were amphistomatic and hypostomatic. Stomata were amaryllis type and anomocytic as indicated by neighbouring cells. The leaves of the examined Marrubium species were bifacial (dorsiventral) and a high number of prismatic crystals were observed in the leaf mesophyll tissue. The stems were angular and stomata were observed in local areas of epidermis. The underneath of stem epidermis were a few layers of collenchyma cells. In leaf cross sections, protective tissue was comprised of periderm and a nucleus at the center consisting of tracheids.

Pages 1516-1522 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.PNE44
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Effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) on flowering traits of three horticultural plant species

Sofía López-Cubillos, Lesley Hughes

Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia

Abstract

Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been increasing homogeneously worldwide since industrial revolution. Current CO2 concentrations are around 400 ppm, which may increase over this century to 430 ppm (best scenario) to >1000 ppm (worst scenario) (IPCC, 2013). Species-level responses of plant traits to elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2), especially those that affect interactions with pollinators, could potentially have flow-on effects to both ecological communities and horticultural industries. The impacts of eCO2 on flowering traits in pepper (Capsicum annuum - Giant Bell), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum- var. Tomato Roma) and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo - Zucchini Blackjack), all economically important horticultural species, were investigated. Twenty plants of each species were grown under two treatments: 1) two glasshouses with ambient CO2 (400 ppm), and 2) two with eCO2 (555 ppm). For both treatments, we measured the number of flowers, flower longevity and dry biomass for all species; pollen diameter and number of pollen grains for tomato and zucchini; and the sucrose concentration and nectar production in zucchini. Elevated CO2 had few significant effects on the measured traits, the main exceptions being in zucchini, which produced more male flowers, fewer pollen grains per plant and fewer female flowers under this treatment. Pepper also produced fewer flowers at eCO2 while tomato was the least sensitive species. Future studies could be aimed at testing sensitivity of different varieties of these important commercial species to eCO2.

Pages 1523-1528 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.PNE46
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Plant spacing and boron (B) topdressing fertilisation for purple cabbage crop (Brassica oleracea var. capitate) variety purple giant

Erich Eberhardt Neto, Katiane Santiago Silva Benett, Cleiton Gredson Sabin Benett*, Evellyn da Cunha Macedo dos Santos, Tiyoko Nair Hojo Rebouças, Edilson Costa

State University Paulista, Botucatu, Lageado Experimental Farm, ZIP 237, Cep 18610-307, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil
State University of Goiás, Campus Ipameri highway GO-330, km 241 Ring Road, 780-000 Zip, Ipameri, Goias, Brazil
Federal Institute Goiás, Campus Urutaí highway Geraldo Silva Nascimento, km 2.5, Cep 75790-000, Urutaí, Goias, Brazil
Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados Highway Itahum, 12 km, ZIP 364, Cep 79804-970, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
State University of Southwest Bahia, the Well Wanting Road, 04 km, ZIP 95, Cep 45083-900, Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil
State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, University Drive Cassilândia Highway MS 306, km 6.5, Cep 79540-000, Cassilândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Abstract

Brassicas are oleraceous plants of great economic importance, and numerous factors can affect the yield and quality of these vegetables, including plant spacing and fertilisation. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of plant spacing and boron fertilisation on purple cabbage development and yield. The experiment was performed between march and july at the experimental site of the Mato Grosso do Sul State University (Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul - UEMS), Aquidauana unit, located in Aquidauana, MS, Brazil. A randomised block design was adopted, employing a 2 x 5 factorial scheme with four replicates. Two row spacings (0.8 m × 0.4 m and 0.6 m × 0.4 m) and five boron doses (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kg ha-1) in the form of boric acid applied as topdressing were evaluated for a giant purple cabbage variety. The leaf boron content, plant height, stem diameter, head height and diameter, number of outer and inner leaves, fresh and dry weights of outer and inner leaves, head compactness and classification, and yield were evaluated. The results showed that reducing the row spacing from 0.8 m to 0.6 m increased the purple cabbage crop yield and the boron uptake by the plants. A smaller row spacing (0.6 x 0.4 m) and a boron dose of 6.01 kg ha-1 provided the highest cabbage yield.

