Volume 8 Issue 12 | December 2014 issue
Table of Contents
Southern Cross Publishing Group©2014
Australian Journal of Crop Science | December 2014
Volume 8 Number 12 Year 2014
Genetic dissection of yield and yield components related to sodicity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Moorthinathan Gopikannan*, S.K. Ganesh
Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute. Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Trichy-620009, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tamil Nadu, India
Understanding of gene actions governing the sodicity tolerance provides useful information for constructing breeding programs in rice. Inheritance of sodicity tolerance was studied in four crosses viz., IR 20 / FL 478, IR 20 / CSR 23, ADT 49 / TRY 2 and CO (R) 50 / CSR 23. The parents, F1, F2 and backcross generations were studied under sodicity conditions (ESP 23). The data on 10 physio-morphological traits viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length, spikelet fertility percentage, single plant yield, Na+: K+ ratio, proline content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and chlorophyll stability index were recorded.
Pages 1571-1578 | Full Text PDF
Pre-harvest ethephon application and training systems affect colour development, accumulation of flavonoids and fruit quality of Cripps Pink apple
Muhammad Shafiq, Zora Singh*, Ahmad Sattar Khan
Curtin Horticulture Research Laboratory, Department of Environment and Agriculture, School of Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia, Australia
Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan
Poor red blush development on the surface of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit at commercial harvest causes serious economic losses to apple growers. The effects of pre-harvest spray application of ethephon and different training systems (TS) on development of red blush, accumulation of flavonoids in the fruit skin and quality of Cripps Pink apple were investigated for two consecutive years (2004-05). Cripps Pink apple trees trained as vase (VS), spindle bush (SB), central leader (CL), and double row (DR) TS were sprayed with single dose of ethephon (480 g L-1) 18 days prior to anticipated commercial maturity (CM). Spray application of ethephon significantly improved percent red blush, concentrations of total anthocyanin and cyanidin 3-galactoside in the fruit skin, irrespective of TS in both years. Chroma value and hue angle of the fruit colour were also significantly improved with pre-harvest spray application of ethephon.
Pages 1579-1589 | Full Text PDF
Application of supervised and unsupervised algorithms to find the important features related to barley (Hurdeum vulgare L.) grain yield: A new vista in data mining
Ehsan Bijanzadeh*, Ruhollah Naderi
Department of Agroecology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Darab, Shiraz University, Iran
Data mining methods are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for agronomic factors, and that may assist the selection of the most important features for the individual site and field. To find the main features contributing to barley grain yield (output), supervised and unsupervised algorithms as feature selection and attribute weighting were performed using SPSS Clementine 11.1 and Rapid Miner 5.0.001 softwares, respectively. A total of 10563 data was extracted from the literatures, including 21 features and 503 records. Ranking of features by feature selection indicated that from 20 features as input, 10 features including culture type, location, irrigation regime, biological yield, nitrogen applied to the soil, rainfall amount, and genotype, with a value of 1.0 were the most important features related to the barley grain yield.
Pages 1590-1596 | Full Text PDF
The effect of somaclonal variation on salt tolerance and glycoalkaloid content of potato tubers
Mohammad Sayyar Khan, Dawood Ahmad, Muhammad Adnan, Muhammad Adil Khan
Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
Gene Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1-Tennoudai, Ibaraki, Tsukuba, Japan, 305-8572
Research School of Biology ANU College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, The Australian National University Canberra, ACT 0200 Australia
In the present study, we analysed in vitro somaclonal variation on plantlets of potato cv. Desiree and investigated the effect of somaclonal variation on the salt tolerance and tuber glycoalkaloid content. Around 38 regenerated plants were selected from tissue culture-induced calli based on their morphological status. These regenerants were subjected to in vitro salt stress evaluation and finally six regenerants were selected based on their salt tolerance performance. Somaclonal variation was confirmed through four RAPD primers.
Pages 1597-1606 | Full Text PDF
Molecular and morphological characterization of Indian rice hybrids
Pritesh Sundar Roy, Amit Kumar Dash, Hata Nath Subudhi, Ravi Nageswara Rao, Gundimeda Jwala Narasimha Rao*
Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack -753006, India
The present study is assessments of the genetic diversity present in twenty eight F1 hybrids released in India with almost all are based on WA cytoplasmic source. At phenotypic level, variation for important agro-morphological traits, grain quality was studied while at molecular level, the variation at nuclear level was examined using rice genomic SSRs and markers associated with fertility restoration (Rf3, Rf4) and ribosomal DNA sequences (ITS 1, ITS 2 regions) and the variation at the organelle genome was analysed with markers associated with the ORF100 region of the chloroplasts. The results suggest that the hybrids fall into a narrow range for both duration and plant stature and majority of the hybrids have long kernels.
