Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

JULY 2018 | EARLY VIEW | 12(07) 2018 | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07

Morphological changes recorded in different phenophases of sugarcane plants subjected to water stress in tropical field conditions

Laurício Endres*, Claudiana Moura dos Santos, Geraldo Veríssimo de Souza, Marcelo Menossi, Jhulyanne Christiny Marcelino dos Santos

Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Center of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Alagoas – Campus DelzaGitaí, Br 104 North, Km 85, municipality of Rio Largo, AL, Brazil
Program of Sugarcane Genetic Improvement of the Interuniversity Network for the Sugar Energy Sector Development; Federal University of Alagoas (Ridesa/UFAL), Maceio, AL, Brazil
Laboratory of Functional Genome, Institute of Biology, Campinas State University-UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil

Abstract

Nowadays, water deficit is one of the major environmental stress issues affecting sugarcane crops around the world. It has been causing significant production decrease due to the increased mortality rates generated by water stress in sugarcane plantations. The aim of the current study is to assess sugarcane morphological and yield responses during different phenophases of sugarcane varieties when plants are subjected to drought stress in the fields of a tropical region. Six sugarcane varieties, namely: SP79-1011, RB855113, RB92579, RB867515, RB72454, and RB855536, were subjected to water stress. The herein adopted water regimes were (i) irrigated crop and (ii) crop subjected to natural drought in the field. Plants were cultivated under water stress imposition throughout three phenological stages (i) tillering, three months after planting; (ii) intense growth, seven months after planting; and (iii) ripening, eleven months after planting. The irrigation treatment consisted of supplementing the crop with 50 mm of water per month during the dry season, whereas non-irrigated plants were naturally grown under water stress conditions throughout the experiment. Water stress mostly affected the sugarcane crop during the intense growth phase. Varieties RB72454 and RB855536 presented smaller green-leaf number, as well as narrower leaf width and smaller leaf area under water stress; besides, they showed low productive potential and high stress susceptibility index (SSI). Stalk height maintenance and the larger number of tillers in RB92579 plants subjected to water stress helped balancing yield rates. This variety also showed the best drought tolerance (DTI) and yield/tolerance indices (YTI); moreover, the principal component analysis evidenced that leaf area, plant height and yield were important factors to distinguish the most tolerant varieties. Such results show that RB92579 is more drought tolerant and has better physiological acclimation potential than the other five varieties; therefore, it can be recommended for crops subjected to drought periods.

Pages 1041-1050 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE780

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Cryopreservation of Brazilian orchid (Catasetum atratum Lindl.) seed at risk of extinction

Ana Beatryz Prenzier Suzuki*, Thaís Cristina Morais Vidal, Guilherme Augusto Cito Alves, Douglas Bertoncelli Junior, Guilherme Biz, Mauren Sorace, Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Departamento de Agronomia. Londrina/PR, Brazil
Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Centro de Ciências Exatas, Departamento de Estatística. Londrina/PR, Brazil
Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil 

Abstract 

The Brazilian orchid (Catasetum atratum) is a species that exist in Cerrado and in the Atlantic Forest environments, considered as areas of hotspot. The threats are arising from the risk of excessive collection because of its medicinal value may lead the species to become endangered in the near future. Cryotechnology has gained notoriety for conservation and preservation of endangered plant species, either through cryopreservation of the seeds or its parts such as: embryos, pollen, tissues and cells. The purpose of this study is to evaluate effect of different cryoprotectants through liquid nitrogen cryopreservation on endangered Brazilian Orchid Catasetum atratum seeds. The study consists of two control treatments: C1 –control without immersion in cryoprotectant solution and without liquid nitrogen; and C2 – no cryoprotectant and only liquid nitrogen. The other treatments with cryoprotectant solutions were: glycerol, sucrose, PVS2 and phloroglucinol isolated and combined. The experimental design was completely randomized design with two controls, 11 treatments and 10 replications. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and averages compared by Tukey test at p≤0.05. The seeds showed the initial embryo viability of 69.7 ± 3.30 % at C1 (control) condition. The seeds with PVS2, glycerol + PVS2 and and sucrose + PVS2 + 1% of phloroglucinol were those, which presented higher viability of 67.7 %, 66.1 % and 69.8 %, respectively, after cryopreservation. The survival of protocorms stood out as 62.0 % (PVS2) and 65.4 % (+ 1 % sucrose phloroglucinol). The PVS2 solution was the one which improved seed survival and seedling germination of C. atratum (67.7 %) with no abnormality.

