Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

APRIL 2018 | EARLY VIEW | 12(04) 2018 | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04

Inter-annual analysis of soybean and corn yield in relation to water deficit in a transitional zone between subtropical and tropical climate

Geovanna C. Zaro*, Paulo H. Caramori, Wilian da S. Ricce, Pablo R. Nitsche, Simone S. Werner, Juliandra R. Rosisca, Gisele S. de Aquino, Angela B. F. da Costa

Londrina State University – UEL, Agricultural Science Center, Londrina-PR, Brazil
Agronomic Institute of Parana - IAPAR, Ecofisiology Section, Londrina-PR, Brazil
Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Enterprise of Santa Catarina - Epagri, Florianópolis-SC, Brazil
Meteorological System of Paraná - SIMEPAR, Curitiba-PR, Brazil


Abstract
Biofuels from soybean and corn oil can potentially create new markets in Brazil. The key to a stable biofuel production is the use of high-yielding varieties tolerant to environmental stresses. The inter-annual variability of rainfall caused by large scale meteorological phenomena, such as El Nino-Southern Oscillation and irregular distribution of precipitation has been a major cause of uncertainty in agricultural production in Brazil. The objective of this study was to perform an inter-annual and inter-regional analysis of soybean and corn yield in relation to water deficit in a transitional zone between subtropical and tropical climate in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in the state of Parana (22–26º S), one of the main soybean and corn producing areas in the country. The state was divided into six regions (Northwest, North, West, Midwest, Southwest, and South), and the year with the highest productivity in each region was used as a reference to calculate the relative yield losses per year. These losses were correlated with the accumulated water deficit between November and January. The relative yield losses of soybean and corn had a nonlinear relationship with water deficit within each region. Based on the market prices of each year, we estimated that the total losses due to water deficit over the nine growing seasons were $8.36 and $2.67 billion for soybean and corn, respectively. In terms of productivity, the South region showed the highest stability, whereas the Northwest region the lowest stability in response to water deficit. The results show that inter-annual and regional variability of water stress play an important role in soybean and corn productivity in the transition zone between tropical and subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

Pages 511-518 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne525
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Biomass, content, yield and chemical composition of mint (Mentha x villosa Huds.) essential oil in response to withholding irrigation

Lucas Ferenzini Alves*, Filipe Pereira Giardini Bonfim, Sthefani Gonçalves de Oliveira, Márcio Gonçalves Campos, Cristiane Bolina de Oliveira, Márcia Ortiz Mayo Marques

Department of Horticulture, School of Agriculture, Sao Paulo State University, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Plant Genetic Resources Center, Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC), Brazil


Abstract
The current work aimed at evaluating the influence of withholding irrigation on biomass production, content, yield and chemical composition of mint essential oil. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and eight repetitions; totally forty plots; being conducted in pots inside a greenhouse for 58 days. The treatments consisted of withholding irrigation (NS) at different levels: control (daily constant irrigation at day zero by withholding irrigation), light NS (withholding irrigation for three days before harvesting), intermediate NS (withholding irrigation for six days before harvesting), severe NS (withholding irrigation for nine days before harvesting) and very severe NS withholding irrigation for twelve days before harvesting). Then, the following characteristics were evaluated: shoot fresh mass (SFM), shoot dry mass (SDM), root fresh mass (RFM), root dry mass (RDM), root volume (RV), conten, yield and chemical composition of mint essential oil. Results indicated that some characteristics were affected by withholding irrigation, such as SFM RFM, RDM, RV and some essential oil components (i.e. 3-octanol; linalool; limonene; p-cymen-8-ol; 3-octanol, acetate; cis-β–ocimene and cis-Piperitone epoxide). However, there was no significant difference between content and yield. Therefore, the current study showed that suppressing irrigation for 12 days before harvesting (very severe NS) did not affect plant development, since mint is commercialized in dry form.

Pages 519-523 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne579
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Inheritance pattern of zinc (Zn) concentration in Middle American and Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds

Micheli Thaise Della Flora Possobom, Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro*, Cleiton Renato Casagrande, Maykon Junior da Silva

UFV-Viçosa Federal University, Crop Breeding Sector, Plant Science Department, Viçosa, MG, Brazil
UFSM-Santa Maria Federal University, Crop Breeding Sector, Plant Science Department, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

