Volume 10 Issue 1 | January 2016
Table of Contents
Southern Cross Publishing Group©2016
Australian Journal of Crop Science | January 2016
Volume 10 Number 1 Year 2016
Physiological characterization of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes, water-stress induced with contrasting response towards drought
Anna Cristina Lanna, Suzy Taeko Mitsuzono, Thiago Gledson Rios Terra, Rosana Pereira Vianello, Milene Alves de Figueiredo Carvalho*
Embrapa Arroz e Feijใo, Rodovia GO-462, km 12, Zona Rural, Caixa Postal 179, 75375-000, Santo Ant๔nio de Goiแs, GO, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Goiแs, Campus Samambaia, Caixa Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiโnia, GO, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Vi็osa, Av. PH Rolfs sn, 36570-000, Vi็osa, MG, Brazil
Embrapa Caf้, Parque Esta็ใo Biol๓gica, Av. W3 Norte, Caixa Postal 40.315, 70770-90, Brasํlia, DF, Brazil
The objective of this study was to identify physiological traits in common bean under water restriction. The common beans genotypes, BAT 477 (tolerant to water-stress) and Perola (sensitive to water-stress), were grown under greenhouse conditions under two different watering regimes: irrigated (control treatment) and non-irrigated (stress treatment). Under water-stress, BAT 477 showed less reduction in grain yield (33%), more capacity for osmotic adjustment (0.30 MPa) and superiority in the root systemดs development (~50%) compared to Perola that showed a 53% reduction in the grain yield and 0.06 MPa of osmotic adjustment. In this study, the robustness of the root system and osmotic adjustment are the main physiological indicators of tolerance to water deficit in common bean plants.
Pages 1-6 | Full Text PDF
Germination performance of papaya genotypes subjected to salinity, water restriction and high irradiance stress
Liana Hilda Golin Mengarda, Jos้ Carlos Lopes*, Rodrigo Sobreira Alexandre3 and Rafael Fons๊ca Zanotti
Postgraduate Program in Plant Production, Federal University of Espํrito Santo (Universidade Federal do Espํrito Santo), Alegre, Espํrito Santo, Brazil
Department of Plant Production, Federal University of Espํrito Santo (Universidade Federal do Espํrito Santo), Alegre, Espํrito Santo, Brazil
Department of Forest Sciences, Federal University of Espํrito Santo (Universidade Federal do Espํrito Santo), Alegre, Espํrito Santo, Brazil
The objective of this study was to characterize the stresses induced by salinity, water restriction, and irradiance during germination, and to evaluate the germination performance of four papaya (Carica papaya) genotypes under the different stresses. The seeds were subjected to osmotic potentials of zero, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -0.8 MPa, induced by sodium chloride (NaCl) for salinity, and mannitol for drought, as well as to different levels of irradiation (60, 130, 580 and 1200 ตmol m-2 s-1) during germination. The hybrids Caliman 01 and JS12 x Waimanalo present the highest germination potential. The hybrid Caliman 01 presents greater germination performance under conditions of salt and water stress, while the hybrid JS12 x Waimanalo presents greater performance under elevated irradiance.
Pages 7-15 | Full Text PDF
Agronomical performance of citrus scion cultivars grafted on Rangpur lime in north-eastern Brazil
Carlos R. Martins, Helio W.L. Carvalho, Adenir V. Teodoro*, Walter S. Soares Filho, Orlando S. Passos
Embrapa Temperate Agriculture, Rod. BR-392, Km 78, 9บ Distrito, Monte Bonito, 96010-971, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Embrapa Coastal Tablelands, Av. Beira Mar, 3250, 49025-040, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil
Embrapa Cassava & Fruits, Rua Embrapa s/n,44380-000, Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil
Here, we evaluated vegetative, productive and phytosanitary parameters of twenty citrus scion cultivars (eight sweet oranges, four hybrids of mandarins and eight clones of Tahiti acid limes) grafted on Rangpur lime, grown in the state of Sergipe. The Pera scion was considered the control. The following parameters were evaluated in all scion cultivars: canopy volume, vigor, drought tolerance, nutrition, cumulative yield, yield efficiency as well as the number of mined leaves by the leaf miner Phyllocnistis citrella and the number of adults of the rust mite Phylocoptruta oleivora. The Kona scion had the highest annual and cumulative fruit yields among sweet orange cultivars. Among the hybrids of mandarins, Piemonte showed higher cumulative yield and similar production efficiency in comparison to Nova and Page.
