Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

AUGUST 2018 | EARLY VIEW | 12(08) 2018 | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08

Pitaya genotypes (Hylocereus spp.) seed germination at different pH levels based on statistical models

Thiago Alberto Ortiz*, Gustavo Facioli Becker, Lúcia Sadayo Assari Takahashi

Post Graduate Program in Agronomy, State University of Londrina (Universidade Estadual de Londrina-UEL), 6001, 86051-990, Londrina, Brazil. CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior [Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education])
Usina Alto Alegre, Rodovia João Lunardelli, km 54, 86165-000, Florestópolis, Paraná, Brasil
Department of Agronomy, UEL, 6001, 86051-990, Londrina, Brazil

Abstract
Seed germination depends on internal and external factors relating to the seed but the whole process will normally occur if there are no restrictions during the stages of germination. So, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the viability and the vigor of pitaya seed under different pH levels. A completely randomized design was employed under a 3 × 13 factorial design [pitaya genotypes: Hylocereus undatus (white pitaya); H. undatus x H. costaricensis (pitaya hybrid I), and H. costaricensis x H. undatus (pitaya hybrid II), and pH levels: 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0], with four replications. The solutions of pH levels were prepared with distilled water added by hydrochloric acid (HCl) and/or sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and measured with the aid of pH meter. In order to conduct the germination test, 50 seeds were used per repetition, arranged in polystyrene boxes (Gerbox® type) lined with blotter paper and moistened with solutions referring to pH. The experiment was conducted in germinators with photoperiod of 12h and constant temperature of 25ºC. The variables evaluated were percentage of germination (PG), germination speed index (GSI), and mean germination time (MGT). The data pertaining to PG were fitted to a almost-binomial model and the data pertaining to GSI and MGT were fitted to linear regression models. Hylocereus spp. seeds are sensitive to pH changes of the substrate. The pH levels lower than 4.5 damaged the viability and the vigor of pitaya seed, while the pH range between 6.0 and 7.5 is favorable for the germination process.

Pages 1200-1204 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE753

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Parameters affecting the mechanical digging of peanut crops from three different shaped plots

Matheus Anaan de Paula Borba*, Rouverson Pereira da Silva, Adão Felipe dos Santos, André Ferreira Damasceno, Cristiano Zerbato

UNESP – State University Paulista, Jaboticabal, SP, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Access way Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, without number, 14884-900, São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract
The mechanical harvesting efficiency of agricultural crops affects operational quality and production costs while being dependent on plot shape, operation planning, and management. Therefore, this study evaluated the operational performance of a mechanical tractor-digger set in the digging of peanut crops planted in different shaped plots. The three trapezoidal, triangular and irregular shaped plots had linear lengths of 812 m (P1), 322 m (P2) and 248 m (P3), respectively. The parameters, effective and operational field capacities; digging and management efficiencies; maneuvering and machine downtimes, including the operator personal needs and displacement in the tracks were determined and used to obtain operational efficiency. The yield of the experimental rural area, in Barrinha, SP, is 3200 kg of peanut ha-1. The experimental design followed the assumptions of statistical process control, and individual value control charts were plotted for each studied variable. The digging operation was monitored and divided into machine downtime, operational time, maneuvering time, and total time. These parameters were then used to calculate the operational capacities and efficiencies of the harvesting operation. It is concluded that plot size and shape affect the operational capacity. Effective and operational capacities are higher in longer plots, lengthwise, while maneuvering times are also shorter. Shorter plots result in digging efficiency losses. Give the best or optimal condition based on results.

Pages 1205-1211 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE756
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Combination of mineral and organic fertilizers of slaughterhouse-waste products for cultivation of upland rice cultivars

José Roberto Portugal, Orivaldo Arf, Ricardo Antônio Ferreira Rodrigues, Rafael Gonçalves Vilela, Alex Rangel Gonzaga, Amanda Ribeiro Peres, Douglas de Castilho Gitti, Daiene Camila Dias Chaves Corsini

São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Plant Science, Food Technology and Social Economy, Ilha Solteira, State of São Paulo, Brazil
São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Plant Health, Rural Engineering and Soil, Ilha Solteira, State of São Paulo, Brazil
Chapadão Foundation, Chapadão do Sul, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
MS Foundation, Maracaju, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil


Abstract
Due to the expansion of the slaughterhouses sector, there is huge availability of waste from agricultural products. These waste products may be used as alternative for the production of organic fertilizers. Fertilizer efficiency depends on the type of rice cultivar. Thus, traditional, intermediate and modern plant types may respond differently to the combined use of mineral and organic fertilizers. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of different combinations of mineral and organic fertilizers based on slaughterhouse waste on the development, productivity and industrial quality of upland rice cultivars. The soil of the the experimental area was a typical clayey dystroferric Red Latosol and the climate of the region is Aw: humid tropical, rainy in the summer and dry in the winter according to the Koppen classification. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in a 3 x 6 factorial design. We evaluated three different types of rice cultivars (Caiapó, traditional type; BRS Primavera, intermediate type; and IAC 202, modern type) and levels of combinations of mineral and organic fertilizers (100% mineral, 80% mineral + 20% organic, 60% mineral + 40% organic, 40% mineral + 60% organic, 20% mineral + 80% organic, 100% organic). The cultivar IAC 202 presented a productive potential higher than the cultivars Caiapó and BRS Primavera. The 60% mineral + 40% organic and 40% mineral + 60% organic fertilizer combinations produced more yield in comparison with the 100% organic fertilizer. The cultivar Caiapó showed the highest grain quality. Organic fertilizer based on slaughterhouse waste can be used for upland rice farming.