Abstract
The development of common bean cultivars biofortified for zinc meets the global demand for food which may help minimize nutritional deficiencies. The objectives of this research were to investigate the distribution of zinc in the four different Middle American and Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds, to estimate the genetic parameters for zinc concentration in seeds, and to select recombinants biofortified for zinc. Thus, controlled crossings were carried out between the Middle American lines CNFP 10104 and CHC 01-175, and the Andean cultivars Cal 96 and Hooter. Seeds from F1, F1 reciprocal, F2, F2 reciprocal, and backcross (BC11 and BC12) generations were obtained. Parents and segregating generations were evaluated in two field experiments performed in Brazil. In the parents evaluated, from 57.01 to 68.47% of zinc was accumulated in the seeds embryo. Zinc concentration in Middle American and Andean common bean seeds had no significant maternal effect. Zinc concentration in common bean seeds ranged from 11.59 to 49.84 mg kg-1 of DM in F2 generation, and showed a continuous distribution, which is characteristic of quantitative inheritance. Broad-sense heritability of zinc concentration in common bean seeds is of high magnitude (h2b= 67.21 to 90.03%) and from 17.32 to 27.80% of gain with selection is expected. From the tested hybrid combinations 112 recombinants with high zinc concentration in the seeds can be selected. Inheritance pattern of zinc concentration in Middle American and Andean common bean seeds is quantitative.

Pages 524-530 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne591
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Path analysis of agronomic traits in soybean cultivars with determinate and indeterminate growing habits 

Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Gustavo Henrique Demari1, Kassiana Kehl, Guilherme Pelissari, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Maurício Horbach Barbosa, Tiago Corazza da Rosa, Nathan Lobler dos Santos, Tamires da Silva Martins, Maicon Nardino, Tiago Pedó, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Tiago Zanatta Aumonde

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil
Fundação Pró-Sementes, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Frederico Westphalen, RS, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Pampa, Dom Pedrito, RS, Brazil


Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine associations of cause and effect agronomic traits with grain yield in contrasting growth habits of soybean genotypes, as well as to verify the magnitude of similar behaviors in different growing environments. The trials were conducted for one crop season using randomized blocks design arranged in factorial scheme, including two growing environments (Independência - RS and Tenente Portela - RS) x four genotypes (FPS Solimões RR e FPS Júpiter RR; BRS Tordilha RR and Fepagro 36 RR, 2 indeterminate and 2 determinate growing habits, respectively) in three replications. Ten important soybean yield components were evaluated. The data were subjected to individual analysis of variance for each environment and growing habits. For each environment within habits, the phenotypic path analysis was performed among the traits. The components number of pods on the main stem, number of ramifications, number of pods in the ramifications, and number of one and two-grain pods presented contrasting results in growing environments. The number of three-grain pods is among the components mostly related to grain yield for both determinate and indeterminate growing habit genotypes, regardless of the environment. The adoption of genotypes with higher weight of thousand grains may provide satisfactory results for grain yield, regardless of the growth habit and environment of cultivation.

Pages 531-538 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne608
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Biofertilizer increases the production and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil in soils with adequate water availability

Marcelo de Andrade Barbosa, Geffson de Figueredo Dantas, Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz, Evandro Franklin de Mesquita, Francisco Vanies da Silva Sá*, Alberto Soares de Melo

Department of Soils and Fertilizers, São Paulo State University (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil
Department of Agricultural Engineering, São Paulo State University (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil
Department of Agricultural and Exact Sciences, Paraíba State University (UEPB), Catolé do Rocha, PB, Brazil
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Paraíba State University/Embrapa Cotton, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil

Abstract
The experiment was carried out with the goal of evaluating the productive aspects of sunflower cultivar Helium 253, in response to the application of cattle biofertilizer and levels of water availability in two types of soils. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted using the factorial 2x2x5 for the 2 types of soils: Entisol and Alfisol, two levels of water availability in the soil (100 and 50% of moisture retention capacity, and five rates of liquid cattle biofertilizer corresponding to 0; 0.75; 1.5; 2.25 and 3 L plant-1, prepared in the proportion of water 1:3. Sunflower plants were cultivated in pots with 30 L volume, individually filled with each type of soil, with daily water supply made based on humidity readings determined in the pots, using a capacitance multi-sensor probe type PR2/6 (Time Domain Reflectometry - TDR). To evaluate the sunflower production, the following variables were measured: internal diameter (IDH) and outer diameter of the head (ODH), number of seeds per plant (NSP), weight of 100 seeds (W100S) and oil content in seeds (OCS) and water consumption per plant (WCP). Among the studied soils, Entisol is the one that presents the best conditions for the production of the sunflower cv. Helium 253, being also the soil where the highest water consumption by plant occurs. For Entisol, it is recommended the rate of cattle biofertilizer estimated in 1.05 L plant-1, and for Alfisol the rate of 3 L plant-1. Regardless of the soil used, the highest production values are obtained when the soil was maintained with 100% of moisture retention capacity.