Pages 1051-1057 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE809
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Development of rootstocks grapevine and cold stratification time

Adilson Pimentel Junior*, Francisco José Domingues Neto, Marlon Jocimar Rodrigues da Silva, Ana Paula Maia Paiva, Bruna Thais Ferracioli Vedoato, Lilian Massaro Simonetti, Marco Antonio Tecchio

São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Agriculture, José Barbosa de Barros, nº 1.780, ZIP: 18.610-307, Botucatu, SP, Brazil

Abstract

With the growth of new areas of grapevine planting in Brazil and other tropical countries, the rootstocks play an important role in the implantation of new areas and adaptation of cultivars. The development of new materials has increased productivity per area and even the final quality of the grapes. One of the problems in the propagation of rootstocks grapevine is the natural dormancy present in several species. We aimed to assess the stratification time’s initial development and feasibility of grapevines rootstocks stem cuttings on field conditions. Two experiments were carried out. In the experiment of initial development of rootstocks grapevine, were used varieties: ‘IAC 572’, ’IAC 766’, ‘IAC 571-6’, ‘IAC 313’, ‘420-A’, ‘Vitis Cinerea’, ‘Riparia de Traviú’, ‘Rupestris du Lot’, ‘Kober 5BB’, ‘SO4’, ‘8B’, ‘RR101-14’, ‘99R’, ‘Schwartzmann’ and ‘Freedom’. In the experiment of stratification time feasibility of grapevines rootstock the varieties used were: ‘IAC 572’, ’IAC 766’, ‘IAC 571-6’ and ‘IAC 313’. In both experiments we assessed the stem cuttings’ rooting, sprouting and roots and shoot development. Both experiments, we performed them in a randomized block experimental design, with four replications, ten stems per experimental plot, having in between these cuttings spaces of 12 x 4 cm. During the first experiment, the treatments consisted of 15 rootstock cultivars, and during the second experiment, we used a 4 x 3 factorial scheme, represented by 4 rootstocks and 3 stratification times. The variables we assessed were: percentage of rooted and sprouted cuttings, the branch’s and root’s length, number of leaves and branches, the roots’ and total aerial dry mass. Among the assessed rootstocks in first experiment, the IACs rootstocks presented greater shoot vigor and the ‘Riparia de Traviú’ increased root system development during field settling. In the second experiment, the ‘IAC 572’ rootstock presented the best field development rates after stratification. The stem cuttings presented greater vigor when stratified cold during 20 days.

Pages 1058-1063 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE850
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Differential responses of antioxidative defense system to NaCl in grain and forage sorghum during germination and seedling establishment

Alexandre Bosco de Oliveira*, Evaldo Heber Silva do Nascimento, Elton Camelo Marques, Viviane Ruppenthal, Joaquim Enéas-Filho

Crop Science Department, Federal University of Ceará, Av. Mister Hull, 2977, Bloco 805, Campus do Pici, 60356-001, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil
Department of Environmental and Technological Sciences, Federal Rural University of Semi-Arid, Caixa Postal 137, 59625-900, Mossoro, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Ceará, Av. Mister Hull, 2977, Bloco 805, Campus do Pici, CEP 60356-001, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

Abstract

Tolerance of crops to abiotic stresses can vary among cultivars and due to the phenotypic stage of development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salinity effects on germination, seedling establishment and physiological changes on grain (BRS 310) and forage sorghum (BRS 800). Sorghum seeds were sown between two paper towels moistened with deionized water and also NaCl solution (50 mM) for 10 days. We evaluated the germination percentage, growth parameters, contents of inorganic and organic solutes and activity of antioxidant enzymes. The salinity did not affect sorghum seeds germination, however, it caused a reduction in the development of the seedlings. Both genotypes presented similar growth parameters under optimum and salt stress conditions, with exception for decreases in shoot length and shoot dry mass of BRS 800 genotype under salinity. Similar results for inorganic solutes accumulation in both genotypes suggest that osmotic adjustment cannot be considered as one of the strategies used by these genotypes to attenuate the NaCl effects. BRS 310 genotype is more tolerant to salinity than BRS 800 genotype and it is likely to be related to a better protection mechanism against oxidative damage by inducing activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. This study highlights the importance of these enzymes in the establishment of salt-tolerant sorghum seedlings under salinity conditions.