Pages 16-23 | Full Text PDF
Genetic diversity and DNA fingerprinting of indigenous and exotic mandarin genotypes in India using SSR markers
Gurteg Singh*, Pushpinder Singh Aulakh, Navraj Kaur Sarao, Gurupkar Singh Sidhu, Harinder Singh Rattanpal
Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India
School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, India
Genetic variability and fingerprint profiles of 19 indigenous and exotic mandarin genotypes introduced from different parts of India and USA were determined using 60 SSR markers. Of the 57 SSR markers amplified, a total of 96 alleles were detected by 39 polymorphic SSR loci and maximum 5 alleles were amplified with an average of 2.46 alleles per primer pair. The CAT01 was the highly informative marker as it revealed maximum number of alleles (5), PIC value (0.75) and genetic diversity (0.79).
Pages 24-31 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary PDF
Organic matter and physicochemical attributes of a cambisol under different agricultural uses in a semi-arid region of Brazil
Ana Cecํlia da Costa Sinclair Marinho, Jeane Cruz Portela*, Eulene Francisco da Silva, Nildo da Silva Dias, Francisco Souto de Sousa J๚nior, Antonio Carlos da Silva, Jucirema Ferreira da Silva
Department of Environmental and Technological Sciences (DCAT), Federal Rural University of the Semi-Arid - (UFERSA), Caixa Postal 137, CEP 59.625-900 Mossor๓ (RN), Brazil
The objective of this study was to analyze quantitative fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil's physicochemical attributes according to different agricultural uses, aiming to analyze its impact on the soil. The secondary objective was to detect which of these attributes was the most sensitive to distinguish environments. The results showed that in the studied areas, soil fertility had neutral to alkaline reactions without the presence of Al3+ and H+Al, and without a high salinity. The highest organic material input in the AOA enhanced the P, Ca2+ and K+ of the soil, reduced Mg2+ and an increased resistance to penetration due to animal trampling.
Pages 32-41 | Full Text PDF
Brazilian maize landraces: source of aluminum tolerance
Caroline de Jesus Coelho, Dayane Molin, Guilherme de Jong, Jos้ Raulindo Gardingo, Eduardo Fแvero Caires, Rodrigo Rodrigues Matiello*
Postgraduate Program in Agronomy, State University of Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, Brazil; CEP: 84030-900
Postgraduate Program in Evolutionary Biology, State University of Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, Brazil; CEP: 84030-900
Postgraduate Program in Genetic and Plant Breeding, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, Brazil; CEP: 37200-000
The aim of this study was to prospect alleles for aluminum (Al) tolerance in different maize germplasms and to estimate the genetic parameters associated with that tolerance. Fifty-two hybrids from 4 seeds companies and 50 maize landraces were evaluated after 48 h of exposure to Al. The results showed for both maize germplasms (hybrids or landraces) differences in root growth of genotypes when exposed to Al.
Pages 42-49 | Full Text PDF
Improvement of salt tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by increasing antioxidant defense systems using exogenous application of proline
Dhiman Bhusan, Debasish Kumar Das, Mahmud Hossain, Yoshiyuki Murata, Md. Anamul Hoque*
Department of Soil Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh
Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
To investigate the protective effects of proline against salt stress, salt-sensitive (BRRI dhan29) and moderately salt-tolerant (BRRI dhan47) rice cultivars were grown in pots. Rice plants were exposed to different concentrations of NaCl at active tillering stage, and proline solutions (0, 25 and 50 mM) were sprayed on the leaves. Salt stress caused a significant reduction in growth and yield of both rice cultivars. Growth was drastically reduced and both cultivars failed to produce grains at 50 and 100 mM NaCl stresses, and even application of proline failed to compensate the adverse effects at those high salt stresses. Exogenous proline showed a significant increase in plant growth of both cultivars at 25 mM NaCl stress, and that proline increased grain yield of only salt-sensitive rice at same salt stress.