Pages 539-545 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne802
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Fungitoxicity activity of Phosphorus and Calcarea carbonica against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and control of white mold in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with extremely diluted aqueous solutions

Bruna Broti Rissato, José Renato Stangarlin, Omari Dangelo Forlin Dildey, Camila Rocco da Silva, Edilaine Della Valentina Gonçalves-Trevisoli, Sidiane Coltro-Roncato, Tulya Fernanda Barrientos Webler, Odair José Kuhn, Alfredo José Alves Neto, Diego Augusto Fatecha Fois, Jéssica Caroline Coppo

State University of Maringá - UEM, Maringá, PR, Brazil
State University of West Paraná - UNIOESTE, Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR, Brazil
University Dynamic of Falls - UDC, Medianeira, PR, Brazil
Federal University of Paraná - UFPR, Palotina, PR, Brazil

Abstract
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the main Brazilian agricultural crops. Numerous diseases have affected such a crop during its life cycle, such as white mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This fungus is quite aggressive and requires an intensive use of pesticides. This study aimed at evaluating white mold control and antimicrobial activity against S. sclerotiorum using extremely diluted aqueous solutions of Phosphorus and Calcarea carbonica, at 6CH, 12CH, 24CH, 36CH and 48CH dynamizations (centesimal Hahnemannian). The tests were carried out in a completely randomized design, with 10 treatments and 5 replicates each, considering water as control. Variables including disease progression, the number of dead plants, the number of sclerotia, and mycelial growth were evaluated by in vivo and in vitro tests. The treatments Phosphorus 12CH, Phosphorus 48CH, Calcarea carbonica 12CH, and Calcarea carbonica 48CH presented resistance-inducing action by slowing down the disease progression up to 83% and decreasing the number of dead plants up to 90%. In vitro tests showed that the treatments Phosphorus 12CH, Phosphorus 48CH and Calcarea carbonica 48CH slowed down the mycelial growth. The latter also completely inhibited the production of sclerotia. These results indicate the potential of Phosphorus 12CH, Phosphorus 48CH, Calcarea carbonica 12CH, and Calcarea carbonica 48CH for controlling S. sclerotiorum in common beans.

Pages 546-551 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne804
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Responses of microbial biomass, available phosphorus, and sugarcane yield after filter cake amendment in a tropical soil

Ana Cecília Teixeira Lima Cremonezi, Karen Karolina Khun, Leandro de Oliveira, Juliano Carlos Calonego, Carlos Sergio Tiritan, Fabio Fernando de Araujo, Henrique Antunes de Souza, Luiz Fernando Carvalho Leite, Ademir Sergio Ferreira de Araujo*

Universidade do Oeste Paulista, Curso de Agronomia, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil
Universidade Estadual Julio Mesquita Filho, Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil
Embrapa Meio-Norte, Teresina, PI, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Piaui, Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, Teresina, PI, Brazil


Abstract
A field experiment was conducted from 2012 to 2015 aiming to evaluate two different P sources (TSP - triple superphosphate and NP - natural phosphate) associated with filter cake (FC) on soil microbial biomass, available P and sugarcane yield. The experiment design was a split-plot with four replications and consisted of different proportions of P sources: T1 - 100% TSP with FC; T2 - 100% TSP without FC; T3 - 66% TSP and 33% NP with FC; T4 - 66% TSP and 33% NP without FC; T5 - 33% TSP and 66% NP with FC; T6 - 33% TSP and 66% NP without FC; T7 - 100% NP with FC; T8 - 100% NP without FC. Application of filter cake increased soil microbial biomass and activity from the first to the third year. At the third year, the mixing of filter cake and TSP improved the status of microbial biomass and activity. Sugarcane yield did not show differences between treatments at the first and second years. However, at the third year, the application of FC associated with 33% of TSP and 66% of NP promoted highest sugarcane yield. In conclusion, the combination of both soluble and natural P sources associated with filter cake seems to be the best strategy for improving soil biological properties and increasing P availability and sugarcane yield in long-term.

Pages 552-556 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne811
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Applying plant oils to control fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in corn

Marcelo Sousa Barbosa*, Barbara Barbosa Dias, Mariana Santana Guerra, Gustavo Haralampidou da Costa Vieira

UEMS-UUC, State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, 306 MS Highway km 6.4, Municipality of Cassilândia, MS, Brazil 79540-000

Abstract
Corn (Zea mays) is one of the world’s main agricultural crops, and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is its most important pest. In order to find natural controlling alternatives, this study aimed to determine the effect of plant oils on the feeding preference of first- and second-instar caterpillars. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 6 x 5 factorial combination (turmeric, clove, palmarosa, tea tree, common juniper, and neem oils) at five concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µL mL-1), plus a control consisting of acetone 100.0%, with five replicates per treatment. Twenty-five-day-old corn leaf sections received the corresponding treatments in addition to the control and were deposited along orthogonal axes in an arena arranged in Petri dishes. Ten 1st instar caterpillars were released at the center of the plates, and results were obtained after 8h and 24h from the release, based on the number of caterpillars found on each treatment. For 1st instar caterpillars, the best results were observed for clove and palmarosa, which negatively influenced caterpillar feeding activity in both evaluation periods, followed by turmeric oil, which showed the same effectiveness in the last period only. For second-instar caterpillars, the best effects were observed for neem, turmeric, palmarosa, and clove oil in the first evaluation period. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the first three oils was maintained in the second evaluation period. These results emphasize the potential capability of plant oils when used in management programs against this pest, in which the oils of turmeric, clove and palmarosa showing the best controlling potential of this pest from the lowest concentration corresponding to 25 µL mL-1.