Pages 1064-1071 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE881
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Effect of irrigatation, rainfed conditions and nitrogen sources on newly released upland rice cultivar (BRS Esmeralda) with greater tolerance to drought stress

Amanda Ribeiro Peres*, Ricardo Antônio Ferreira Rodrigues, José Roberto Portugal, Orivaldo Arf, Alex Rangel Gonzaga, Flávia Constatino Meirelles, Nayara Fernanda Siviero Garcia, Daiene Camila Dias Chaves Corsini, Anderson Teruo Takasu

São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Plant Health, Rural Engineering and Soil, Ilha Solteira, State of São Paulo, Brazil
São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Plant Science, Food Technology and Social Economy, Ilha Solteira, State of São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract

The rationalization of water use, the increase in productivity and the reduction of nutrient losses are among the current challenges of agriculture. Recently, the upland rice cultivar BRS Esmeralda with more tolerance to drought was released. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the hydric variation and nitrogen sources in topdressing in upland rice cultivar BRS Esmeralda. The experiment was conducted at the Education and Research Farm of UNESP located in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) state, in 2013/14 and 2014/15. The experiment was conducted in the field under randomized blocks with a split-plot design with three hydric variations as plots (irrigation with a recommended water depth for rice + rainfall; irrigation with 75% of the recommended water depth + rainfall; and without irrigation + rainfall) and four nitrogen sources as subplots (urea, ammonium sulfate, urea + sulfate and coated urea) with four replications. The reduction in water availability delayed the flowering and ripening and reduced the production of dry matter of upland rice. There was a decrease in the productivity of rice grains upon decrease in water availability in the year with incidence of dry spell during the reproductive stage. On the other hand, there was no interference of hydric variation on grain yield in the year with a 14-day water deficit during the vegetative stage. Nitrogen sources provided similar rice productivity. In similar environmental conditions of this work, it is recommended to irrigate upland rice when drought periods occur during the reproductive stage with the recommended depth and N fertilization as topdressing. The topdressing should be carried out with the fertilizer that presents the lowest cost per kg of N.

Pages 1072-1081 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE889

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Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi accelerates the growth of shoot roots of sugarcane seedlings in the nursery

Wawan Sulistiono*, Taryono, Prapto Yudono, Irham

Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology of North Maluku, Sofifi, Indonesia
Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta Indonesia, Jl. Flora Bulaksumur Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Abstract

Shoot roots are second type of root, which emerge from the base of the new shoots, 5-7 days after planting. The shoot roots growth on single bud chips seedling is critical for further growth in dry land. The objectives of this study were to examine shoot root growth using different doses of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculum on five clones of sugarcane and to ascertain their effect on seedling biomass weight. The highest and lowest temperatures on the research site were 32º and 18 ºC, in tropical monsoon climate. The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD) in 4x5 factorial arrangement with four replicates. The treatments were: four doses of AMF inoculum (0, 1, 2, 3 g/bud chips) on five clones with single bud chips seedling (PS864, KK, PS881, BL, and VMC). The evaluated parameters were root colonization affected by doses of AMF inoculum, number of shoot roots, surface area of shoot and total roots, root length, biomass seedling, and P leaf concentration affected by doses of AMF inoculum. AMF inoculum doses of 2 and 3 g of inoculum/bud chips resulted in the speed and extent root colonization at 5 days after inoculation on all five sugarcane clones. The clones exhibited 57-100 % accelerated emergence of shoot roots (i.e. the second roots formed), increased total root length, total root surface area especially on BL, VMC, and P leaf concentration. Application of 2-3 inoculum/bud of AMF inoculum significantly increased shoot roots growth i.e. root length, root surface area, and number of shoot roots.