Pages 1607-1614 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary Data PDF
Effects of salt stress on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity and some other physiological parameters in jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] plant
Fahmy Hassan*, Esmat Ali
Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, 31527, Egypt
Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assuit University, Egypt
Current address: Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Saudi Arabia
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of different salinity concentrations i.e. 0, 4, 6, 8. 10 and 12 dSm-1 NaCl on plant growth, leaf measurements, antioxidant enzyme activity and some biochemical and mineral accumulation of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) plant grown in saline-alkaline soil. Salinity treatments significantly decreased plant height, number of both branches and leaves compared to the control. Salinity stress significantly reduced leaf area, stomatal density, relative water content (RWC), leaf chlorophyll content, N+, PO4-3, K+, Ca+2 and Mg+2, compared to control. Meanwhile, sodium, chloride and total soluble sugars were significantly increased with increasing salinity concentration and the homeostasis of minerals was disturbed.
Pages 1615-1624 | Full Text PDF
A new simple method for labeling field crops with stable isotope tracers
Aaron J. Saathoff, Madhavan Soundararajan*, Kenneth P. Vogel, Christian M. Tobias, Paul Twigg, Gautam Sarath
USDA-ARS Central-East Regional Biomass Center and Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, USA
Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, USA
Western Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, Albany, CA, USA
Biology Department, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE, USA
Here, we report on a relatively simple 13C labeling system designed to label crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown in the greenhouse or small field plots. The main goals of this study were to validate the system and establish performance benchmarks. We constructed and field tested a simple design plexiglass chamber that was sealed at the soil level with a buried rubber apron. Chamber air was circulated through an infrared gas analyzer to monitor CO2 levels within the chamber. Results indicated that the system had generally suitable performance characteristics in both greenhouse and field settings. Isotope enrichment data from our studies revealed that switchgrass fixed 13CO2 that was injected into the chamber within 15-20 min labeling periods.
Pages 1625-1631 | Full Text PDF
Performance of popcorn maize populations in South American Avatν Pichingα using diallel analysis
Jose Miguel Quintana Solalinde, Carlos Alberto Scapim, Rafael Augusto Vieira, Antonio Teixeira do Amaral Jϊnior*, Marcelo Vivas, Ronald Josι Barth Pinto, Freddy Mora, Alexandre Pio Viana
Centro Regional de Investigaciσn Agrνcola, Capitαn Miranda, Itapϊa, Paraguay
Departmento de Agronomia, Universidade Estadual de Maringα, 87020-900, Maringα, PR, Brazil
Laboratσrio de Melhoramento Genιtico Vegetal, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
Instituto de Ciencias Biolσgicas, Universidad de Talca, 2 Norte 685, Talca, Chile
This study aimed to develop populations of interest. For this purpose, the diallel analysis was carried out and combining ability associated with of grain yield (GY), popping expansion (PE), plant height (PH), ear height (EH) and days to silking (FF) were assessed from seven South American varieties of the maize race Avatν Pichingα. Performance for those populations was evaluated in a completely randomized block designs at four locations in Paraguay and one location in Brazil. The results showed that varieties and heterosis effects were significant for all the studied traits. Highly significant differences were also detected for the interactions between heterosis and locations for all traits, in contrast to variety and location that were significant for GY only.
Pages 1632-1638 | Full Text PDF
Phenotypic and molecular characterization of selected species of Plantago with emphasis on Plantago ovata
Mukesh Kumar, Ranbir S. Fougat, Anil K. Sharma, Kalyani Kulkarni, Ramesh, Jigar G. Mistry, Amar A. Sakure and Sushil Kumar*
Department of Agri Biotechnology, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, 388 110, India
College of Agriculture SK Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner, 334 006, India
A study was employed to determine the genetic diversity and relationships among 38 genotypes of Plantago representing seven species using phenotypic and molecular markers. All 38 genotypes were obtained from various institutes of India. For phenotypic characterization, experiment was conducted in randomized block design with two replications. At molecular level, a narrow range of genetic dissimilarity (0.01 - 0.29) was observed using morphological descriptors. However, a total 248 band positions with 100% polymorphism were amplified by 15 RAPD primers, whereas 33 allelic positions with 95% polymorphism were produced by 10 SSR primers with 100% reproducibility. The wide genetic distance was observed in Plantago species both at phenotypic as well as molecular level.