Pages 50-56 | Full Text PDF
Effect of anaerobic co-digestion of grape marc and winery wastewater on energy production
Tanvi H. Makadia*, Esmaeil Shahsavari*, Eric M. Adetutu, Petra J. Sheppard, Andrew S. Ball
RMIT University, Centre for Environmental Sustainability and Remediation, School of Applied Sciences, Bundoora, Melbourne, Australia
School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia
In this study, we carried out anaerobic co-digestion of grape marc and winery wastewater for energy production in the form of methane and material recovery. The results showed that milling the grape marc prior to being suspended in winery wastewater and inoculated with activated sludge in a 15 weeks batch digestion resulted in the production of 5.04 MJ/kg VS of energy compared with 0.97 MJ/kg VS from the non-milled treatment. Milling of grape marc also showed reduced COญ2 emission, 4.95 l/kg VS compared with 9.96 l/kg VS from non-milled samples.
Pages 57-61 | Full Text PDF
Physicochemical characteristics of 'Pera' sweet orange Citrus sinensis affected by citrus leprosis
Daniel Junior de Andrade*, Vinํcius Armando Covielo, Cirano Cruz Melville, Diego Silva Siqueira, Fernando C้sar Pattaro, Carlos Amadeu Leite de Oliveira
UNESP-Sใo Paulo State University, College of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences (FCAV/UNESP), Brazil Departamento de Fitossanidade, Laborat๓rio de Acarologia, Via de Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane s/no, CEP 14884-900, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil
Citrus leprosis is among the most serious viral diseases of citrus in South and Central America. Our objective was to study the physicochemical characteristics of the Citrus sinensis Pera sweet orange grafted on C. reshni 'Cleopatra' mandarin with different severity of citrus leprosis. We used different acaricides against vector mite Brevipalpus yothersi to obtain plants with different levels of disease. The highest severity levels were observed in plants without acaricide application and plants treated with spirodiclofen and cyhexatin in rotation showed the lowest levels of citrus leprosis severity. Plants treated with lime sulfur presented intermediate levels of severity this disease.
Pages 62-68 | Full Text PDF
Nutrient partitioning and nutritional requirement in sugarcane
Ruthanna Izabelle de Oliveira, Ma้rcio Rodrigo Farias Amaral de Medeiros, Clarissa Soares Freire, Fernando Jos้ Freire*, Djalma Euz้bio Sim๕es Neto, Emํdio Cantํdio Almeida de Oliveira
Federal Rural University of Pernambuco - UFRPE, Agronomy Department, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/n, Dois Irmใos, CEP: 52171-900, Recife, PE, Brazil
Federal Rural University of Pernambuco - UFRPE, Forest Science Department, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/n, Dois Irmใos, CEP: 52171-900, Recife, PE, Brazil
Experimental Station of sugarcane, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco - UFRPE, Rua ยngela Cristina Canto Pessoa Luna, s/n, Bairro Novo, CEP: 55810-000, Carpina, PE, Brazil
This study was carried out to determine the content and quantify the partitioning of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in the stalks, leaves and tops of 11 sugarcane varieties cultivated under rainfed conditions. Secondly, to establish the requirements of N, P and K in kg Mg-1 of sugarcane produced by different varieties. For an average production of approximately 80 Mg ha-1 of sugarcane in the first cycle there may be a return to the soil of 135, 32 and 98 kg ha-1 of N, P and K, respectively. The highest accumulations of N, P and K were observed for two varieties; N and K for RB92579 and P for RB867515.
Pages 69-75 | Full Text PDF
Effects of surfactant and limited irrigation on forage yield and quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)
Sepideh Jafarian, Mohammad Reza Chaichi*, Mehrdad Moradi-ghahderijani
Department of Agronomy, Collage of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
To evaluate the response of alfalfa to limited irrigation and surfactant application, an experiment was conducted during 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. The result of the experiment showed that as the severity of limited irrigation increased crude protein percentage significantly increased, while the other traits were not affected under stress conditions. Additionally the forage yield followed a decreasing trend by enhancing the water scarcity. Surfactant application at limited irrigation treatments (75% and 50% irrigation), indirectly increased crude protein (CP) yield, reduced the neutral digestive fiber (NDF) and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) percentage.