Pages 1212-1222 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE875
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Genetic diversity of yam (Dioscorea spp.) landrace collections from Ethiopia using simple sequence repeat markers

Tewodros Mulualem, Firew Mekbib, Hussein Shimelis, Endale Gebre, Beyene Amelework*

Jimma Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 192, Jimma, Ethiopia

Haramaya University, School of Plant Sciences, P.O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia

African Centre for Crop Improvement, School of Agriculture, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, P.O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


Abstract
Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important root crop widely used for food, feed and industrial raw material. Knowledge on the genetic diversity present among yam genetic resources is fundamental for variety development and conservation strategies. The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude and genetic relationship present among yam landrace collections using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to identify genetically unique genotypes for efficient breeding and conservation. Thirty-three yam landraces collected from various regions of Ethiopia were genotyped using 10 selected polymorphic SSR markers. The markers amplified a total of 30 alleles from the population sampled, of which 80% was polymorphic. The number of alleles detected per locus ranged from 1 to 5, with a mean of 3. Number of effective alleles ranged from 1.00 to 3.57 with a mean of 1.71. Gene diversity ranged from 0.00 to 0.80 with a mean of 0.53. The mean polymorphic information content was 0.30. Genetic distance values ranged from 0.0 to 1.0, with a mean of 0.39. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that 79% of the variation detected was found within collection sites, while collection sites accounted for only 17% of the total variation. The study established the existence of considerable genetic diversity among yam landrace collections from Ethiopia. Distinct landraces such as 32/83 and 46/83 from Cluster I and 6/02, 2/87, 3/87, 45/03, 76/02, 21/02 and 34/87 from Cluster II were selected based on their highest dissimilarity index. The selected genetic resources are useful as a source of genes of novelty for yam breeding and variety development.


Pages 1223-1230 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE885

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Performance of crops under Eucalyptus tree-crop mixtures and its potential for adoption in agroforestry systems


Stanley W. Nadir*, Wilson K. Ng’etich, Syphiline J. Kebeney


Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) P.O. Box 20412-00200, Nairobi, Kenya
Department of Soil Science, University of Eldoret P.O. Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya


Abstract
Competition for scarce land resources between food crops and trees has intensified and there is need for a balance to accommodate both, either in rotation programs or in agroforestry systems. Successful intercropping of Eucalyptus trees with crops is hindered by competition for light between trees and crops, soil nutrient dynamics and the allelopathy from Eucalyptus trees. The aim of this study was to establish and assess the performance of farm crops under Eucalyptus grandis tree plantations so as to evaluate the potential of the trees for agroforestry. The crops i.e. common beans, Irish potatoes and black Nightshade (Solanum villosum) were planted along rows of Eucalyptus trees (3 and 6 years) in plot sizes of 4 m by 2 m adopting a factorial arrangement in RCBD with open field as control. The assessment of the performance of the crops was mainly on; germination, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and possible yields. In addition, the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) reaching the understory crops was measured. From the results, Germination of crops under trees was higher than in the open field. Germination was delayed under trees when compared to those grown in the open field. The age differences in the Eucalyptus tree plantations had no significant effect on the amount of PAR reaching the understory crops. The leaf area index (LAI) of the understory crops was significantly affected by Eucalyptus trees of different ages (p < .001). The crops grown under Eucalyptus trees gave higher yields compared to crops grown in open fields but not fertilized. The effect of Eucalyptus plantation age significantly affected the yields of beans and potatoes (p < .001) but not nightshade; therefore, the vegetable can be grown under Eucalyptus tree shade without reduction in yield. Irish potato and common beans are potential crops for agroforestry with Eucalyptus trees but need further research as their yields were low and had selected disease incidences.