Pages 1082-1089 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1001

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Differential susceptibility of morning glory (Ipomoea and Merremia) species to residual herbicides and the effect of drought periods on efficacy

Nagilla Moraes Ribeiro, Beatriz Alexandre Torres, Stephanie Karen Ramos, Paulo Henrique Vieira dos Santos, Camila Tonelotti Simões, Patricia Andrea Monquero*

FAPESP scholarship, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection, São Carlos University, Araras, São Paulo State, Brazil

Abstract

The plants commonly known as morning glory belong to the genera Ipomoea and Merremia and are among the most important weeds in Brazil. Greenhouse studies were conducted in 2016/2017 to compare the susceptibility of different morning glory species - Ipomoea quamoclit, I. nil, I. hederifolia, I. triloba, Merremia aegyptia, and M. cissoides to soil-applied herbicides and to evaluate the effectiveness of these herbicides after periods of drought. In the first experiment, to evaluate the efficacy of each herbicide at pre-emergence stage, a fully randomized 6 (doses) x 6 (species) factorial experimental design with six replicates was used. The herbicides tebuthiuron (3,200; 1,600; 800; 400; 200 and 0.0 g a.i ha-1), amicarbazone (2,100; 1,050; 750; 375; 187 and 0.0 g a.i ha-1), sulfentrazone (1,200; 600; 300; 150 75 and 0.0 g a.i ha-1), mesotrione (240; 120; 60; 30; 15 and 0.0 g a.i ha-1), saflufenacil (200; 100; 50; 25; 12 and 0.0 g a.i ha-1), and imazapic (360; 180; 90; 45; 22 and 0.0 g a.i ha-1) were applied. Ipomoea hederifolia, I. nil, and I. quamoclit were most susceptible to saflufenacil; I. triloba and M. cissoides were most susceptible to tebuthiuron; and M. aegyptia was most susceptible to amicarbazone. Therefore, the best herbicide treatment depends on the species of morning glory. In the second experiment, to determine the effectiveness of herbicides after periods of drought, the treatments were arranged, for each herbicide, in a fully randomized 6 x 5 factorial design with four replicates, six species of morning glory, and five sowing times after periods of drought (0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after application (DAA) of the herbicides) relative to the application of the amicarbazone (1,050 g a.i ha-1), imazapic (180 g a.i ha-1), mesotrione (120 g a.i ha-1), saflufenacil (100 g a.i ha-1), sulfentrazone (600 g a.i ha-1), and tebuthiuron (1,600 g a.i ha-1). Herbicide effectiveness after periods of drought began to decrease after 15 days for saflufenacil; 30 days for imazapic, mesotrione, and tebuthiuron; 45 days for amicarbazone; and 60 days for sulfentrazone. Pre-emergence application of amicarbazone and sulfentrazone exhibited consistent efficacy during the drought periods, satisfactorily controlling the species of morning glory.

Pages 1090-1098 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1013

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Fungicides with physiological effects on the formation of grafted tomato seedlings

Amanda Cristina Esteves Amaro, Daniel Baron, Anamaria Ribeiro Pereira Ramos, João Domingos Rodrigues, Elizabeth Orika Ono

Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas (FCA), Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Botucatu Campus, Horticulture Department. CP-237, 18603-970, Botucatu-SP, Brazil
Centro de Ciências da Natureza (CCN), Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), Lagoa do Sino Campus, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory. CP-094, 18290-000, Buri-SP, Brazil
Instituto de Biociências (IB), Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Botucatu Campus, Botany Department, CP-510, 18618-970, Botucatu-SP, Brazil

Abstract

In tomato, grafting is being used as a preventive measurement of diseases control. During the grafting process, plants tend to overproduce reactive oxygen species in response to injury, controlling oxidative stress. It may be an important factor in achieving success in grafting. The present work aimed to evaluate if the before and after grafting application of pyraclostrobin and boscalid improves the activity of antioxidant enzymes and photosynthetic pigments, resulting in growth improvement of grafted tomato plants during graft union formation. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with 7 treatments such as: control; pyraclostrobin 0.15 g L-1; boscalid 0.15 g L-1; pyraclostrobin 0.15 g L-1+boscalid 0.15 g L-1; pyraclostrobin 0.25g L-1; boscalid 0.25g L-1; pyraclostrobin 0.25 g L-1+boscalid 0.25 g L-1 in 6 replicates. These treatments were applied to the substrate, at sowing of the scion and rootstock and through foliar application 20 days after sowing and 4 days after grafting (DAG). The 'Pizzadoro' tomato plants were grafted onto 'Guardian', 30 days after sowing, using the splice grafting method. The antioxidant enzymes activities were evaluated at the hypocotyl region, and lipid peroxidation and photosynthetic pigments at leaves at 2, 8 and 14 DAG. Plant growth was evaluated at 2 and 14 DAG. Treatment with fungicides improved the physiological performance of the seedlings, increasing the relative growth rate. The results suggest that the preventive application of pyraclostrobin and boscalid is responsible for inducing the efficiency of the antioxidative system and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments in grafted tomato plants, contributing to the reestablishment of these plants. 