Pages 1529-1533 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.PNE67
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Seed hydropriming in upland rice improves germination and seed vigor and has no effects on crop cycle and grain yield

Vitor Henrique Vaz Mondo, Adriano Stephan Nascente*, Péricles de Carvalho Ferreira Neves, James Emile Taillebois, Flávio Henrique Sousa Oliveira

Embrapa Arroz e Fejão, Rodovia GO-462, Km 12, Fazenda Capivara, Zona Rural Caixa Postal: 179 CEP: 75375-000 - Santo Antônio de Goiás - GO, Brasil
CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationaleen Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Montpellier, France
Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

Abstract

Improved seed priming techniques can reduce time between seed sowing and seedling emergence, resulting in rapid and uniform seedlings emergence, high seed vigor, better and uniform stand establishment, better allometric and better yields in many field crops. The objective of this research was to understand the effects of hydropriming on rice seed physiological potential and on crop performance for upland rice systems. Therefore, the laboratory and field trials were carried out. Initially, two seed lots from two upland rice varieties were used to create imbibition curves, required to establish the priming protocols. The priming protocols (zero, as reference, 16 and 22h of priming duration) were applied and their effects on seed physiological potential were evaluated. One seed lot of primed seeds for each variety was used in field trials, carried out in two consecutive growing seasons (2013/14 and 2014/15) in a randomized complete block design, split plot scheme, with six replications. The effects of priming seeds were uniquely associated with their physiological potential, including germination and vigor, which is expected to bring benefits to the faster establishment and uniform stands in the field. However, those benefits did not extend beyond the early stages of crop development and were not observed on flowering and grain yield.

Pages 1534-1542 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.PNE70
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Hay quality evaluation of summer grass and legume forage monocultures and mixtures grown under irrigated conditions

Heba Sabry Attia Salama*, Mahmoud Mohamed Kamel Zeid

Crop Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

Abstract

The introduction of compatible, persistent, high quality grass-legume mixtures could increase forage quality during the summer season in Egypt. This would greatly support the sustainability of a livestock production system. A two-year field trial was carried out during the summer seasons of 2012 and 2013 at the experimental station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Egypt. The main aim of the study was to assess the potential of forage cowpea-sudan grass (Vigna unguiculata L. - Sorghum sudanese), and forage cowpea-pearl millet (Vigna unguiculata L. - Pennisetum glaucum L.) mixtures to improve hay quality, utilizing three cuts, when compared with cowpea, sudan grass, and pearl millet as individual crops. Investigated forage quality parameters included dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), nitrogen-free extract (NFE), and fiber fractions (NDF, ADF, ADL) as %DM. In addition, the hay quality indices namely, relative feed value (RFV), and relative forage quality (RFQ), derived from the dry matter intake (DMI %BW), digestible dry mater (DDM %DM), and total digestible nutrients (TDN %DM), also were evaluated. Results showed that, in general, the 1st cut was of a higher quality than the 2nd and 3rd cuts, being characterized by highest significant NFE, and also lowest significant NDF and ADL values. However, the DM content increased significantly with the successive cuts. The forage cowpea (FCP) was characterized by its increased CP content, and thus contributed to increasing the CP content of the grass-legume mixtures compared to the pure grass plots. Moreover, screening of the tested grass-legume mixtures and monocultures with regard to the hay quality indices revealed that mixing grass and legume forage crops was an effective technique in producing hay of a similar quality to that of the forage legume alone, but better than that of the forage grass alone. The highest RFV value was a characteristic of the FCP stands (Prime), followed by the three grass-legume mixtures (Grade 2), and then the three pure grass stands (Grade 3). Similarly, according to the RFQ grading system, the pure FCP and the three mixtures were graded as “Premium” hay quality, and the three pure grass stands were graded as “Good” hay quality.

