Volume 8 Issue 7 | July 2014 issue
Table of Contents
Southern Cross Publishing Group©2014
Australian Journal of Crop Science | July 2014
Volume 8 Number 7 2014
Effects of cytoplasm on the fertility of thermo-sensitive genetic male sterile (TGMS) lines of rice
Gong-Ping Kang, Xiao-Jun Dai, Li-Jun Ou, Wen-Jia Li, Man-Zhong Liang*, Liang-Bi Chen*
College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
College of Biology and Chemistry Engineering, Tongren University, Tongren 554300, China
To study the effect of cytoplasm on the fertility of thermo-sensitive genetic male sterile (TGMS) lines, eight rice genotypes with different kind of cytoplasms were used. The genotypes Guangluai-4, R402, 93-11, Nipponbare, Brazil upland rice, Lemont, V20A, Chaling wild rice (Oryza rufipogon griff) were used as female parents in crosses with 2 TGMS lines, Zhu-1S and ZhunS (as males). The pollen fertility changing patterns of the mononuclear-heteroplasmic TGMS lines were studied under natural condition and low temperature treatments (22.0 ΊC, 23.5 ΊC) at the formation stage of pollen mother cells (PMCs). The results showed that the effect of cytoplasm on the pollen fertility of TGMS lines was significant.
Pages 999-1004 | Full Text PDF
Characterization of grain iron and zinc in lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus culinaris) and analysis of their genetic diversity using SSR markers
Harish Kumar*, Harsh Kumar Dikshit, Akanksha Singh, Neelu Jain, Jyoti Kumari, Anju Mahendru Singh, Dhamendra Singh, Ashutosh Sarker, Kumble Vinod Prabhu
Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012 India
Germplasm Evaluation Division, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi 110012 India
South Asia and China Program (ICARDA), NASC Complex, New Delhi 110012 India
Forty-one elite lentil lines were studied for stability of grain Fe and Zn concentration across three locations (New Delhi, Ludhiana and Pantnagar) in India. The stability analysis was carried using Eberhart and Russels stability model. Pooled analysis of variance over locations revealed highly significant differences between genotypes, locations and genotype Χ location interaction. The maximum mean for grain Fe concentration over the locations was obtained for L 4704 (136.91 mg/kg grain), while for grain Zn concentration was highest for VL 141 (81.542 mg/kg grain).
Pages 1005-1012 | Full Text PDF
Relationships between yield and quality related traits of annual medics species using multivariate statistical techniques under different sowing methods
Hossein Sadeghi* and Kamal Khani
College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
In order to identify the relationships between yield and quality related traits of three annual medics species (Medicago rigidula, Medicago polymorpha and Medicago scutellata), a 2-years field study was conducted. Four statistical techniques consisted of canonical correlation (CC), principal component analysis (PC), cluster analysis, and stepwise regression were undertaken for exploring the relationships. Principal component analysis and canonical correlation showed that OM, CP, EE, NFE, and ME have the positive effect in contributing of digestible energy, and SDW and SFW most important traits toward total fresh weight of annual medics species. statistical methods are more reliable.
Pages 1013-1018 | Full Text PDF
The effect of in vitro spacing competition on shoot regeneration from cotyledon node explants of Lathyrus chrysanthus Boiss
Murat AYCAN, Mustafa KAYAN, Mustafa YILDIZ*
Department of Field Crops, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ankara University, 06110 Diskapi, Ankara, TURKEY
Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, 06110 Diskapi, Ankara, TURKEY
This study was aimed to determine the effect of in vitro spacing competition among explants for water and for both macro and micro nutrients in the growth medium on tissue culture response of Lathyrus chrysanthus Boiss. cotyledon node explants. The positive effect of spacing competition among explants was observed in all characters examined at '1.0 Χ 1.0' cm culture distance. Shoot number per cotyledon node explant and total shoot number per petri dish were obtained the highest as 2.99 and 30.67, respectively, at '1.0 Χ 1.0' cm culture distance. According to the results, it could be concluded that encouraging explants for spacing competition by decreasing the culture distances among them from '2.0 Χ 2.0' cm to '1.0 Χ 1.0' cm caused to a significant increases in all characters examined.
Pages 1019-1023 | Full Text PDF
Allelopathic effects of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson and Mikania micrantha H.B.K. on three selected weed species
Ismail Sahid* and Nornasuha Yusoff
School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
This study was conducted to determine the allelopathic effects of the aqueous leaf extract and leaf debris (incorporated into the soil) of Chromolaena odorata and Mikania micrantha on three bioassay weed species namely Eleusine indica, Cyperus iria and Ageratum conyzoides under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Results showed that the leaf extracts of C. odorata and M. micrantha significantly reduced all seedling growth parameters of the three bioassay species with the exception of the effect of C. odorata on the shoot length of C. iria. Leaf extracts of both species significantly inhibited growth parameters of E. indica and A. conyzoides at 50.0 g/L by more than 96 % compared to the control.