Pages 1099-1107 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1024
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Initial growth of Brazilian Firetree (Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) S.F.Blake) fertilized with phosphorus in Red-Yellow Latosol

Matheus da Silva Araújo*, Ademilson Coneglian, Bárbara Elias Reis Hodecker, Adilson Pelá, Rogério Nunes Gonçalves, Ednaldo Candido Rocha

State University of Goiás, Campus Ipameri, highway GO-330, km 241, 75780- 000 Zip, Ipameri, Goiás, Brazil
Universidade de Brasília, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, highway CP 4357, 70910-900, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil
União Pioneira de Integração Social (UPIS), Campus Lagoa Bonita, highway BR 020, km 12, DF 335, km 4,8, 70390-125, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil

Abstract

Due to the scarcity of information on the use of fertilizers on the Brazilian Firetree (locally known as guapuruvu), this study aimed to evaluate the initial stages of guapuruvu (Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) S.F.Blake.) plant growth using different doses of phosphorus (P). The experiment was conducted within a greenhouse environment in dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol soil samples from the Brazilian Cerrado as the substrate in plastic containers with a capacity of 10 dm3. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments and four replicates each, totaling 24 experimental units. The treatments consisted of six different treatments of P: 0; 50; 100; 150; 200 and 250 mg dm-3, using triple superphosphate as the P-source. At 150 days, the plant height, root crown diameter, number of leaves, dry matter (leaves, stems and roots) and P content in leaves, stems, roots and soil were evaluated. In addition, the Dickson Quality Index was estimated. The results showed that plants treated with doses of 100 to 250 mg dm-3 of P had higher growth rates among the analyzed variables. Guapuruvu revealed a requirement for phosphorus in the early stages of development at the studied edaphoclimatic condition, demonstrating the necessity for the application of phosphorus doses above 100 mg dm-3 via fertilizers in soils with low P availability.

Pages 1108-1113 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1035
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Promoting the growth of Brachiaria decumbens by humic acids (HAs)

Patrick Leal Pinheiro*, Renato Ribeiro Passos, Anderson Lopes Peçanha, Luciano Pasqualoto Canellas, Fabio Lopes Olivares, Eduardo de Sá Mendonça

Department of Plant Production, Federal University of Espírito Santo, CCAE, Alegre Campus, Alegre, ES, Brazil
Biology Department, Federal University of Espírito Santo, CCAE, Alegre Campus, Alegre, ES, Brazil
Center for the Development of Biological Inputs for Agriculture (Núcleo de Desenvolvimento de Insumos Biológicos para a Agricultura - NUDIBA), State University of Northern Rio de Janeiro (Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro - UENF), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


Abstract

The increasing demand for meat and milk has stimulated interest in the development and recovery of pastures. Although humic acids (HAs) have been shown to have a biostimulating effect on plant growth, their use in pastures remains relatively unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the growth of Brachiaria decumbens at different HAs concentrations and application times. This study was conducted in a greenhouse with pots containing 1.5 L of soil collected in a degraded pasture. A trial was carried out in a randomized block design in which five HAs concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 30 and 60 mg L-1 C) and four application times were used as follows: leaf spray 15 days after emergence (LS 15 DAE); LS 45 DAE; LS 60 DAE; and successive leaf sprays (15, 45 and 60 DAE). Stem height, diameter, forage production and root development were evaluated. Height and stem diameter measurements were performed weekly. At 45 and 90 DAE, a cut was made at a height of 10 cm to simulate grazing and to measure forage production. At 90 DAE, the root mass was assessed. The HAs used at the concentration of 60 mg L-1 C applied at 15 DAE promoted increases of 44% in plant height and 196% in forage mass. After the cut, the optimum concentration was approximately 40 mg L-1 C. Although the use of HAs promoted root development, successive applications had deleterious effects on the plant. HAs could improve pasture biomass production at a low cost if applied at the ideal concentration.