Pages 1231-1240 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE939
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Prediction of safflower yield under different saline irrigation strategies using AquaCrop model in semi-arid regions

Reyhaneh alsadat Mousavi Zadeh Mojarad, Mohammad Feizi, Mahdi Ghobadinia

Irrigation and drainage engineering, water department, faculty of agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
Isfahan agriculture and natural resources research and education center, soil and water division, Isfahan, Iran 3Water department, faculty of agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran


Abstract
The FAO AquaCrop is a crop water productivity model, which simulates yield response to water of herbaceous crops, and is particularly suited to address conditions, where water is a key limiting factor in crop production. Although saline irrigation abounded yield for sensitive crops, its application can be noticeable for tolerant crops. In this study, different water quality and management strategies were used for Safflower irrigation in semi-arid regions of Iran. Three different irrigation water qualities with the average salinity levels of 3.4, 8.8 and 11.2 dS.m-1 (Q1, Q2 and Q3), two irrigation management strategies (GQ and GU), and two leaching levels, i.e. with no leaching (LR0) and with leaching (LR1), were considered during the year 2008. The experiment was laid out in a Split-Split plot with completely random blocks design with four replications. The model were generated for general case (case1) and detailed case (case2). Statistical analysis indices of the validated model in case1, including the model efficiency (EF), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and index of agreement (d) for grain yield were 0.69, 0.1, 0.99; for biomass were 0.74, 0.08, 0.99 and for WP were 0.98, 0.11, 0.99, respectively. Statistical analysis indices of the validated model in case2, i.e. the model efficiency (EF), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and index of agreement (d) for grain yield were 0.99, 0.02, 0.99 for biomass were 0.96, 0.04, 0.99 and for WP were 0.98, 0.02, 0.99, respectively. Final results showed good predicted outputs for both cases. In case1, the model could be helpful in any management decision uses, with acceptable risk errors, however, the detailed model in case2 seemed to be a better predictor model due to its more calibrated parameters. Therefore; statistical results of both cases were acceptable.

Pages 1241-1249 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE946
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Spatial variability of chemical pedoindicators in Haplic Inceptisol under different management systems in southern Amazonas state, Brazil


Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira, Milton César Costa Campos*, Renato Eleotério de Aquino, Ludmila de Freitas, Zigomar Menezes de Souza, José Maurício da Cunha, Marcelo Dayron Rodrigues Soares, Douglas Marcelo Pinheiro da Silva, Julimar da Silva Fonseca, Laércio Santos Silva, Fernando Gomes de Souza

Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Pará, Antônio Fulgêncio da Silva, S/N, Parque Universitário – CEP: 68.800-000 Breves, PA, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Instituto de Educação, Agricultura e Ambiente, Rua 29 de agosto, 786, Centro, CEP 69800-000 Humaitá, AM, Brazil
Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Via de Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, S/N, 14884-900, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Departamento de Água e Solo, Avenida Cândido Rondon, 501, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, CEP 13083-875 Campinas, SP, Brazil


Abstract
Inceptisols are poorly developed soils with original material characteristics and high or low base saturation depending on the environment in which they developed. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of chemical pedoindicators in an Inceptisol under different management systems. The study was carried out in three agricultural areas cultivated with cassava, sugarcane and an agroforestry system, with cultivation time of 15, 8 and 17 years, respectively. All the areas investigated were located in Southern Amazonas state, Brazil. In these areas, a square mesh was established measuring 70.00 x 70.00 m, with cross points spaced 10.00 m apart and a total of 64 sampling points in each grid. Soil samples were then collected at a depth between 0.00 and 0.10 m to determine organic matter, pH, calcium, magnesium, potassium, available phosphorus, potential acidity, sum of bases, cation exchange capacity and base saturation, in addition to magnetic susceptibility in all the samples, using 10 cm3 of soil. Data were analyzed using multivariate, descriptive and geostatistics. It was found that magnetic susceptibility may be a pedoindicador for areas under cassava cultivation, potential acidity for the agroforestry environment, and pH for areas under sugarcane cultivation. The agroforestry area had higher data heterogeneity, since a nugget effect was encountered for all the properties analyzed. Based on the scaled semivariograms, the lower range values indicate greater spatial variability in the sugarcane and agroforestry systems, due to the specificities of the management system.

Pages 1250-1258 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE963
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Stability of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) progenies on yield and yield Components across environments using AMMI analysis

Niranee Bueraheng, Sayan Sdoodee, Jakarat Anothai, Theera Eksomtramage*

Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand, 90112

Abstract
Southern Thailand is annually affected by climate change, which impacts on yield performance of oil palm. Therefore, effect of climate change on adaptability, cultivation and yield of oil palm in various planting areas was investigated. This research aimed to evaluate the adaptability of six oil palm progenies (cross numbers 110, 118, 119, 130, 132 and 137) at 5 year-old-plants grown in three environmental areas of southern Thailand: Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phatthalung and Songkhla provinces. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment (1 tree/replicate) in each environment during 2013-2014. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model was used to analyze the stability of yield and yield components. The results showed that the variances attributed to environment (E), genotype (G) and their interactions (G x E) were highly significant. The yield of each progeny depended on growth location. The AMMI biplot analysis showed that progeny 110 was the most stable genotype based on yield and yield components in all the environments. The highest yield of fresh fruit bunches in Phatthalung, Songkhla and Nakhon Si Thammarat provinces were obtained in progeny 130 (403.16 kg/palm/year), progenies 132 and 137 (303.20 and 297.96 kg/palm/year), and progeny 119 (283.52 kg/palm/year), respectively. This indicates that the suitability of an oil palm progeny in general depends on the specific environment for planting.