Pages 557-562 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne822
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Morpho-physiological adaptation of Jatropha curcas L. to salinity stress

Polyana Geysa da Silva Cavalcante, Claudiana Moura dos Santos, Humberto Cristiano de Lins Wanderley Filho, João Raphael Lima Avelino, Lauricio Endres*

Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Center of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Alagoas, Delza Gitaí Campus, BR 104 Km 85, Rio Largo City – AL, Brazil

Abstract
The aim of the current study is to assess the growth response, biochemical changes, photosynthetic pigments content and gas exchanges of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) grown under natural saline conditions. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design based on the following soil electrical conductivities: 0.29 dS.m-1 (control), 1.76 dS.m-1 (moderate salt concentration), 2.61 dS.m-1 (high salt concentration), 3.79 dS.m-1 (very high salt concentration). Physic nut plants were kept under saline conditions for 19 days in greenhouse. Plant growth analyses were performed on a weekly basis. Plant biomass allocation was quantified at the end of the experiment. Leaf gas exchange, stomatal conductance, Fv/Fm and quantum yield were quantified 102 days after planting. Photosynthetic pigments, amino acids, proline and carbohydrates in fresh leaf tissue were also quantified. The leaf antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were quantified. Although there was no alteration in biomass allocation, the initial growth of J. curcas was gradually reduced by increasing salt concentration, which was observed through reduced plant height, stem diameter, and total number of leaves. Soil electrical conductivity 3.79 dS.m-1 was lethal to seedlings. Seedlings exposed to salt stress had their photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration and effective photochemical efficiency reduced, and their catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzyme activity increased. Amino acids, proline and carbohydrate concentrations increased due to salt stress, whereas there was decrease in the chlorophyll content. J. curcas is sensitive to soil salinity at electrical conductivity levels higher than 1.76 dS.m-1. To some extent, salinity effects can be relieved by osmolyte accumulation and by greater antioxidant activity; however, these factors were not sufficient to keep plant growth within normal rates.

Pages 563-571 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne835

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Monitoring, calibration and maintenance of optimized nutrient solutions in curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) hydroponic cultivation

Antonio Fernandes Monteiro Filho, Carlos Alberto Vieira de Azevedo*, Márcia Rejane de Queiroz Almeida Azevedo, Josely Dantas Fernandes, Carisa Rocha da Silva, Pedro Dantas Fernandes

State University of Paraíba, Center of Environmental and Agrarian Sciences, Lagoa Seca, 58.117-000, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.429-140, Paraíba, Brazil
Fellow of CNPq Research Productivity, level 1B, Brazil
Fellow of CNPq Research Productivity, level 1A, Brazil


Abstract
The monitoring, calibration and maintenance of nutrient solutions are fundamental for the development of hydroponic lettuce. This study aimed to monitor temperature, electrical conductivity, hydrogen potential and consumption of nutrient solution, besides evaluating the effectiveness of the Microsoft Office Excel SOLVER tool in the calibration of different mineral and organomineral nutrient solutions in the NFT hydroponic cultivation of curly lettuce. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with three replicates and the treatments consisted of four mineral solutions proposed by Furlani, Bernardes, Ueda and Castellane and Araújo, besides four organomineral nutrient solutions, proposed in this research, with chemical composition similar to the previously cited ones. For 24 days, the nutrient solutions were monitored and the variations of temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and nutrient solution consumption by the crop were measured. Calibrations were made using the Microsoft Excel SOLVER tool, using as reference an EC of 1.5 dS m-1 and nutrient solution volume of 17 L. During the experiment, regardless of the nutrient solution (modified and mineral), temperature showed maximum and minimum values of 28.7 and 21.5 ºC, respectively, and pH variation was lower in the modified nutrient solutions. Water consumption was higher with the use of mineral solutions, in comparison to the organomineral solutions with the same chemical composition. The SOLVER tool was efficient and easily used in the calibration and maintenance of electrical conductivity and volume of the nutrient solutions.