Pages 1543-1550 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.PNE113
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Allelopathic activity of Eucalyptus globulus leaf aqueous extract on Hordeum vulgare growth and cytogenetic behaviour

Maissa M. Morsi, Hala M. Abdelmigid*

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif, Zip code 21944, KSA
Department of Botany, Faculty of Women for Art, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Egypt
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif, Zip code 21944, KSA
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt

Abstract

Allelopathy is a major factor that influences the establishment of native species in eucalyptus forests. In this study, different concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus globulus (5%, 10%, 5%, 25%) were evaluated for allelopathic impacts on growth and cytogenetic behaviour of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plant. Results revealed a pronounced inhibitory effect of the aqueous extract on seed germination and seedling growth of barley plant. Cytogenetic analysis showed retardation of mitotic activity as well as occurrence of high percentage of chromosomal aberrations in Hordeum plants. Both recorded growth and cytogenetic effects were dose- dependent. At concentration 25%, the lower value of mitotic index (MI=5.09%) and the higher percentage of chromosome abnormalities (CA=35.25%, compared to control (9.1% and 5.25%), respectively. The observed abnormalities were disturbance, stickiness, laggards, vagrants, bridges and micronuclei. The results confirmed the presence of water-soluble allelochemicals in Eucalyptus extract which caused potential phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in barley. Hence, it is recommended that barley should not be planted close to Eucalyptus trees due to adverse effects on its growth.

Pages 1551-1556 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.PNE122
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Influence of gypsum application on sugarcane yield and soil chemical properties in the brazilian Cerrado

Larissa Gomes Araújo, Cícero Célio de Figueiredo*, Djalma Martinhão Gomes de Sousa, Rafael de Souza Nunes, Thomaz Adolpho Rein

Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, University of Brasília, 70910970 Brasília, DF, Brazil
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil

Abstract

Cerrado soils generally have low levels of exchangeable bases and high aluminum toxicity. These conditions can limit crop development. In view of the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in the Cerrado region, technologies that allow higher yields are required. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of gypsum on sugarcane yield and soil chemical properties. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with four replications and two treatments: control without gypsum (0 Mg ha-1) and application of the recommended dose (5 Mg ha-1) for sugarcane. Cane and sugar yield were evaluated in four cuts. Seven soil layers (0-5; 5-10; 10-20; 20-40; 40-60; 60-80, and 80-100 cm) were sampled after harvesting the third ratoon crop, 50 months after gypsum application, to determine pH in H2O and CaCl2; aluminum (Al3+) exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+), potential acidity (H + Al); sulfur (S-SO42-). Gypsum application increased cane and sugar yield in all four cuts, and resulted in higher Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- levels and lower aluminum saturation in the 20-100, 40-100, 0-100, and 40-100 cm layers, respectively. In addition, the application of gypsum provided an increase in cation exchange capacity in the 40-100 cm layer. Therefore, gypsum application is recommended to improve the chemical conditions of the soil and to increase sugarcane productivity in the Cerrado.

Pages 1557-1563 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.PNE156
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Wet and dry corn yield under intercrop culivation with marandu grass and/or dwarf pigeon pea and nutritional value of the marandu grass in succession

Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia*, Ciniro Costa, Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles, Marcelo Andreotti, Cristiano Magalhães Pariz, Leandro Alves Freitas, Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho

Department of Plant Health, Rural Engineering, and Soils, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Ilha Solteira, São Paulo State, Zip Code 15385-000, Brazil
Department of Breeding and Animal Nutrition, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Zip Code 18.618-000, Brazil

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate corn grain yield and dry matter yield and nutritional value of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (marandu grass) in succession to an intercrop of corn with marandu grass and/or dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan cv. Anão) in a dryland area. The experiment was conducted during the crop years of 2013/14 and 2014/15, in a low-altitude Cerrado biome (savannah) experimental area. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design with six replications, in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of two intercrops [corn with marandu grass (CB) and corn with marandu grass and dwarf pigeon pea (CBP)]; two grain harvest times (wet and dry grain stages); and two consecutive years (2013/14 and 2014/15). Irrespective of the intercrop, the harvest of corn grain in the wet stage for silage minimized the losses caused by climatic factors. The intercrop of corn with marandu grass and dwarf pigeon pea reduced the yield of wet corn grains and the dry matter of the marandu grass in succession. Marandu grass in succession to the intercrop of corn with dwarf pigeon pea resulted in better nutritional value because of the lower fiber and higher total digestible nutrients contents.

Pages 1564-1571 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.PNE183
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Economic evaluation of different types of nutritional management in yellow passion fruit vines (Passiflora edulis Sims.).