Pages 1259-1264 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE964
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Productivity and technological quality of sugarcane cultivars fertigated and planted through pre-sprouted seedlings

Anderson Prates Coelho, Alexandre Barcellos Dalri, Rogério Teixeira de Faria, Estêvão Pacheco de Andrade Landell, Luiz Fabiano Palaretti, José Renato Zanini, Cristiano Zerbato

São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract
The increase in sugarcane production in Brazil does not only depend on the increase of cultivated areas. It also needs alternatives to increase productivity. These alternatives include irrigation, planting method, and development of new cultivars. In this scenario, the use of pre-sprouted seedlings is particularly relevant because it ensures high phytosanitary standards and uniform crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity and technological characteristics of five sugarcane cultivars that were planted through pre-sprouted seedlings and conducted with and without supplementary irrigation in the second growing year. The experiment was conducted at the FCAV/UNESP, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil, from 2015 to 2016. The treatments were distributed in a partially balanced incomplete block design, with three cultivars per block. Supplementary irrigation was performed when there was an accumulated water deficit of 30 mm. Reference evapotranspiration was calculated according to the FAO-56 method. The evaluated sugarcane cultivars were: CTC 4, IACSP 93-3046, RB 86-7515, IACSP 95-5000, and IAC 91-1099. The total irrigation depth applied during the cycle was 360 mm. Supplementary irrigation triggered a decrease in the sugarcane technological indices, mainly for the cultivars CTC 4 and IAC 91-1099, presenting a 15% apparent sucrose (POL%) cane reduction in the non-irrigated treatment, and 14% in the irrigated. Cultivar IAC 91-1099 stood out in the productivity of sugar and stalks, with productivities of 24.16 t ha-1 of sugar and 166 t ha-1 of stalk under irrigation using pre-sprouted seedlings.

Pages 1265-1271 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE975
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Low salt stress affects physiological parameters and sugarcane plant growth

Flávio José Rodrigues Cruz*, Domingos da Costa Ferreira Júnior, Durvalina Maria Mathias dos Santos

São Paulo State University (UNESP), Faculty of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, Câmpus Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract
Sugarcane is a renewable source for biofuel production and widely grown in tropical regions of the world. However, its cultivation might be limited in regions with soils affected by high level of soluble salts. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the response of the sugarcane cultivar IAC91-1099 to low soil salinity under pot conditions, based on the hypothesis that low salt stress affects sugarcane growth. The experimental design was completely randomized, formed by the control treatment and 800 mg Na kg-1 soil. After twenty-five days of transplanting, the plants were submitted to the treatments and after thirty days under saline stress, the plants were harvested and the variables evaluated. Plants under salt stress presented higher Na content and Na/K ratio, and lower K content. Water status of sugarcane plants was impaired due to salt stress, expressed by lower values of stomatal conductance, relative water content and water potential. Na accumulation induced a decline on plant growth and higher electrolyte leakage, with damage to the photochemical apparatus of photosynthesis. Although sugarcane is considered a moderately salt tolerant crop, cultivar IAC91-1099 was sensitive to the low salt stress studied, not being recommended for cultivation in regions with pronounced soluble salt soil contents.

Pages 1272-1279 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE999
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Changes in the antioxidant and glyoxalase enzyme activities in leaves of two Moroccan sorghum ecotypes with differential tolerance to nitrogen stress

Reda Ben Mrid, Redouane El Omari, Nourdin El Mourabit, Youssef Bouargalne, Mohamed NHIRI*

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies of Tangier, BP 416, 90000 Tanger, Morocco
Regional Center for Agronomic Research of Tangier, 78 Avenue Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdella, Tangier 90010, Morocco


Abstract
Nitrogen stress as well as other stresses can negatively impact the plant development and metabolism. Generally, stress factors increase the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG) production, which may, in the absence of effective protective mechanisms, induce irreparable metabolic dysfunction and death. The effect of different amounts (from deficiency to excess) of nitrate, ammonium or nitrate combined to ammonium, on enzyme activities of antioxidant and methylglyoxal detoxification systems of two sorghum ecotypes (3P4 and 4P11) was studied. The N supply was performed per pot during the sowing step using potassium nitrate and/or ammonium sulfate. Six N treatments were applied using 120, 240 and 480 Kg ha-1 of ammonium or nitrate and three other treatments were applied using 120 kg ha-1 nitrate combined to 120, 240 and 480 kg ha-1of ammonium. The specific activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) were investigated. Results showed that, ammonium excess and N-deficient conditions increased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), and induced the enzyme activities of ROS and MG detoxification systems, supporting the sorghum’s ability to counteract the negative effect of N stress (deficit and excess). We have also shown that the SOD, CAT, GR and Gly I enzyme activities were higher in the 4P11 ecotype compared to the 3P4 ecotype. These results indicate that sorghum ecotypes exhibit differential tolerance to N stress and suggest that the 4P11 ecotype has higher capacity to cope with N stress.