Pages 76-80 | Full Text PDF
Phenotypic plasticity of root system and shoots of Sorghum bicolor under different soil water levels during pre-flowering stage
Paulo C้sar Magalhใes, Thiago Corr๊a de Souza*, Alyne Oliveira Lavinsky, Paulo Emilio Pereira de Albuquerque, Leandro Lino de Oliveira, Evaristo Mauro de Castro
Maize and Sorghum National Research Center, Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil
University of Alfenas, Institute of Nature Sciences, Alfenas, MG, Brazil
University of Lavras, Department of Biology, Lavras, MG, Brazil
In order to understand possible relationships among the features of plant organs located above and below soil, their correlation and how it might affect strategies for drought adaptation, two sorghum lines contrasting in drought tolerance (BR007-sensitive and 99100-tolerant) were cultivated under different soil water levels during pre-flowering stage. At physiological maturity, the root morphology and agronomic parameters associated to productivity were analyzed. Regardless the variation in the soil moisture, plants of the line 99100 presented values significantly superior for HI, RDB and LA compared to plants of the BR007 line, whereas the A values were lower. Only line 99100 plants increased VFRL compared to its counterparts under FC. The lack of change in root morphology in line BR007 plants was accompanied by increase in CAT activity and lower DBV in leaves.
Pages 81-87 | Full Text PDF
An investigation of the self- and inter-incompatibility of the olive cultivars Arbequina and Koroneiki in the Mediterranean climate of Sicily
Annalisa Marchese*, Francesco Paolo Marra, Francesca Costa, Alessandra Quartararo, Silvia Fretto, Tiziano Caruso
Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences (SAF), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 4 Ingresso H - 90128 Palermo, Italy
In this investigation, the self-(in)compatibility of the Spanish cultivar Arbequina and the Greek cultivar Koroneiki was studied for the first time in Sicily, where these low vigour cultivars were recently introduced in super-intensive olive groves. Self- (S.P.) and open-pollination (O.P.) tests, observation of fruit set and paternity test of seeds with microsatellite (SSR) markers, were performed to ascertain whether these cultivars were self-fertile and/or inter-compatible. Genomic DNA was extracted from seeds. None of the Arbequina seeds studied in either the S.P. or O.P. tests originated from self-fertilization. In addition, none of these seeds had Koroneiki as the pollen parent. In contrast, Koroneiki was found to be predominantly self-compatible in self-bagged branches, with 70% of the seeds originating from self-fertilization.
Pages 88-93 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary PDF
Performance of day-neutral strawberry cultivars in soilless culture
Rosiani Castoldi da Costa*, Eunice Oliveira Calvete, Heloํsa Ferro Constโncio Mendon็a, Alexsander Campagnolo, Jos้ Luํs Trevizan Chiomento
University of Passo Fundo, Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Campus I-Barrio San Jos้ - BR 285 - Km 171, CEP :99052-900, 611 Pillar Box - Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) are classified as short-day (single-cropping) or day-neutral (DN; perpetual-flowering), in term of flowering and according to the place and year of production. The performances of DN cultivars are little known, mainly in temperate and sub-tropical regions, such as those located in South America. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance of Albion cultivar from frigo seedlings in the off-season period in a soilless culture system, using two different materials as a base, namely carbonized rice husk (CRH) and the commercial substrate Mec Plant Horta 2ฎ. The results showed that out of 19 months of cultivation, there was fruit production in 13 months, with an average productivity of 3.5 kg plant-1. In conclusion, it is possible to produce strawberries independent of the substrate used, in off-season periods, where they are harvested fruits with better taste (TSS/TTA).
Pages 94-100 | Full Text PDF
Differential responses of root system and gas exchange in contrasting tomato genotypes under phosphorus starvation
Douglas Jos้ Marques*, Ernani Clarete da Silva, Mozart Martins Ferreira, Carlos Maurํcio Paglis, Thiago Corr๊a de Souza, Wilson Roberto Maluf, Gabriel Mascarenhas Maciel, Ewerton Dilelis Ferreira, Allan Klynger da Silva Lobato
Setor de Olericultura e Experimenta็ใo, Universidade Jos้ do Rosแrio Vellano (UNIFENAS), Alfenas, Brazil
Universidade Federal Sใo Joใo Del-Rei, Sete Lagoas, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, Brazil
Instituto de Ci๊ncias da Natureza, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Brazil
Instituto de Ci๊ncias Agrแrias, Universidade Federal de Uberlโndia, Monte Carmelo, Brasil
N๚cleo de Pesquisa Vegetal Bแsica e Aplicada, Universidade Federal Rural da Amaz๔nia, Paragominas, Brazil
The objective of the research was to evaluate the development of the root system, gas exchange and efficiency in the absorption of phosphorus in contrasting tomato genotypes. The experimental design was a randomized block in the factorial scheme with three tomato genotypes (Globonnie, Tom-598 and F1) and four phosphorus levels (0.2, 30, 60 and 100 mg L-1) with four replications. Assessing the root morphology, it was observed that the Globonnie genotype has higher root length value in 0.2 mg L-1 of P; however, with the increasing of P levels it was greater in F1 genotype.