Pages 1639-1647 | Full Text PDF
Differential tolerance between genotypes of conilon coffee (Coffea canephora) to low availability of nitrogen in the soil
Tafarel Victor Colodetti*, Wagner Nunes Rodrigues, Lima Deleon Martins, Marcelo Antonio Tomaz
Programa de Pσs-Graduaηγo em Produηγo Vegetal do Centro de Ciκncias Agrαrias da Universidade Federal do Espνrito Santo (CCA-UFES), Alto Universitαrio, s/nΊ, Cx Postal 16, Bairro Guararema, CEP: 29500-000, Alegre, ES, Brasil
Departamento de Produηγo Vegetal do Centro de Ciκncias Agrαrias da Universidade Federal do Espνrito Santo (CCA-UFES), Brasil
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the differential tolerance between genotypes of conilon coffee subjected to low availability of nitrogen in the soil, as well as the gains obtained with the addition of this nutrient in the soil through fertilization. Ten genotypes of Coffea canephora were cultivated in greenhouse, without fertilization with N and with fertilization at level of 0.625 g kg-1 of soil, tested in a completely randomized design. Based on the results of growth analysis and expression of variability between genotypes, the most appropriate level was selected to discriminate the genotypes for tolerance to low availability of nitrogen in the soil. Following this premise, the genotypes 67, 23 and 02 were classified as intolerant and the genotypes 32, 73, 83, 77, 76, 24 and 153 as tolerant to low availability of nitrogen in the soil.
Pages 1648-1657 | Full Text PDF
Performance stability of photoperiod sensitive vs. insensitive Dolichos bean (Lablab purpureus L. var. Lignosus) cultivars under delayed sowing conditions
C.M. Keerthi*, S. Ramesh, M. Byregowda, A. Mohan Rao, G. A. Mary Reena, Chandrakant
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), GKVK, Bangalore-560 065, India
All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Pigeonpea, Zonal Agricultural Research Station (ZARS), UAS, Bangalore-560065, India
Sowing date is one of the most important factors which have tremendous effect on biological yield of a crop species. This is specifically true in highly photoperiod sensitive crops such as Dolichos bean. The photoperiod sensitive (PS) and photoperiod insensitive (PIS) genotypes were planted during August, September and October months (representing delayed sowing environments) in randomised block design in two replications. The data were recorded on days to 50% flowering, primary branches plant-1 and fresh pod yield plant-1. The performance stability of five PS and five PIS Dolichos bean grown in delayed sowing dates was compared based on three criteria namely per se performance, regression (bi) of environment indices on crop response and deviation from regression (s2di) to examine theoretical consideration and farmers belief. The per se performance of PS genotypes was superior to PIS genotypes although they displayed greater sensitivity (bi>1) to sowing date environments.
Pages 1658-1662 | Full Text PDF
Mineral gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), a promoter of biomass production of sweet sorghum
Igor Tenσrio Marinho Rocha*, Fernando Josι Freire, Edivan Rodrigues Souza, Maria Betβnia Galvγo Santos Freire, Anibia Vicente Silva, Djalma Euzιbio Simυes Neto, Nathalia Macena Sobral
Federal Rural University of Pernambuco - UFRPE, Agronomy Department, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/n, Dois Irmγos, CEP: 52171-900, Recife, PE, Brazil
The sweet sorghum is an alternative bioenergy crop for ethanol production in the offseason of sugarcane in areas where crops are renewed in winter, especially in the Northeast of Brazil. However, in these areas the soil acidity and low levels of basic cations on the subsurface are responsible for reduced productivity of sorghum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral gypsum on nutrients uptake, agricultural/ industrial productivity and production of ethanol from sweet sorghum cultivar IPA 467-4-2. Results showed that mineral gypsum can promote the percentage and Ca2+ content and, conversely, reduce percentage and K+ content in shoots of sorghum. The gypsum application increased yield of fresh and dry mass of sweet sorghum, variety IPA 467-4-2, besides increasing the theoretical yield of ethanol. The maximum yield of fresh, dry mass and ethanol were 44373.64 kg ha-1, 9056.43 kg ha-1 and 2032.18 L ha-1, respectively.
Pages 1663-1670 | Full Text PDF