Pages 1024-1028 | Full Text PDF
Physical and metabolic changes induced by mechanical damage in dwarf-prata banana fruits kept under cold storage
Victor Martins Maia, Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomγo, Dalmo Lopes Siqueira, Ignacio Aspiazϊ*, Leonardo Carvalho Brant Maia
Department of Agricultural Sciences, State University of Montes Claros, Janaϊba, Brazil
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Viηosa, Viηosa, Brazil
The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the physical and metabolic alterations induced by mechanical damage on Dwarf-Prata banana fruits kept under low temperature (15 ΊC and 89 % of RH). The results show that all fruits subjected to mechanical injury increase weight loss (%), electrolyte leakage (%) and PPO average activity, also showing accelerated peel color evolution rate and anticipated climacteric peak, compared to control. The damage caused by abrasion caused higher accumulated weight loss (%). The starch conversion to soluble sugars in the pulp was affected by impact damage. The impact and compression damages anticipated climacteric ethylene peak and, consequently, fruit ripening. The impact damage greatly increased PPO and POD activities.
Pages 1029-1037 | Full Text PDF
Physiological, enzymatic, and microstructural analyses of sunflower seeds during storage
Severina Rodrigues de Oliveira Lins*, Maria Laene Moreira de Carvalho, Maria das Graηas Cardoso, Diego Henrique Miranda, Juliana de Andrade
Department of Agronomy/Plant Pathology, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/n, Dois Irmγos - CEP: 52171-900 - Recife/PE/Brazil
Department of Agriculture/Seed Technologies, Universidade Federal de Lavras. Campus Universitαrio, C P 3037, CEP 37200-000 Lavras/MG/Brazil
Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Lavras.Campus Universitαrio, CP 3037, CEP 37200-000 Lavras/MG/ Brazil
This study aims to investigate changes in sunflower seed (cv. BRS 122) physiology, health, structural quality, and oil quantity and distribution, under storage at different temperatures and packaging conditions. Germination, seedling emergence, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, potassium leaching, and seed health tests were performed before storage and at 4, 8, and 12 months of storage. In addition, the water content, oil content, and enzymatic activities were determined. The seed response to storage varied with time, packaging material, and temperature. The physiological quality of the sunflower seeds was best preserved at 10°C in Kraft paper bags packaging material. Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. occurred regardless of storage conditions.
Pages 1038-1048 | Full Text PDF
Inter-allelic interactions in the inheritance of physical-quality traits in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Chuni Lal*, K. Hariprasanna, Bharat M. Chikani and Harsukh K. Gor
Directorate of Groundnut Research, P. B. 5, Junagadh 362001, Gujarat, India
Directorate of Sorghum Research, Rajendranagar, 500030, Hyderabad, India
The experimental materials consisting of 27 progenies produced by crossing nine inbred lines belonging to both Spanish and Virginia botanical groups with three testers (TAG 24, TMV 2 NLM, and their F1) were evaluated in a replicated randomized complete block design. The data on parents, F1s and three-way crosses were collected for 10 physical-quality traits of pods and kernels following standard procedures, and analysed to detect epistasis. Inter-allelic interactions were detected for shelling outturn, 100-pod weight, count, 100-seed weight, sound mature seeds, pod length, seed diameter and ratio of seed length to seed diameter using F or t statistics. For pod diameter and seed length, epistasis could not be detected by both the tests, and in the expression of these two traits additive gene action was very important.
Pages 1049-1055 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary data
The effect of alkaline water pre-treatment on drying characteristics of apples
Tamαs Antal, Adam Figiel*, Benedek Kerekes, Lαszlσ Sikolya, Malgorzata Korzeniowska
Department of Vehicle and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Agriculture, College of Nyνregyhαza, Kσtaji Str. 9-11., Nyνregyhαza, H-4400, Hungary
Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chelmonskiego Str. 37/41, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland
Department of Transportation Science and Infotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Agriculture, College of Nyνregyhαza, Kσtaji Str. 9-11., Nyνregyhαza, H-4400, Hungary
Department of Animal Products Technology and Quality Management Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chelmonskiego Str. 37/41, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland
The importance of the study presented in this manuscript lies in its being the first detailed analysis of the influence of the alkaline water pre-treatment on apples dehydrated by freeze-drying. The results obtained revealed a significant effect of this pre-treatment on the drying time and the quality of freeze-dried apple cubes determined by both instrumental and sensory tests. It was found that the applied pre-treatment increased the drying rate and decreased the drying time of the apples subjected to freeze-drying. The drying curves were fitted using three drying models - polynomial, Page and sigmoid. The models were compared using the coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE). The polynomial, Page and sigmoid models exhibited a good fit to the experimental points obtained while freeze-drying. The pre-treated apple cubes demonstrated softer and crispier texture as well as an improved color when compared to control sample, obtained by freeze drying without pre-treatment. This indicates that alkaline water pre-treatment together with the shortening of the drying time allows to obtain a better quality dried product.