Rodrigo Takashi Maruki Miyake*, Fernanda de Paiva Badiz Furlaneto, Nobuyoshi Narita, William Hiroshi Suekane Takata, José Eduardo Creste

University of Western of São Paulo, Academic Unit of Agricultural, Engineering, Presidente Prudente, CEP 19.067-175, São Paulo, Brazil
Agency Paulista for Agribusiness Tecnology, Scientific Researcher, Presidente Prudente, CEP 19.015-970, São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract

The production costs of passion fruit have increased in recent year mainly due to use of technologies such as different fertilizations, plant density, use of agrochemicals in the protection of plants, production of larger seedlings, among other seeking to increase production. Thus, it is important to know what is the real cost of these techniques to find the financial balance of the production system for increased profitability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence and impact of nutritional management on economic terms and production costs of yellow passion fruit. The evaluated parameters were: productivity, commercial production, percentage of commercial fruit, commercial fruit classification, production costs and profitability index of passion fruit vines in the municipality of Presidente Prudente, Brazil. Different N rates (150, 300, 600 and 1200 kg ha-1), P2O5 (200, 400, 800 and 1600 kg ha-1) and K2O, (100, 300, 500 and 700 kg ha-1) were applied. The economic study showed that the production cost increased with the doses of fertilizer. However, this additional economic cost was not reflected in increased productivity per area with the NPK doses. The minimum price for selling passion fruit should be USD 0.26 per kilogram of fruit to obtain economic optimization of entrepreneurial activity. There was positive response in the production for classification of fruit (gauge 2, 3 and 4), commercial production, percentage of commercial fruit and with use to N and K2O. Operating profit and profitability index were more satisfactory in the application of 300 kg of N, 200 kg of P2O5 and 300 kg of K2O per hectare. In the nutritional management on cost of production showed that there was a percentage difference in operating production cost of 4.52% between the highest and lowest dose of N. 6.40% between doses of P2O5 and 2.52% between doses of K2O. The biggest difference in production cost was between the tested and recommended doses of 4.04%, 5.81% and 1.71% per treatment at different levels of N, P and K, respectively. The total operating cost ranged from USD 9,049.76 to 8,4699.97 per hectare.

Pages 1572-1577 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.PNE190
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Technological quality of sweet sorghum processed without panicles for ethanol production

Aline Ferreira Silva*, Osania Emerenciano Ferreira, Gustavo Henrique Gravatim Costa, Nayara Abrão Montijo, Miguel Angelo Mutton, Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, UNESP [Sao Paulo State University], Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo State, Brasil

Abstract

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is recognized as a promising biomass energy crop for meeting the increasing demand for bioenergy feedstocks, because of its high adaptability to different soil and climates, in addition to the large accumulation of sugars in their stalks. In order to be successfully deployed for the production of sugar and biofuels, agronomic systems should be developed. The effects of inhibiting the development of panicles (by removing the top of the stalks at anthesis period) and harvest times on the technological quality of sweet sorghum were evaluated in this research. The experiment was arranged in a split-split-plot as a completely randomized statistical design, with four replications. Main treatments corresponded to sweet sorghum cultivars (CV147, CV198 and BRS508), sub-plots were the stalks management (integral and panicle removed) and tertiary were the harvest times (102 and 116 DAP). To evaluate the technological quality of sorghum juice, the following analyzes were conducted: total soluble solids content, pH, acidity, reducing sugars, total reducing sugars, starch and phenolic compounds. According to the results, compared with the quality standards for juice use, results showed that the cultivar BRS508 was more suitable for ethanol production. Higher sorghum quality was verified at 116 days after planting. The panicle removal promoted lower starch and phenolic compounds content in the juice.