Pages 572-582 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne858
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Gas exchange and photosynthetic light response curves in nematode-infected tomato plants treated with Thuya occidentalis

Thaísa Muriel Mioranza*, Adriano Mitio Inagaki, Mônica Anghinoni Müller, José Renato Stangarlin, Vandeir Francisco Guimarães, Jeferson Klein, Odair José Kuhn

Department of Agronomy, State University of Maringá – UEM, Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil
Department of Agronomy, Western Paraná State University – Unioeste, Marechal Cândido Rondon, Paraná State, Brazil
Department of Agronomy, Federal University of Paraná – UFPR, Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil
Anhanguera College, Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil


Abstract
The use of homeopathic formulations on plants may cause changes in plant metabolism and result in disease control by inducing resistance. This work aimed to study the physiological responses of tomato plants infected with nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and treated with highly diluted preparations of Thuya occidentalis, a homeopathic remedy. The different treatments included T. occidentalis 6CH, 24CH, and 50CH (Centesimal Hahnemanian), a water control (with nematode and without treatment), and an absolute control (no treatment and no nematode). The assay was conducted in a greenhouse using a randomized block design with four replications. Gas exchange parameters were measured at specific times before and after nematode inoculation. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, leaf internal CO2 concentration, and leaf temperature were measured at various photosynthetic photon flux densities. No significant difference was found in the different gas exchange specific measure parameters between the treatments. Untreated infected plants showed an increase in net photosynthesis and in the carboxylation capacity, as shown by the light response curve. Treatment with T. occidentalis 24CH inhibited the increase in CO2 fixation in tomato plants inoculated with M. incognita, leading to a similar behavior as healthy plants, independently of the photon density.

Pages 583-591 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne861
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Nutritional aspects of corn due to cover crops, nitrogen doses and inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense

José Roberto Portugal*, Orivaldo Arf, Amanda Ribeiro Peres, Flávia Constantino Meirelles, Ricardo Antônio Ferreira Rodrigues, Alex Rangel Gonzaga, Nayara Fernanda Siviero Garcia, Daiene Camila Dias Chaves Corsini

São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Plant Science, Food Technology and Social Economy, Ilha Solteira, State of São Paulo, Brazil
São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Plant Health, Rural Engineering and Soil, Ilha Solteira, State of São Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
In modern agriculture, there is a challenge for adequately nourishing plants using sustainable techniques, mitigating the use of mineral fertilizers, especially nitrogenous fertilizers, which are the most used for corn crops. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accumulation potential of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in: a) cover crops (millet, crotalaria, pigeon pea, millet + crotalaria, millet + pigeon pea and fallow) and b) corn plants sown in succession to the cover crops and with application of nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1) in topdressing and inoculation via seeds using Azospirillum brasilense. The experiment comprised randomized blocks in a 6x4x2 factorial design totaling 48 treatments and 4 replications. The study was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Engineering (UNESP), Ilha Solteira campus, located in the municipality of Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) state. The soil of the site is a typical clayey dystrophic Red Latosol. The millet + crotalaria intercropping allows the accumulation of high amounts of N and K and results in a great accumulation of dry matter and nutrients in corn plants sown in succession. Application of nitrogen in topdressing provided an increase in the accumulated dry matter of corn plants of up to 85 kg ha-1. Inoculation via seeds using Azospirillum brasilense did not increase the accumulation of dry matter and nutrients of corn plants. It is recommended to cultivate corn in succession to the millet + crotalaria and the aplication of 80 to 100 kg ha-1 of N in topdressing aiming at better nutrition of the plants.

Pages 592-601 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne864
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Propagation of Umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam.), a native plant to Brazilian semi-arid regions, using ethephon and indolebutyric acid (IBA)

Mário L. M. Véras*, Rejane M. N. Mendonça, Silvanda M. Silva, Lucimara F. Figueredo, Vandeilson L. Araujo, Walter E. Pereira, José S. de Melo Filho, Raimundo Andrade

Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Plant Science, 36570-000, Viçosa, MG, Brazil
Federal University of Paraíba, Department of Plant Science, 58397-000, Areia, PB, Brazil
State University of Paraíba, Department of Agrarian and Exact, 58884-000, Catolé do Rocha, PB, Brazil


Abstract
Umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam.) is a plant native to Brazilian semi-arid regions. Currently, there is no protocol for propagation for this species. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the propagation of Umbuzeiro by cuttings, using ethephon and indolebutyric acid (IBA). In this study, a completely randomized statistical design was used with the doses of ethephon (0, 14.5, 50, 85.5, 100 mg L-1) and IBA (0, 872.35, 3000, 5127.65, 6000 mg L-1) combined by the matrix "Central Compound Box" in 4 replicates. After application of ethephon and IBA on plants, cuttings with 20 cm length were prepared and planted in tubes with sand and organic compound (1:1 v/v) and placed in a greenhouse at 50% light under misting. The percentage of sprouted cuttings, length and diameter of the shoots, the percentage of rooted cuttings, live cuttings with and without calyx, dead cuttings, number of roots and length, dry matter of roots, leaf and total dry matter were evaluated. A combination of the doses of 100 mg L-1 of ethephon and 6000 mg L-1 of IBA increased the percentage of sprouted cuttings, number of shoots per cutting, number of roots per cuttings and promoted the rooting of 47.20% of the Umbuzeiro cuttings. The shoot formation and dry matter of Umbuzeiro cuttings were not influenced by the doses of ethephon. The IBA doses increased shoot formation and dry matter production of the umbuzeiro cuttings under greenhouse conditions.