Pages 101-110 | Full Text PDF
Nitrogen compounds and enzyme activity in young muru็i (Byrsonima crassif๓lia L.) plant subjected to water stress
Cโndido Ferreira de Oliveira Neto*, Tamires Borges de Oliveira, Karollyne Renata Souza Silva, Glauco Andr้ dos Santos Nogueira, Bruno Moitinho Maltarolo, Thays Correa Costa, Kerol้m Prํcila Sousa Cardoso, Luma Castro de Souza, Raimundo Thiago Lima da Silva, Jackeline Ara๚jo Mota Siqueira
Instituto de Ci๊ncias Agrแrias, Universidade Federal Rural da Amaz๔nia, Bel้m, Parแ, Brazil
Forest Science Department, Universidade Federal Rural da Amaz๔nia, Bel้m city, Parแ State, Brazil
Agronomist student at Universidade Federal Rural da Amaz๔nia- UFRA, Brazil
Agronomist, doctorate student in Agronomy (soil science), Universidade Estadual de Sใo Paulo - UNESP, Brazil
The objective of this study was to verify the nitrogen compounds and enzyme activity in muru็i plants subjected to water stress. The suspension of irrigation (water stress) for 25 days provided significant changes in all parameters. The suspension was sufficient to alter the metabolic and enzymatic pathways of young muru็i plants, reducing the relative water content, nitrate concentration and total soluble protein, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity. However, the suspension raised the free ammonium, total soluble amino acids, proline and glycine betaine concentrations in the plant parts. However, some important enzymes in nitrogen metabolism cannot be activated, compromising the entire process of assimilation of this element in soils with low water availability, contributing to the knowledge about abiotic stresses in murucizeiro plants.
Pages 111-117 | Full Text PDF
Irrigation and nitrogen effects on seed cotton yield, water productivity and yield response factor in semi-arid environment
Joใo Henrique Zonta*, Ziany Neiva Brandใo, Valdinei Sofiatti, Jos้ Renato Cortez Bezerra, Jos้ da Cunha Medeiros
Embrapa Algodใo - CEP 58428-095, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of water levels and N rates on growth and yield of cotton (BRS 286) in semi-arid condition. Irrigation and N fertilization influenced growth parameters and cotton yield. The highest seed cotton yield (5707 kg ha-1) was reached with 130% ETc and 210 kg N ha-1. The maximum N agronomic efficiency was achieved at 140 kg N ha-1. The treatment 70% ETc showed significant benefits in terms of irrigation water savings, with WUE 0.587, indicating the possibility of use to deficit irrigation under water scarcity conditions. The seasonal yield response factor (Ky) was 0.70, demonstrating that the BRS 286 was water stress-tolerant crop.
Pages 118-126 | Full Text PDF
Genomic prediction for yield improvement and safeguarding of genetic diversity in CIMMYT spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e lanalisi delleconomia agraria - Centro di ricerca per le colture industriali, Via di Corticella 133 - 40128 Bologna, Italy
Simulation studies have demonstrated that genomic selection (GS) can produce superior results in comparison with methods currently used to select the quantitative traits in plants. This work aimed to evaluating the cross-validation accuracy (rcv) of two GS models and their efficiency in grain yield improvement. The impact of models on genetic diversity was also assessed using pedigree and genotyping-by-sequencing of 19 traits in two multifamily wheat populations. The breeding problem modeled was the performance of newly developed, untested genotypes. Overall prediction accuracy was comparable between models, moderate in a highly structured population (rcv0.50) and high (rcv0.70) in less structured population. This prediction level can sustain wheat breeding programs.
Pages 127-136 | Full Text PDF | Supplementary PDF