Pages 1056-1064 | Full Text PDF
Effect of seed rate and manual weeding on weed infestation and subsequent crop performance of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Muhammad Kamrul Islam, Mst Salma Khanam, Muhammad Maniruzzaman, Iftekhar Alam, Moo Ryong Huh*
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Korea
Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh
Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Banglades
Division of Applied Life Science (BK21), College of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Korea
Institute of Agriculture & Life Science (IALS), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Korea
We evaluated the effects of both the seed rate and weeding regime on the weed infestation and crop performance of sesame. The seed rate significantly influenced myriad different variables that included: the plant population, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of infertile flowers per plant, number of seeds per capsule, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, stove yield and harvest index. Two factors, number of seeds per capsule and 1000 seed weight, were significantly decreased by variations in weeding regime (p =0.01). The plant population decreased significantly with increasing weeding frequency. Seed yield, stover yield and their attributes were significantly improved in the weeded crop than in the non-weeded one.
Pages 1065-1071 | Full Text PDF
Estimation of cardinal temperatures for seedling emergence in corn
Mohsen Edalat*, Seyed Abdolreza Kazemeini
Crop Production and Plant Breeding Department, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
The main objective of this study was to develop a model for its seedling emergence. For this purpose, a two-year field experiment with different sowing dates was conducted to determine minimum, optimum and maximum temperature for seedling emergence (cardinal) temperatures required for seedling emergence. Three non-linear models including den-like, segmented, and beta functions were used to describe the relationship between emergence rate and temperature. Results showed that the effect of year and cultivars' emergence time were not significant, but the effect of sowing date was significant. By contrast, effects of sowing date, cultivar and their interaction were significant for emergence percentage.
Pages 1072-1078 | Full Text PDF
Breeding improvements in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.): A review
Institute of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 8415683111, Isfahan, Iran
Historically, biometrical genetics played a crucial role in the improvement of safflower seed yield and its components, phenologic and morphologic traits, and nutritional properties including oil, fatty (linoleic, oleic, stearic, and palmitic) acids, protein, and fiber. In this review article, efforts are made to investigate and review the different genetic studies thus far conducted on the genetic control of different traits and molecular markers used for germplasm identification in safflower. The studies reviewed have left their mark on safflower improvement in recent years.
Pages 1079-1085 | Full Text PDF
Management of top-dressed nitrogen fertilization in the common bean/castor intercropping system
Rafael Batista Ferreira, Itamar Rosa Teixeira*, Elton Fialho dos Reis, Alessandro Guerra da Silva, Gisele Carneiro da Silva
State University of Goiαs, Unity of Anαpolis, 75001-970, Anapσlis-GO, Brazil
University of Rio Verde, Department of Agronomy, 75901-970, Rio Verde-GO, Brazil
Federal University of Goiαs, Department of Agronomy, 74001-270, Goiβnia-GO, Brazil
The objective of this work is to evaluate the splitting form of top-dressed N for intercropped common bean and castor cultivars. We used the randomized block design with factorial arrangement of two cultivation years, two common bean cultivars, two castor cultivars (Energia and Paraguaηu), combined with six forms of top-dressed nitrogen fertilization splitting. The agronomic traits of common bean cultivars Pιrola and Pontal are influenced by intercropping with castor. On the other hand, common bean cultivars did not exert any influence on the agronomic behavior of the intercropped castor, regardless of the genotype used. The optimum dose of top-dressed nitrogen in the common bean and castor intercropping system is 30 and 70 kg ha-1, split at 25 and 35 DAE of the mentioned crops. The common bean/castor intercropping system is more efficient than monoculture, according to LER average value (1.64).
Pages 1086-1092 | Full Text PDF
Empirical modeling of the impact of Mollisol soils variation on performance of Cuphea: a potential oilseed crop
Abdullah A. Jaradat, Jana Rinke
USDA-ARS, Soil Conservation Research Laboratory
Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, 803 Iowa Avenue, Morris, MN 56267, USA
New oilseed crops differ in their nutrient needs for maximum performance in different soils and may not be able to economically compete with grain crops for fertile land. Spatial variation in physico-chemical properties within and among four Mollisols during two contrasting cropping seasons accounted for significant and decreasing amounts of variation in crop performance quantified by seed yield, oil content and oil yield in Cuphea (Cuphea viscosissima Jacq. x Cuphea lanceolata W.T. Aiton; PSR23), a semi domesticated oilseed crop. Spatially demarcated 36 grids within soil series accounted for more variation in crop performance and reacted more significantly to temporal variation than soil series. Nutrient ratios of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in seed were slightly better predictors of oil content and oil yield than those in soil. Soil chemical properties, including nutrient contents, soil pH, water, and electrical conductivity, when used as covariates or predictors in calibration and validation partial least squares regression models, provided new insights into the variation structure and prediction of crop performance. Predictive models may help design management strategies to optimize oil content and oil yield of oilseed crops on different soil types.