Pages 602-609 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne888
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Modulation of the initial growth of Eucalyptus clones using paclobutrazol: when smaller is better

Saad Miranda Silva dos Santos, Sylvana Naomi Matsumoto*, Ricardo Andrade e Silva, Luan dos Santos Silva, Anselmo Eloy Silveira Viana

Cortez Engenharia Limitada, Avenida João Paulo 1°, nº 425, Bairro Nobre, CEP 46100-000, Brumado, Bahia, Brazil
Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Campus Vitória da Conquista, CP 95, CEP 45000-000, Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil
Faculdades Arnaldo Horácio Ferreira, Rua Pará, nº 2280 – 7 Mimoso I, CEP 47850-000, Luís Eduardo Magalhães, Bahia, Brazil
Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho,Programa de Pós Graduação em Agronomia, Fazenda Lageado, Rua José Barbosa de Barros, nº 1780,CEP 18610-307, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil


Abstract
Modulating the growth rates of Eucalyptus during the initial vegetative phase via plant growth regulators can improve field establishment. The objective of this study was to verify the impacts of different concentrations of paclobutrazol (PBZ) on two Eucalyptus hybrids during the initial phase of growth. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse using an E. urophylla x E. grandis hybrid (AEC 1528) and a spontaneous hybrid of E. urophylla (144 AEC). Both clones were subjected to PBZ concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm active ingredient (a.i.) applied to the soil. The treatments were part of a 2x5 factorial design, and they were arranged into randomized blocks and consisted of five replicates. Cuttings were transplanted into 20-L pots; each pot contained one cutting and was considered an experimental unit. At90 days after the application of PBZ, the growth and development of both Eucalyptus clones subjected to all concentrations were inhibited. The inhibition effects intensified as the concentration of PBZ increased until approximately 90 to146 ppm and increased the plant sturdiness ratio (H/D; S//diameter) due to the inhibition of height caused by PBZ. Clone AEC 144 performed better than clone AEC 1528with respect to dry mass accumulation, LN and leaf area. However, clone AEC 1528 was superior with respect to resource partitioning due to a lower S/R ratio, aiding survival underwater deficit conditions.

Pages 610-616 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne894
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Changes in competitive ability between safflower-weeds affected by timing of nitrogen fertilizers

Reza Moradi Talebbeigi, Seyed Abdolreza Kazemeini*, Hossein Ghadiri

Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran

Abstract
Nitrogen (N) effects on crop–weed competition and its information may help to improved integrated weed management systems. A two-year field experiment (2015 and 2016) was conducted on a silty clay loam soil in semi-arid climatic conditions to determine the combined effects of N sources (ammonium nitrate (AN), ammonium sulfate (AS), sulfur coated urea (SCU), urea (U)) and timing fertilization (sowing, stem elongation, flowering) on weed-safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) competition and safflower yield at Shiraz University, Iran. The experimental design was a split split-plot with three replications. Results showed that weeds significantly reduced safflower yield components approximately 39% and caused a decrease in seed yield up to 70%. In weed free, the highest seed yield (3303.52 kg ha-1) and oil yield (753.09 kg ha-1) were achieved by AN and U fertilizers, respectively, when N fertilization was applied half (50 kg N ha-1) at sowing and other half (50 kg N ha-1) at stem elongation and zero N application at flowering stage (T1N1⁄2, T2N1⁄2, and T3N0). However, AN or U fertilizer timing of T1N1⁄2, T2N1⁄2, and T3N0 increased relative competition intensity (RCI) and ability to withstand competition (AWC) indices approximately 80%. On the contrary, U fertilizer timing of T1N1⁄2, T2N1⁄2, and T3N0 increased ability to compete (AC) index up to 20% as compared to the AN fertilizer. Our research has shown that U fertilizer timing of one third of the N (33.5 kg N ha-1) fertilization at sowing, two thirds of the N (66.5 kg N ha-1) fertilization at stem elongation and zero N application at flowering (T1N1⁄3, T2N2⁄3, and T3N0) can be used to advise farmers of the importance of strategic fertilizer management in terms of both weed management and safflower yield.