Pages 1280-1287 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE1008
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Spatial analysis of soil salinity in a mango irrigated area in semi-arid climate region

Marcos Sales Rodrigues*, David Castro Alves, Jailson Cavalcante Cunha, Augusto Miguel Nascimento Lima, Ítalo Herbert Lucena Cavalcante, Kátia Araújo da Silva, Júlio Cesar Ferreira de Melo Junior

Colegiado de Engenharia Agronômica, Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Campus de Ciências Agrárias, Rodovia BR 407, KM 12, Lote 543 PSNC, s/n, C1, Petrolina, Brazil,
Colegiado de Pós-graduação em Engenharia Agrícola, Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Campus Juazeiro, Avenida Antônio Carlos Magalhães, 510, Juazeiro, Brazil


Abstract
The salinization of irrigated areas in the semi-arid region of Brazil causes major problem for fruit production. Defining the spatial distribution of soil salinity provides important insight technique for improving the management of irrigated fruit-production areas. This work aimed to (1) assess the spatial distribution of soil salinity and (2) delineate management zones in an irrigated mango orchard in the semi-arid region based on soil salinity data. The experimental site in Juazeiro County, Bahia state, Brazil was defined by two sample grids, one under the canopy of the mango trees and the other in the row spacing with 96 georeferenced points spaced 8 x 8 m apart. Disturbed-soil cores were taken from the 0 to 0.2 m layer at each point. Soil texture, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable cations, and soluble cations were determined. Data were analyzed using descriptive data and geostatistical analysis. Soil salinity showed spatial dependence for samples collected in the row spacing of the mango trees. Exchangeable Na, and soluble Na, Ca, and Mg were the attributes that best defined the spatial distribution of soil salinity. Three management zones in the studied area were defined based on soil EC values, in which 63% classified as salic, 34% saline and 3% non-saline. This study clearly shows that soil-salinity problems associated with the development of mango plants may be due to an accumulation of salts in the spacing region between the plants.

Pages 1288-1296 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE1091
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Application of geostatistics tools to evaluate droplets spectrum of a common spray atomizer using several additives

Sanchez de C. Lacerda, Elton F. dos Reis, Luana de L. Lopes, Sueli M. F. Alves

Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Campus Anápolis de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas – Henrique Santillo, BR 153, n° 3.105, Fazenda Barreiro do Meio, CEP 75132-903, Anápolis, GO, Brasil. Caixa Postal 459

Abstract
The objective of this work was to evaluate the spectrum of droplets and syrup deposition of motorized costal atomizer, using additives in spraying solution. For this purpose geostatistical approach was applied. The treatments such as water (witness) and different additives (mineral oil, siliconized polymer and ethoxylated nonylphenol) were applied. Just before application, collectors (glass plates and hydrosensitive labels) were distributed at seven distances from the center of the spray circumference with different radius (3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12.0, 15.0, 18.0 and 20.0 m), in the directions of the cardinal and collateral points, totaling 56 sample points. The deposition parameters, volume median diameter (VMD), relative amplitude (RA) and coverage were evaluated by means of aqueous solution (spray liquids + dye) to verify deposition by spectrophotometry and hydrosensitive paper label for the spectrum of drops. Descriptive analysis of the data was performed and geostatistics used as a tool for the analysis of spatial variability. The values for non-sampled locations were estimated using the ordinary kriging interpolation method. It allowed mapping that defined the application zones for the calculation of drift. The results showed that the VMD of the droplets was 136 μm. The application maps showed that there was a drift of 71.50% of the volume of syrup applied. The geostatistical tool made it possible to evaluate the droplet and deposition spectrum by means of the application maps. The proposed climatic recommendations for the application of agricultural pesticides do not apply to cost atomizers.

Pages 1297-1303 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE1095
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Genotype-by-environment interaction analysis of maize hybrids for grain yield and maize streak virus severity in the mid-altitude agro-ecologies

Lameck M. Nyaligwa, Hussein Shimelis, Learnmore Mwadzingeni*, Mark D. Laing

University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Selian Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), P.O. Box 6024 Arusha, Tanzania


Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of G × E, and to select promising experimental maize hybrids with high grain yield and MSV resistance. Fifty genotypes comprising of 45 newly developed single cross hybrids and five standard checks were evaluated using a 5 × 10 alpha lattice design with two replications across six environments. The Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) and the Genotype and Genotype by Environment (GGE) biplot models were used to quantify G × E interaction. AMMI analysis revealed that genotype, G x E and environmental effects contributed to 12.4%, 17.76% and 52.06% of the variation in yield, respectively. Experimental hybrid G43 (CML509/CML390) had a relatively high mean grain yield of 6.70 t ha-1 and moderate MSV severity of 31.88% across the six testing environments. This hybrid can be recommended for direct production, or for three-way hybrid development. Hybrids with low MSV severity scores but exhibiting low grain yields could be useful genetic resources for MSV resistance breeding in maize.

