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May 2008

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Screening and selection of groundnut genotypes for tolerance of soil salinity

A.L Singh*1, K. Hariprassana1 and R.M Solanki2

1National Research Centre for Groundnut, P.B.5 Junagadh- 362 001, Gujarat, India
2Main Oilseed Research Station, JAU, Junagadh-362 001, Gujarat, India

* Corresponding author Email:alsingh@nrcg.res.in
                                                                                                                                                 (PDF Link)

Abstract
Field screening of 127 groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes was undertaken for two consecutive seasons at the experimental farm of Fruit Research Station, Mangrol, Junagadh, Gujarat, India to identify salinity tolerant genotypes based on plant mortality and seed yield. The plant mortality increased with the advancement of crop stages and a clearcut demarcation between salinity tolerant and sensitive genotypes was noticed at 90 days onwards. During summer season, the salinity level above 4 dS m-1 caused very high mortality of 50-100 % (average 91 %) with 100 % mortality in 54 sensitive genotypes, however, 29 genotypes survived with more than 5 % plant without any seed formation till maturity. But at the salinity level 3-4 dS m-1, during kharif season, the plant mortality was 0-88 % (average 30 %) and a number of genotypes produced seed, was ideal for screening. There was a large genotypic variation in pod yield and related traits with 0-13 pods plant-1 and 0-136 g m-2 seed yield and only 59 genotypes showed pod and seed bearing of which 20 genotypes had less than 10 % mortality. Overall the seed yield in a unit area (g m-2) was the best criterion for selecting the salinity tolerant genotypes. Based on two seasons data, 11 genotypes NRCG 2588, 4659, 5513, 6131, 6450, 6820, 6919, 7206, TMV 2 NLM, TG 33, JNDS-2004-15 with high plant stand and more than 50 g m-2 seed yield were identified as salinity tolerant. 10 genotypes JNDS-2004-1, JNDS-2004-3, JNDS-2004-16, TG 28, TG 38C, TG 42, PBS 30031, PBS 30033, NRCG 6155, ICGV 86031 with more than 35 g m-2 seed yield were identified as moderately tolerant for their use in an area having salinity up to 3 dS m-1.

Keywords
: Field emergence, Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes, plant mortality, pod and seed yield salinity tolerance.



Relationship between drought and excess moisture tolerance in tropical maize (Zea mays L.)


1*P.H. Zaidi, Mamata Yadav, D.K. Singh and R.P. Singh

1International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), C/O ICRISAT, Patancheru 502 324 (A.P.), India
2Maize Research, Pusa Campus, New Delhi-110 012, India

1*Corresponding author: phzaidi@cgiar.org
                                                                                                                                                   (PDF Link)
Abstract
Maize crops grown during summer-rainy season in Asian tropics are prone to face both drought and excess moisture stress due uneven distribution patterns of monsoon rains in the region. We attempted to identify the relationship between drought and excess moisture tolerance through evaluation of a set of elite maize inbred lines, including lines with known performance under drought, excess moisture and normal inbred lines with unknown performance under either of the stresses. Under normal moisture, performance of normal lines was slightly better than drought and excess moisture lines. However, under stress condition performance of normal lines was very poor with average yield 9.1% under drought and 18.7% under excess moisture stress in comparison to normal moisture. On the other hand, drought lines yielded up to 61.8% under drought and 52.1% under excess moisture in comparison to their yields under normal moisture. Performance of excess moisture lines was also good across stress environments with average yield 68.2% under excess moisture and 35.6% under drought. Relationship between yields under drought and excess moisture stress was strong and significant with drought lines (R2 = 0.587**), but it was relatively weak with excess moisture lines (R2 = 0.288*), while the relationship highly weak with normal lines (R2 = 0.043ns). Our results suggest that improved performance of drought tolerant lines across environments might be related to constitutive changes in stress-adaptive secondary traits such as - anthesis-silking interval <5.0 days, reduced barrenness, delayed senescence and minimum loss of leaf chlorophyll under stress conditions. These constitutive changes with selection and improvement for flowering stage drought tolerance might resulted in improved performance of genotypes under both drought and excess moisture stress, without any yield penalty under normal moisture.   