Pages 1114-1121 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1038
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Interaction between nitrogen and potassium in fertilization of the piatã grass (Urochloa brizantha): productive and phytometric characteristics

Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva*, Léa Paula Vanessa Xavier Corrêa de Morais, Adriano Bicioni Pacheco, Tonny José Araújo da Silva, Helon Hébano de Freitas Sousa, Éllen Souza do Espirito Santo, Carina Sthefanie Lemes e Lima Bär

Institute of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Faculty of Agronomy and Animal Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

Abstract

In this study, the aim was to determine the phytometric and productive features of Urochloa brizantha cv. BRS Piatã cultivated in Oxisol under the influence of the nitrogen and potassium doses applied. The completely randomized experimental design was adopted in a 5x5 factorial scheme, supplying five doses of nitrogen (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg dm-3) and five doses of potassium (0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 mg dm-3), with four replications. Three shoots were cut at 30-day intervals. Plant height, number of leaves, number of tillers, leaf dry mass, stem dry mass and leaf /stem ratio were assessed. The leaf dry mass at the 370, 287 and 259 mg dm-3 doses of nitrogen in combination with the 360 mg dm-3 potassium doses revealed the biggest yields (7.8, 16.9 and 11.5 g pot-1) for the first, second and third cuts, respectively. Therefore, it was revealed that nitrogen and potassium affected the phytometric characteristics in this grass in an isolated manner by doses of nitrogen potassium. The nitrogen and potassium doses interacted positively to present significantly productive characteristics at all the three cutting procedures performed in the Piatã grass when the nitrogen to potassium ratio was maintained at about 1: 1.

Pages 1122-1128 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1048
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Common bean response to cover crop straw and topdressing nitrogen fertilization

Alexandre Pedrinho*, Eduardo Mariano, Luis Fernando Merloti, Rachel Elizabeth Danielson, Marco Eustáquio de Sá

Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
College of Agricultural Sciences, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, SP, Brazil
College of Natural Sciences and Engineering, São Paulo State University, Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil
Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA, United States of America

Abstract

The use of cover crop mixtures (i.e., grass-legume), in association with N topdressing in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has attracted interest due to the potential for increased seed yield and enhanced sustainability of the agroecosystem. This study evaluated cover crops (grass vs. grass-legume mixtures) and varied N fertilizer rates on crop parameters of common bean cultivated in a no-till system. A 5 × 4 factorial experiment tested pear millet (Pennisetum glaucum; PM), pear millet-jack bean (P. glaucum; Canavalia ensiformis; PM-JB), pear millet-pigeon pea (P. glaucum; Cajanus cajan; PM-PP), pear millet-sunn hemp (P. glaucum; Crotalaria juncea; PM-SH), and pear millet-velvet bean (P. glaucum; Mucuna pruriens; PM-VB) cover crop mixtures in a tropical system. After desiccation of the cover crops, common bean was seeded and then topdressed with three N rates (50, 100, and 150 kg N ha-1). A control (N-unfertilized) was also used. No differences related to dry biomass production and nutrient accumulation by the cover crops were detected, with the exception of S, with higher content in the PM than the PM-VB. The PM-JB mixture combined with N fertilizer addition increased the majority of the nutritional and yield parameters of common bean. For seed yield, application of 50 kg N ha-1 should be prioritized under PM-JB residues, while the input of 150 kg N ha-1 is recommended following PM-PP cultivation. Conversely, at 100 kg N ha-1 and without N addition, any cover crop treatment can be used.