Pages 1304-1312 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE1108
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The residual effect of gypsum on subsoil conditioning, nutrition and productivity of sugarcane crops

Larissa Gomes Araújo, Djalma Martinhão Gomes de Sousa, Cícero Célio de Figueiredo*, Thomaz Adolpho Rein, Rafael de Souza Nunes, João de Deus Gomes dos Santos Júnior

Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, University of Brasília, 70910970 Brasília, DF, Brazil
Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil


Abstract
Although the benefits of gypsum for subsoil conditioning are known, there is still a lack of information regarding the duration of its effects on soil chemical attributes and sugarcane productivity. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the residual effect of gypsum doses on soil chemical attributes, root density and productivity in seven sugarcane crops (ratoon). The experiment was conducted in an experimental area located at Embrapa Cerrados, in Planaltina, DF, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of four gypsum doses (0, 0.5, 5 and 10 t ha-1) distributed in randomized blocks with four replications. Gypsum was applied only one time to the soil surface after sugarcane planting in July 2009. After 13 and 87 months of gypsum application under sugarcane cultivation, the soil was collected from layers up to 120 and 200 cm deep, respectively. For evaluation of the soil chemical attributes: sulfate (S-SO42-), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+) and aluminum saturation (m) were assessed. Also, the root dry mass density was evaluated after the first and seventh sugarcane crops, in September 2010 and 2016, respectively. Furthermore, the variables leaf macronutrient concentrations (N, P, K, S, Ca and Mg), stalk yield and total reducing sugars (TRS) were analyzed in all seven crops/ratoons (first is the main crop and other six are ratoons). The application of 5 t ha-1 gypsum increased SO42- and Ca2+ and reduced the aluminum saturation after 13 and 87 months, with higher intensities in the subsurface layers of the soil. As a consequence of this chemical conditioning of the subsurface soil layers, the root dry mass density was increased by 18 and 37% in the 0-120 and 0-200 layers, respectively, after the first (main) and seventh sugarcane crops (ratoons) in relation to the absence of gypsum application. Furthermore, treatments with 5 and 10 t ha-1 of gypsum increased the leaf contents of S, Ca and N in relation to treatments with 0 and 0.5 t ha-1 of gypsum. As a consequence of the increased root growth and better nutrition of sugarcane, the use of gypsum provided a long residual effect, observed in the increase of stalk and sugar yields.

Pages 1313-1321 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE1137
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Inoculation methods and conidial densities of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycoperici in tomato

Alfonso López-Benítez, Sergio A. Rodriguez-Herrera, Odilon Gayosso-Barragán*, Juan Samuel Alcala-Rico, Manuel Vizcarra-López

Department of plant breeding, University Autonomous Agrarian Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila, México

Abstract
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (Forl) is one of the most destructive necrotrophic pathogens affecting tomato crops, causing considerable field and greenhouse yield losses. The use of resistant cultivars is a safe, non-contaminating and reliable control method to eradicate or mitigate this disease. However, it is still necessary to determine the best inoculum density, sufficient to induce levels of resistance or susceptibility. In this study, inoculum concentrations of 3, 5 and 8 x 106 microconidia per mL of Forl were evaluated by root immersion and seed spraying in twenty tomato genotypes (Solanum spp.) in a completely randomized design. The germplasm was mainly introduced tomato species from the Genetic Resources Program of the University of California at Davis, USA. The inoculation was done by immersion of roots and by sprinkling of seeds at the time of sowing. For the inoculation by immersion of roots, tomato seedlings of 15 days emergence were used. The wounds were created in root tips then they submerged into the each conidial suspension. Finally, they transplanted into the plastic pots in a greenhouse. Regarding the inoculation by sprinkling of the seed, 20 seeds of each genotype were placed in plastic pots then sprayed with the corresponding conidial suspension. In both cases, the disease index was calculated. This allowed classifying the genotypes as resistant and susceptible. With the root immersion method all the genotypes evaluated showed susceptible. Significant differences were observed (p≤0.01) between genetic materials at different inoculum doses with the inoculation of seeds. This allowed classification of genotypes Solanum parviflorum LA 1326, Solanum chesmanii f. minor LA1401, Solanum chmielewskii LA1306, Solanum pimpinellifolium LA722, Solanum pimpinellifolium LA2184 as resistant to Forl with disease index of 3, 4, 5, 8 and 12% respectively, at a inoculum concentration of 3x106 microconidia per mL. These genotypes could be included in a genetic breeding program for resistance to crown and root rot caused by Forl.