Pages 617-623 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne902
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Biochemical characterization of blackberry fruit (Rubus sp) and jellies

Angela Vacaro de Souza*, Rogério Lopes Vieites, Estevão Perin Gomes, Marcos Ribeiro da Silva Vieira

São Paulo State University (Unesp), Faculty of Science and Engineering, Tupã, SP, Brazil
São Paulo State University (Unesp), Faculty of Agronomic Science, Botucatu, SP, Brazil
Federal University of Pará (UFPA), Altamira University Campus, Altamira, PA, Brazil

Abstract
The present study aimed to quantify the phenolic compounds, carotenoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity using 2 different methods in blackberry fruits harvested at 3 different harvest points along the storage time and jellies made from these fruits and the quantification of ascorbic acid in the fruits. The harvesting points used were defined visually, being: 100% red (T1); 50% red and 50% black (T2) and 100% black (T3). After harvest, the fruits were selected, washed and packed in PET boxes with capacity for 200g of fruit and stored for 15 days at 2ºC, being evaluated every 3 days and for the manufacture of the jellies, the fruits were first pulped in stainless steel pulping machine being the jellies prepared with 50:50 (fruit: commercial crystal sugar) in open pan. The results show that the loss of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and carotenoids was small when fruits and jelly were compared, as well as the antioxidant activity, and this shows that the processing of this fruit does not cause losses in relation to these evaluated parameters.

Pages 624-630 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne933
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Physiological quality and dry mass production of Sorghum bicolor following silicon (Si) foliar application

Rilner Alves Flores*, Everton Martins Arruda, Virgínia Damin, Jonas Pereira Souza Junior, Deyvid Diego Carvalho Maranhão, Marcus André Ribeiro Correia, Renato de Mello Prado

Soil Sector, Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil
University of the State of Mato Grosso, Campus of Nova Mutum, Nova Mutum, Brazil
Department of Soil and Fertilizers, Paulista State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil
Department of Soil Science, Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Brazil
Federal Institute of Tocantins, Campus of Colinas do Tocantins, Colinas do Tocantins, Brazil

Abstract
The forthcoming of silicon (Si) highly soluble sources provided a suitable alternative to Si use in agroecosystems. There are many benefits associated to Si application in crops, such as improvement in feed quality. In this sense, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Si foliar application on physiological quality, biomass production, and silicon accumulation in Sorghum bicolor. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse condition using an entirely randomized design, with five Si rates (0 as control), 0.84, 1.68, 2.52, and 3.36 mg L-1 of Si) applied as potassium and sodium silicate, with four repetitions. In each treatment, applied solutions were balanced in potassium in order to isolate the Si effect. The following measurements were taken: growth, biomass production, Si accumulation, and physiological quality. Supplying Si via leaves did not affect the sorghum growth rate and the relative chlorophyll index; however, leaf area increased 23% with the use of 2.36 g L-1 of Si. Physiological variables are influenced by increasing Si rates, with rates close to 1.68 g L-1 of Si causing the best photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance. The use of potassium silicate as a source of silica is an alternative for productivity increases up to 30%, but an economic study on the viability of its commercial application in the production chain of Sorghum bicolor is necessary.

Pages 631-638 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne967
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Germination and morphology of seeds and seedlings of Colubrina glandulosa Perkins after overcoming dormancy

João Luciano de Andrade Melo Junior*, Luan Danilo Ferreira de Andrade Melo, João Correia de Araújo Neto, Vilma Marques Ferreira

Department of Plant science, Center of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Alagoas, Rio Largo, AL, Brazil

Abstract
The objectives of the present study were to morphologically characterize the seeds, study post-seminal development, and report the best treatment to overcoming dormancy of colubrina (Colubrina glandulosa Perkins). Eight replicates of 100 seeds were weighed and the length, width, and thickness of each seed were measured for the physical characterization. External and internal aspects were considered for the morphological description of the seeds. Seven pre-germination treatments were used to overcoming dormancy: (T1) intact seeds; immersion in sulfuric acid for 60 (T2) and 90 min (T3); (T4) manual scarification in the region opposite the hilum; (T5) immersion in water at 80°C, followed by standing in the same water outside the heat for 24 hours at room temperature; and immersion in distilled water for 24 (T6) and 48 hours (T7). The germinative process was recorded for 19 days in the post-seminal study. The variables analyzed were germination, first count, speed, average germination time, germination uncertainty and synchrony, seedling length, and dry mass. This was a completely randomized designed study, with four replicates of 25 seeds in each treatment. The seeds were morphologically highly variable. The testal and the embryo were the invaginated type. Germination was epigeal and the phanerocotyledonal type. Manual scarification induced maximum germinability in the meantime, resulting in a unimodal distribution of the relative frequency and high synchronization of germination, which allowed for the maximum number of highly vigorous seedlings. These results indicate a treatment for overcoming dormancy in C. glandulosa.