Keywords: Drought, secondary traits, excess moisture, Zea mays


Microsatellite markers for determining genetic identities and genetic diversity among jute cultivars

Jesmin Akter*, Md. Shahidul Islam 2, Abu Ashfaqur Sajib 1, Nadim Ashraf 3, Samiul Haque 2, Haseena Khan**

*Plant Molecular Biology Lab, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
1 Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
2 Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh
3 University of Nottingham, U. K.
**Corresponding author: pmblab@gmail.com

                                                                                                                                                    (PDF Link)
Abstract
DNA fingerprint was generated using jute specific SSR markers on 10 jute cultivars from two Corchorus species (C. olitorius and C. capsularis) and the genetic relatedness among the cultivars was estimated. A total of 106 alleles were identified using 23 primer pairs among the 10 cultivars with an average of 4.61 1.92 alleles per locus, and a mean genetic diversity of 0.680.16. Four C. olitorius cultivars could be easily distinguished with 6 markers using 5 primer pairs and six C. capsularis cultivars with 7 markers using 6 primer pairs. The UPGMA analysis enabled the grouping of the cultivars into two major clusters, which matched with the known information on jute. This experiment provides proof that in spite of low levels of genetic polymorphisms among jute cultivars, SSR markers can reliably distinguish among them. This finding reinforces the utility of SSR primers for providing unique genetic identities or fingerprints of various jute cultivars
.

Keywords: Corchorus, jute, markers, microsatellite, polymorphism, SSR


Morphological and qualitative study of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) pollen grains and effect of different temperatures on pomological traits

1Hossein Afshari, 2Alireza Talaei, 3Bahman Panahi, 4*Hossein Hokmabadi

1Horticulture Department, Islamic Azad University, Damghan Branch, Iran
2Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Iran
3Horticulture Department, State Pistachio Research Institute, Iran
4*Horticulture Department, State Pistachio Research Institute, Iran

4* Corresponding author Email: hokmabadi@pri.ir

                                                                                                                                                
(PDF Link)                         
Abstract
The viability, pollen tube growth and morphological characters associated with pistachio pollen quality are important for plant breeders and growers. Different kind of pollens of fruit trees has shown different morphological and pomological characteristics. Germination rate and growth of dry and wet pollen requires to be studied if confronted to low temperatures. This research was conducted, in order to investigate the effect of macro and microelements, protein content, morphological characteristics, in natural and artificial conditions, on germination of dry and wet pollens of four mid-season flowering male genotypes of pistachio. A factorial experiment in a completely randomized design (CRD) was applied with 33 treatments and 3 replications. Size of measured pollens was different from 20 to 24 m; most of them were circular shaped with different surface characteristics. The highest and lowest germination rate of fresh pollens was 85% and 53% for type R28 and N2 and after 3 days, the germination was decreased to 16% and 8% respectively. The highest contents of B and Ca were measured in pollens with the highest percentages of germination as 4.2mg/100g and 386mg/100g respectively. Keeping wet pollens more than 4 hours or shorter under 0C caused reduction in percentage of germination. Long storage of pollen grains under temperatures lower than 0C in dried condition was possible, but 7 days after drying of pollen grains and keeping under -20C, the percentage of germination were decreased to 30%. This descending trend continued quickly toward day 30 under -20C and after that with lesser intensity.



Study of salt tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestium L.)
cultivar Banysoif 1

*1Amel A Tammam, 2Mona F Abou Alhamd and 1Mabrouka M Hemeda

*1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt
2Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, South Valley University , Egypt

*Corresponding author email: amltammam@yahoo.com
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Abstract
Salt tolerance of new wheat cultivar Banysoif 1 was investigated to find relevant culturing strategy in saline areas. Wheat cv. Banysoif 1 was grown in clay soil for 7 days in different pots. Then seedlings were irrigated by different saline waters (0, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 320 mM NaCl) near the field capacity. Plants were kept in the natural condition under these saline levels for 155 days. Fresh and dry weight of roots were measured unchanged up to the level of 120 mM NaCl then a significant reduction obtained at 240 and 320 mM NaCl. In shoots and spikes, dry matters were either unchanged or even stimulated to increase toward 180 mM NaCl then a quick reduction was observed. We assumed that it is associated with the increase of leaf area and photosynthetic pigments up to 180 mM NaCl. There was also a remarkable variation in accumulation of different carbohydrate fractions among wheat studied organs. In root, the drastic effect in soluble fraction was accompanied with a remarkable accumulation of insoluble components. In shoots, the production of carbohydrates remained mostly unaffected even at the highest salinity level. In spikes, the soluble fractions were increased significantly by salt stress while the insoluble slightly reduced. Protein content reduced at high levels of salinity in roots while has been increased significantly in shoots and spikes. Amino acid content increased significantly towards 120 mM and 180 mM NaCl then a quick reduction about 55% and 45% recorded in roots and shoots respectively. In spike, there was a significant reduction in amino acids by increasing salt stress. In roots, there was a large accumulation of proline even at the lowest salinity level. Accumulation of proline was failed in spikes and shoots and therefore a non-significant increase in proline content even at the highest salinity level was observed. Sodium content increased significantly in the three organ but the percent of increase was varied considerably among the three organs especially at sever salinity and the opposite pattern was observed in the accumulation and distribution of K+ , Ca+2 and Mg2+. K+ / Na+ ratio decreased in response to salt stress in root, shoot and spikes.

Key words: carbohydrate; proline; protein; salinity; spike
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