Pages 1322-1327 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE1140
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Effect of different sources of organic matter added to the substrate on physiological parameters of clonal plants of conilon coffee

Waylson Zancanella Quartezani*, Ramon Amaro de Sales, Sávio da Silva Berilli, Talita Aparecida Pletsch, Weverton Pereira Rodrigues, Eliemar Campostrini, Wallace de Paula Bernado, Evandro Chaves de Oliveira, Leonardo Raasch Hell, Euzileni Mantoanelli

Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo/Campus Montanha, Rodovia ES 130, km 01, Bairro Palhinha, CEP: 29890-000, Montanha , ES, Brasil
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo/Campus Itapina, Rodovia BR 259, km 70, Zona Rural, CEP: 29700-970, Colatina, ES, Brasil
Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Engenharias, Alegre, Brasil
Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense. Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil


Abstract
Organic matter is a fundamental component of a substrate. However, different organic matter sources can provide different physiological responses from seedlings as a result of different types and concentrations of humic substances, which influence the functioning of the plant and the structuring of the soil. The objective of this work was to quantify photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange, and secondary metabolite indices in the abaxial and adaxial parts of leaves of Conilon coffee clonal plantlets grown in different sources of organic materials. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments consisted of different sources of organic matter added to the substrate: 85% soil + 15% urban waste compost; 85% soil + 15% mature cattle manure; 85% soil + 15% dairy residue; 85% soil + 15% tannery sludge; and a Control: 100% soil, without addition of organic material. The contents of chlorophylls a, b, and total, carotenoids, and their ratios were analyzed by destructive methods. Indirect measurements of nitrogen and chlorophyll (SPAD) were performed by non-destructive methods. Fluorescence indices of flavonoids, anthocyanins, total chlorophyll, and nitrogen balance were estimated using a Multiplex® sensor. The substrate added with dairy residue provided the highest chlorophyll a production in the adaxial part, which was confirmed by the SPAD index. Tannery sludge provided the highest production of flavonoids. The comparison between the two forms of evaluation showed that the abaxial part of the leaf had greater sensitivity and that the Multiplex® sensor showed higher sensitivity for detection of indices. No changes were found in plant photosynthesis. However, greater stress was detected in the treatment with tannery sludge.

Pages 1328-1334 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE1150
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Water consumption of Beta vulgaris L. cultivated in greenhouse under fertigation and types of foundation fertilization

Patrícia Ferreira da Silva*, Rigoberto Moreira de Matos, Vitória Ediclécia Borges, Thiago Galvão Sobrinho, José Dantas Neto, Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima, Jailton Garcia Ramos, Mariana de Oliveira Pereira

Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109- 970, Paraíba, Brazil

Abstract
The cultivation of table beet is being largely done in greenhouse. It is among 15 most cultivated crops in Brazil. The quantification of water consumption is relevant to meet water demand at different stages of crop development. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the daily water consumption of table beet cv. Early Wonder in greenhouse under fertigation and different types of fertilization. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of Federal University of Campina Grande. Treatments consisted of five doses of nitrogen applied by fertigation (0, 0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8g per pot) and three types of crop establishment fertilization (earthworm humus; earthworm humus +NPK, and soil without fertilization as control), arranged in a 5 x 3 factor design with four repetitions. A digital hygrometer was used to measure temperature and relative humidity of the air. The reference evapotranspiration was estimated as recommended by Hargreaves and Samani. To meet the water requirement of crop, irrigation must be managed according to its developmental stage. The highest daily water consumption in these growing conditions was obtained in the third stage of development, at which the evapotranspiration of the crop exceeded the reference evapotranspiration. Fertilization with earthworm humus in greenhouse beet cultivation increased the efficiency of water use and can be used instead of chemical fertilization to meet the nutritional needs of the crop. The nitrogen dose of 2.8 g per pot, corresponding to 6.22 g of urea per plant, was the one that provided the highest water content in beet cultivation in greenhouse.

Pages 1335-1341 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE1177
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The within-panicle flowering sequence of hybrid rice affects seed vigour

Aiju Meng, Yan Li, Linmao Zhao, Chunqing Zhang*

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, China, 271018

Abstract
Rice grains located along one panicle do not develop synchronously. Understanding of relationships between upper, middle and basal portions and flowering positions of rice panicles with grain weight, vigour and morphology is important for high-vigour seed production. In this study, four rice F1 hybrids were used to analyse grain morphology, 1000-grain weight and seed vigour. The position of the seed on the panicle had a significant influence on seed vigour, with upper seeds having the highest vigour, followed by middle and basal seeds. The flowering sequence within a given branch affected seed size, 1000-grain weight and seed vigour, with differences in 1000-grain weight, mainly as a function of seed length. In each hybrid, the 1000-grain weight and vigour index of primary branches were superior to those of secondary branches. The flowering sequence of the primary grain branch was significantly correlated with 1000-grain weight and seed vigour index, with the highest values recorded at second and third flowering positions. In secondary branches bearing fewer than four grains, 1000-grain weight and seed vigour index exhibited a significant linear relationship with flowering sequence, in which the earliest maturing grains had the highest grain weight and vigour. When secondary branches included more than four grains, grain weight and vigour followed the same parabolic trend as in primary branches. Our findings indicate that 1000-grain weight and seed length can be used as indices of seed vigour.