Pages 639-647 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne980
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Analysis of phenotypic plasticity in indeterminate soybean cultivars under different row spacing

Alvadi Antonio Balbinot Junior*, Maria Cristina Neves de Oliveira, Claudemir Zucareli, André Sampaio Ferreira, Flávia Werner, Marcelo Augusto de Aguiar e Silva

Embrapa Soybean, Rodovia Carlos João Strass, distrito de Warta, CEP 86001-970, Londrina, Paraná state, Brazil
Londrina State University, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, PR 445, Km 380, Caixa Postal 6001, 86051-980, Londrina, Paraná state, Brazil

Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate how branch and stem variables contribute to grain yield per plant of two indeterminate soybean cultivars at varied row spacing. Four experiments were conducted in the 2013/14 and 2014/15 cropping seasons under a randomized complete block design with three replications. Each experiment consisted of one row spacing: 0.2 m (narrow row), 0.5 m (traditional), 0.5 m (crossed rows), and 0.2/0.8 m (twin rows). We evaluated two cultivars (BRS 359 RR and BMX RR Potência) and three seeding rates: 150, 300, and 450 thousand seeds ha-1. Regarding phenotypic plasticity, grain production per plant was regarded as a dependent variable, while the number of branches per plant, the percentage of grain production from branches, and yield components of branches and stems as independent variables. Data underwent stepwise regression and principal component analysis. The results showed that number of pods per plant from branches is the most determinant variable of plasticity trait, regardless of row spacing. The number of pods per plant from branches and stems, the number of branches per plant, and the percentage of grain production from branches were associated with the plasticity. The number of grains per pod and the thousand-grain mass from branches and stems had no significant contribution to the soybean plasticity.

Pages 648-654 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne1003
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Factors affecting variation of total factor productivity in Cocoa farming in the Central Sulawesi, Indonesia 

Effendy*

Department of Agriculture Economics, Tadulako University, Palu Indonesia 94119

Abstract
One of the main cocoa producing areas in Indonesia is the Central Sulawesi region. Cocoa farmers have been given extension and training about agricultural technology such as pruning, fertilizing and side grafting. Nevertheless, the cocoa productivity is still low. This case has been questioned by authorities; so this research aims to measure and analyze the factors that have affected the variation of total factor productivity (TFP) in cocoa farming in the Central Sulawesi. The study selected a total of 424 cocoa farmers using a simple random sampling technique. The model of stochastic frontier function of translog forms was used to anticipate factors affecting cocoa production. The Cobb-Douglas production function was used in TFP variation. The results showed that TFP of cocoa farming varied from a minimum of 0.371 to a maximum of 1.407 with an average of 0.803. Technical efficiency, education, extension access, cocoa farming experience, sanitation, and fermented cocoa beans affected TFP variation significantly. These six factors appeared to be the main determinant factors of TFP variation. However, technical efficiency was the most important factor, so policies should aim at mobilizing resources toward expanding education and extension. In addition, extension services should provide information to cocoa farmers on using inputs efficiently.

Pages 655-660 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne1025
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Tolerance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to different durations of simulated shallow water table condition

Benyamin Lakitan*, Sabaruddin Kadir, Andi Wijaya, Susilawati

College of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, Universitas Sriwijaya, Inderalaya 30662, Indonesia
Research Center for Sub-optimal Lands (PUR-PLSO), Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang 30139, Indonesia
College of Agriculture, Department of Soil Sciences, Universitas Sriwijaya, Inderalaya 30662, Indonesia


Abstract
Shallow water table problem has lessened farmer’s interest in cultivating vegetables at riparian wetland in Indonesia. At present, riparian wetlands are mostly underutilized. Objective of this study was to evaluate tolerance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to shallow water table condition. Common bean variety of PV072 was used in this study. Research was conducted in Jakabaring, South Sumatra, Indonesia; from November 2016 to February 2017. Leaf and root growth or damage can be used as an indicator of stress tolerance in plants exposed to unfavorable soil conditions. Results of our study indicated that roots of common bean were unable to survive in water saturated condition below water table, but the plants were able to compensate for this constraint by increasing root biomass within aerobic substrate above water table. Moreover, after termination of shallow water table treatment, common bean was able to regrow their roots into the ex-saturated zone. Common bean plants produced marketable yield albeit limited rhizosphere space. Interestingly, the plants exposed to 24 days of shallow water table produced the highest yield. In conclusion, common bean can be considered as tolerant vegetable to shallow water table. It should be noted that bean leaf reached 90 percent and full size in less than 6 days and 9 days, respectively, after the young leaf was unfolded. Therefore, long term study on bean leaf growth and development requires measurement on sequential and multiple leaves. Also, nocturnal relative leaf expansion rate (RLER) was significantly faster than diurnal RLER.

Pages 661-668 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.04.pne1047


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