Pages 1129-11138 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1062
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Expression analysis of the recombinant Catharanthus roseus deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyl transferase in tobacco plants

Bui Thi Ha, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, Nguyen Thi Tam, Le Van Son, Chu Hoang Mau*

Thai Nguyen University of Education, Vietnam
Thai Nguyen University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam
Institute of Biotechnology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam

Abstract

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don contains about 130 types of alkaloids, including vincristine and vinblastine, which are outstanding drugs for cancer. The C. roseus deacetylvindoline-4-O-acetyl transferase (CrDAT) is a key enzyme which catalyzes the second to the final reactions in the vindoline way. The low content of indole alkaloid in C. roseus plants and the high cost of indole alkaloid production have promted many research to improve indole alkaloid yield in this plant. The aim of this work was to express recombinant CrDAT in tobacco, a model plant, to create the basis for the overexpression of the gene encoding CrDAT (GenBank LN809930) in C. Roseus plants. In this study, the 35S-DAT-cmyc structure was transferred to tobacco and the transgenic tobacco lines was generated. The T1 generation was then analyzed by Western blot method and ELISA analysis. Southern blot assays confirmed that the CrDAT gene was completely introduced into tobacco genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The recombinant CrDAT protein of 51.5 kDa in size was successfully expressed at the seven transgenic tobacco lines. The recombinant CrDAT protein content of transgenic tobacco lines were 2.75 - 5.35 (g. mg-1 of total protein) range and the recombinant CrDAT protein content of the T0-1 line was highest (5.35 g. mg-1 of total protein).

Pages 1139-1143 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1077
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Application of dairy residue in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivated in Northeastern Brazil

Abraão Cícero da Silva*, Jeandson Silva Viana, José Fábio Ferreira de Oliveira, José Jairo Florentino Cordeiro Junior, Edilma Pereira Gonçalves, Vinicius Santos Gomes da Silva, Adrielle Naiana Ribeiro Soares

Departamento de Agronomia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. 52171-900, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)
Unidade Acadêmica de Garanhuns, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. 55292-270, Garanhuns, Pernambuco (Brazil)
Universidade de Sergipe. 49060-108, Aracaju, Sergipe (Brazil)
Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Rio Largo, Alagoas (Brazil)

Abstract

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the widely cultivated legume in tropical and subtropical regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of peanut (BR1) under different doses of dairy residue. The experiment was conducted as a randomized block design with three replicates. The treatments consisted of doses of milk residue: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 m3 ha-1 and an additional control containing phosphors and potassium (PK) at dose of 15 and 50 kg ha-1. The following characteristics were determined in plants: leaf area, number of stems, shoot and root system length, dry weight of shoot and root system, number of pods and grain yield. The dose of 5 m3 ha-1 provided the highest agronomic characteristics. The grain yield was greater for the dose of 10 m3 ha-1. The dairy residue can be used as a source of fertilizer on peanut crop by meeting their nutritional requirements.

Pages 1144-1149 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1099
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Physiology and growth of cashew ‘anão precoce’ (Anacardium occidentale L.) subjected to salt stress and organic fertilization

Elysson Marcks Gonçalves Andrade, Geovani Soares de Lima*, Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima, Hans Raj Gheyi, André Alisson Rodrigues da Silva, Pedro Dantas Fernandes, Leandro de Pádua Souza, Saulo Soares da Silva

Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Recôncavo of Bahia, Nucleus of Soil and Water Engineering, Cruz das Almas, 44.380-000, Bahia, Brazil

Abstract

Cultivation of cashew in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil is pivotal for the generation of jobs and income. However, agricultural production in this region has been compromised by water and soil salinity. Therefore, it is necessary to look for alternatives that minimize the effects of salt stress on cashew cultivation in this region. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate gas exchanges, photochemical efficiency and growth of cashew ‘anão precoce’ cv. BRS 226 Planalto’ irrigated with water containing different salinity levels and under organic fertilizer doses. The experiment was carried out in drainage lysimeters in a greenhouse, using a randomized block design in 5 x 4 factorial scheme with three replicates. Treatments corresponded to five levels of irrigation water electrical conductivity – ECw (0.7, 1.4, 2.1, 2.8 and 3.5 dS m-1) and four doses of organic fertilization (2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5%). Organic fertilizer doses were determined on the basis of soil volume. Bovine manure was used as source of organic fertilizer. The fertilizer was decomposed and applied in the soil before planting. Irrigation water salinity from 0.7 dS m-1 caused increase in the internal CO2 concentration and reduction in CO2 assimilation rate, transpiration and stomatal conductance of cashew ‘anão precoce’ plants, 126 days after transplantation. The results showed that chlorophyll a fluorescence and the absolute and relative growth rates were influenced by the increase of salinity in irrigation water. Organic fertilization had negative influence on gas exchanges, chlorophyll a fluorescence and growth of cashew ‘anão precoce’ in the post-grafting stage.