Pages 1093-1113 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary data
Agrobacterium mediated transformation of DREB1A gene for improved drought tolerance in rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.)
Zahid Hussain*, Zainab Hayat, Muhammad Amir Zia, Arshad Iqbal, Shaukat Ali, Ghulam Muhammad Ali
National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology, National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan
In the present study, AtDREB1A gene under 35s CaMV promoters (pBIH Binary vector) was incorporated through Agrobacterium mediated transformation system in to two local rice cultivars i.e. JP-5 (Japonica type) and KSK-282 (Indica type), using calli as target plant tissue. The different parameters like lethal dose of hygromycine, cefotaxime level, and acetosyringone level were optimized for both rice genotypes. The transgenic plantlets (T0) were confirmed by PCR (28% and 16 % for JP-5 and KSK-282, respectively) and the integration pattern of the transgene was tested by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA. The T1 transgenic plants showed normal growth and the expression of the transgene were confirmed by RT-PCR. The T1 transgenic plants overexpressing AtDREB1A gene survived after exposure to drought stress condition over a period of one week under greenhouse condition.
Pages 1114-1123 | Full Text PDF
Biofertilizer produced by interactive microbial processes affects melon yield and nutrients availability in a Brazilian semiarid soil
Wagner da Silva Oliveira, Newton Pereira Stamford*, Emmanuella Vila Nova da Silva, Carolina Etienne de Rosαlia e Silva Santos, Ana Dolores Santiago de Freitas, Thatiana Montenegro Stamford Arnaud, Bruno Felipe Sarmento
Department of Agronomy, University Federal Rural of Pernambuco, 52171-900, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
Instituto de Engenharia Biomιdica, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180 Porto, Portugal
Rock biofertilizer (BPK) was produced from natural phosphate and biotite, mixed with sulfur inoculated with Acidithiobacillus. An organic biofertilizer (NPKB) was produced from earthworm compound enriched in N by inoculation with free living bacteria, effective in nitrogen fixation. The NPKB was inoculated with Cunninghamella elegans which contain chitosan in their cellular walls to produce the bioprotector (NPKP). An experiment was conducted in field conditions to compare NPKB and NPKP with mineral fertilizer (NPKF) on melon yield and in the soil nutrients. The NPKB and NPKP significantly increased melon productivity and higher yield was achieved through applying NPKP (12 t ha-1) and NPKF (RR). Comparing with the control treatment, available P and K increased when the NPKP (12 t ha-1) was applied. The fertilizers treatments showed no significant effects in exchangeable Ca+2 and Mg+2. The NPKP and NPKB displayed the potential of the biofertilizer inoculated with diazotrophic bacteria and C. elegans, which may be an alternative for NPK fertilization favoring soil fertility.
Pages 1124-1131 | Full Text PDF
Growth, nutritional status and nitrogen metabolism in Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp is affected by aluminum
Flαvio Josι Rodrigues Cruz*, Hilαrio Jϊnior de Almeida, Durvalina Maria Mathias dos Santos
Universidade Estadual Paulista - Programa de Pσs-Graduaηγo em Produηγo Vegetal, via de acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane s/n, CEP 14884-900, Jaboticabal, Sγo Paulo, Brasil
Universidade Federal de Lavras, Programa de Pσs - Graduaηγo em Ciκncias do Solo, Cβmpus Universitαrio Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil
The content of nitrogen compounds, macronutrients and growth were assessed in order to better understand how cowpea plants respond to the toxicity of Al in a nutrient solution. The study was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design, consisting of the concentrations of 0 and 1 mM of Al. After ten days of applying the treatments we evaluated the activity of nitrate reductase, concentrations of protein and total soluble amino acids, proline, ammonia, macronutrients, and dry weight of the shoots and roots. Al reduced the nitrate reductase activity (-16%), concentration of nitrate (-22%), protein (12%) amino acids (-14%) and proline (-66%), however the concentration of ammonia increased (27%). Similarly, among concentrations of macronutrients that of calcium was most reduced (-21%), followed by magnesium (-16%) phosphorus (-19%) and potassium (-18%). The production of shoot and root dry matter was reduced by 18 and 27% when applying Al.
Pages 1132-1139 | Full Text PDF