Pages 1578-1582 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.p7697
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Application effects of biofertilizers on blackleg disease and the development of potato plants

Renato Ribeiro Cardoso, Atalita Francis Cardoso, Roberta Camargos Oliveira, Regina Maria Quintão Lana*, José Magno Queiroz Luz

Agrarian Science Institute, Graduate Program in Agronomy, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia – UFU. St. Amazonas n/n, Umuarama Campus. Build 2E. CEP 38400-902. Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of various forms of biofertilizer applications on blackleg disease, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), as well as the growth and development of potato plants. The experimental design was randomized blocks with the following forms of biofertilizer applications: in-furrow at planting, via foliar, in-furrow at planting + via foliar. The control treatment consisted of foliar applications of a chemical fungicide. In total the experiment consisted of four treatments and five replications. The evaluation of fresh and dry mass of leaves, stems and tubers, the length of the biggest stem, the number of stems and tubers was made via extraction of plants 49, 61, 73 and 85 days after planting. The incidence of blackleg disease was obtained by reviews every 15 days with the aid of diagrammatic scale. The harvest was carried out 106 days after planting followed by an evaluation of tuber yield and classification of tubers. The assessed forms of application did not significantly affect the productivity of tubers, which varied from 32-36 t ha -1. However, the forms of application were significantly correlated with the incidence of the blackleg disease. The results indicate that foliar applications of biofertilizers can considerably control the blackleg disease and positively affect the growth of potato plants.

Pages 1583-1588 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.p7904
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Treatment with Thiabendazole can enhance germination, vigor and reduce incidence of fungi in zucchini seeds

Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso*, Adriana Zanin Kronka, Natália Brito Lima Lanna, Priscilla Nataly Lima Silva, Lidiane Fernandes Colombari, Paula Leite dos Santos, Caroline Geraldi Pierozzi

UNESP-São Paulo State University, Department of Horticulture, Caixa Postal 237, 18603-970, Botucatu, SP, Brazil

Abstract

Some chemical treatments might be required to eradicate or reduce the presence of fungi in seeds. However, these treatments can impair seed quality depending on the dose used. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the control of fungi and physiological quality of 'Aline' hybrid zucchini seeds treated with the fungicide Thiabendazole. Fifteen treatments, were set up as a 3x5 factorial system (3 seed lots x 5 Thiabendazole doses: 0%, 0.12%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4% active ingredient), were evaluated, in a completely randomized experiment design, with four replications. The commercial product used was Tecto® SC (485 g L-1 of Thiabendazole). Seed germination, germination first count (GFC) and incidence of fungi in seeds were assessed. The averages were compared with Tukey test at 5% probability. Some fungi species (Alternaria sp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium sp., Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia spp., Penicillium spp. and Phoma sp.) were detected in the pathology analysis and a general decrease of fungi incidence was observed with an increase in the Thiabendazole dose. Regardless of the dose, Thiabendazole fungicide did not affect total germination (99.6% on average) or vigor (99.3% on average in GFC). So, it can be recommended that treatment of zucchini seeds with Thiabendazole with dose 0.3% or 0.4% can control the observed fungi.

Pages 1589-1593 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.PNE93
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Study on genetic combining ability estimates for yield and related traits in linseed (Linum usitatissiumu L.)

Neha Singh, Chandrawati, Rajendra Kumar, Sujit Kumar, Hemant Kumar Yadav*

CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow-226001, India
Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi, India
Uttar Pradesh Council of Agricultural Research (UPCAR), Vibhuti Khand, Gomatinagar, Lucknow-226010, India

Abstract

Combining ability studies helps in selection of appropriate parents for a cross and also indicates suitable breeding procedure for handling a cross to develop a cultivar. In the present investigation, combining ability estimates for yield and related traits have been analyzed in 45 F1 and 45 F2 progenies derived from 10 parent half diallel mating design. The analysis of variances showed highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits studied. Significant differences have been found for general combining ability (GCA) effects among the parents as well as specific combining ability (SCA) effects among the hybrids for all the studied traits. The GCA and SCA components of variance were significant for all the traits. However, the magnitude of GCA variance was higher than SCA suggested the preponderance of additive gene action for most of the traits. The GCA:SCA ratio revealed predominance of additive gene effects in both the generations except seed weight in F1 and husk weight and oil content in F2 generation. Among all the parents, EC-1392, JLS-9 and JWR-17 were the best general combiners for branches/plant, capsules/plant and seeds/capsule and average to high combiners for other traits in both the generations. Most of the specific crosses for yield related traits as well as oil content involved high/average, average/average and average/poor general combiners. These crosses combinations could be utilized for further use in breeding program in combination with the parents having good general combining ability for improvement in yield of linseed.

Pages 1594-1600 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.11.PNE161


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