Pages 1342-1350 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE1210
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Billet distribution and initial establishment of sugarcane due to the planting shifts

Wilson de Almeida Orlando Junior*, Carla Segatto Strini Paixão, Murilo Aparecido Voltarelli, Lucas Augusto da Silva Girio, Rouverson Pereira da Silva, Haroldo Carlos Fernandes

Federal University of Viçosa, Campus Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil
Federal University of São Carlos, Campus Lagoa do Sino, Buri, SP, Brazil
Paulista State University, Campus Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil


Abstract
The increased production of sugarcane becomes increasingly dependent on mechanization mainly planting to achieve better performance, quality and cost reduction of operation. This study aimed to evaluate the mechanized planting operation of sugarcane in day and night shifts, through evaluations in the distribution of billets and early crop establishment. The mechanized planting was performed using a tractor-planter set with the chopped cane planter with two rows of fertilizer shanks spaced by 1.5 m. A randomized blocks experimental design with 40 replications was implemented in sub-split plot scheme, considering the shifts (day and night) as main treatments, grooves (right and left) as subplots. Spacing (distribution of billets, viable buds, percentage of viable buds and consumption of buds) and time (tillering and failures in sprouting) were considered as sub-sub-plots. The results showed that the shifts had no influence on the mechanical planting operation of sugarcane neither on the quality of distribution of buds in the furrows. The initial crop establishment presented greater tillering values at 30, 60 and 120 days after planting in day shift for the right furrows, as compared to night shift because of the variability in the production environment.

Pages 1351-1356 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE1236
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Antimicrobial activities of Caucalis platycarpos L. and Eryngium caucasicum Trautv. essential oils

Sahar Mohamadipour*, Abdollah Hatamzadeh, Davood Bakhshi, Ardalan Pasdaran

Department of Horticulture, University Campus 2, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Medicinal Plants Processing Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Abstract
Caucalis platycarpos L. and Eryngium caucasicum belong to Umbelliferae and are well represented in the flora of Iran by about 120 genera, 3500 species, and 100 endemic plants. This family is really valuable from economic and medicinal points of view and some species of this family are well known either because they have medicinal properties or because of great essential oils that they contain. Additionally, the mentioned genus has been wildly used in traditional medicine in Iran as an antitumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory agent. In this regard, this study was conducted to provide useful information about essential oils of these two species. Volatile constituents of aerial parts of Caucalis platycarpos L. and Eryngium caucasicum Trautv. were investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC–FID). Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus subtilis using a disc diffusion method. The essential oils were mainly composed of trans-pinocarvyl acetate and caryophyllene oxide considered as the most significant constituents. According to a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), the essential oils showed antimicrobial effects. Moreover, the oils extracted from E. caucasicum and C. platycarpos indicated antibacterial activities against S. aureus and B. subtilis.

Pages 1357-1362 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE1277
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Effects of Gibberellic acid (GA3) on reduction of rot disease and physico-chemical quality of 'Pinot Noir' grape

Pricila Santos da Silva*, Caroline Farias Barreto, Marines Batalha Moreno Kirinus, Andressa Vighi Schiavon, Marcelo Barbosa Malgarim, Paulo Mello-Farias

Departament of Biotechnology, Santa Catarina State University, Brazil
Departament of Crop Science, Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil


Abstract
'Pinot Noir' grape shows sensitivity to cluster rot (Botrytis cinerea) because bunches are small and compact, causing economic and qualitative losses in vinery and fresh grapes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gibberellic acid (GA3) on rot incidence of ‘Pinot Noir’ grapevine. The experiment was carried out for two years. The treatments were GA3 doses of 0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg L-1 applied at the developed inflorescence (DI) on 14-year-old plants. The results showed that rot percentage in the two crops decreased from 24.75% to 20.72% with application of GA3. The clusters length was higher when GA3 doses of 4; 6 and 8 mg L-1 were applied, compared to the control and 2 mg L-1 of GA3. The rachis length increased after 4; 6 and 8 mg L-1 of GA3 application doses, when compared to the control and 2 mg L-1 of GA3. The cluster width increased after application of GA3 doses, compared to control. Larger rachis width was observed after application of 4, 6 and 8 mg L-1 GA3, compared to the control. Bunch mass was increased with the use of GA3 at 2 and 4 mg L-1 doses, compared to the control and GA3 6 and 8 mg L-1 doses. Regarding the soluble solids, there were higher values in the control and 2 mg L-1 of GA3. Thus, in the 'Pinot Noir' grapevine, application of GA3 decreased clusters rotting and increased clusters and rachis lenghts.

Pages 1363-1369 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.08.PNE1282



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