Pages 1150-1158 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1122
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Tritipyrum (Triticum durum × Thinopyrum bessarabicum) might be able to provide an economic and stable solution against the soil salinity problem

Maryam Kamyab, Mohammad Kafi*, Hossein Shahsavand Hassani, Morteza Goldani, Farhad Shokouhifar

Department of Agronomy and Crop Breeding, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran
Research Institute for Plant Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

The novel salt tolerant cereal, Tritipyrum, was suggested as a potential species for cultivation in saline soils to improve salt tolerance in wheat via breeding programs. Hence, investigation of its reaction to salinity stress, especially at different growth stages, seems to be necessary. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted using hydroponic technique in controlled as well as field conditions. Nine tritipyrum lines were tested under three levels of salinity (50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) in hydroponic culture. Then, based on the results, three tritipyrum lines along with one wheat cultivar were cultivated in the field under three levels of salinity of irrigation water (control, 7dS/m and 14dS/m). In the hydroponic test, according to the statistical analysis of the genotypes based on their vegetative, reproductive and seed maturity traits, tritipyrum lines were more salt tolerant than salt tolerant wheat cultivar. Also cluster analysis showed that (St/b)×(Cr/b), F4 and Az/b were the most salt tolerant tritipyrum lines. Furthermore, based on the field trial, tritipyrum lines showed better performance and produced higher grain yield as well as higher grain protein content than wheat cultivar in saline condition. Based on our results, it is conceivable to improve the salt tolerance of wheat through breeding programs. Tritipyrum lines can also be cultivated in saline soils as fodder or forage crop.

Pages 1159-1168 | | Full Text PDFdoi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1127
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Peanut seed yield under influence of fertilizer and biostimulant

Luan Danilo Ferreira de Andrade Melo*, Jeandson Silva Viana, Edilma Pereira Gonçalves, João Luciano de Andrade Melo Junior, Abraão Cícero da Silva, Priscila Cordeiro Souto

Department of Agronomy, University Federal of Alagoas – UFAL, Brazil
Department of Agronomy, University Federal Rural of Pernambuco, UFRPE, Brazil

Abstract

Nowadays, the search for increase in the crop productivity with high organoleptic, physical and physiological quality of seeds remains one of the main objectives. Considering the importance of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) for Brazilian agriculture and for the production of seeds, it is indispensable to use technological innovations aiming at the advancement of productivity and profitability for the seed producer. This study aimed to evaluate the yield and the components of peanut seed production of cultivar BR1, subjected to the foliar and seed application of Ca + B, Mo + P and Stimulate®. The design was randomized blocks with the use of three products (Ca + B, Mo + P, Stimulate®), two types of applications (via foliar and seed), the PK culture, and the absolute control, following a factorial scheme of [(3 × 2) + 2]. The doses of 2.0 mL/kg (Ca + B), 1.6 mL/kg (Mo + P), and 15 mL/kg (Stimulate®) via seeds were indicated the best for the development of the peanut crop due to its profitability and efficiency. The application of Ca + B, Mo + P, and Stimulate® via seeds is beneficial for the initial counting, emergence, emergence speed index, biological productivity, pod production, seed production and leaf area.

Pages 1169-1176 | Full Text PDF| 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1136
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Influence of light, temperature and humidity on substrate and osmoconditioning during the germination of Mimosa bimucronata (DC) O. Kuntze.

Luan Danilo Ferreira de Andrade Melo*, João Luciano de Andrade Melo Junior, João Correia de Araújo Neto, Vilma Marques Ferreira, Maria Inajal Rodrigues da Silva das Neves, Lívia Francyne Gomes Chaves

Department of Agronomy, University Federal of Alagoas – UFAL, Brazil

Abstract

The maricá (Mimosa bimucronata (DC) O. Kuntze) is a forest species, belonging to the family Fabaceae, considered endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The present work aimed to study the germinative behavior of M. bimucronata seeds under different temperatures and light qualities, as well as to evaluate the effect of the amount of water (humidity) in the substrate and the osmoconditioning during germination. Thus, the experiment was performed using a completely randomized design. The treatments were distributed in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme (temperatures and light qualities), with 4 replicates of 25 seeds each. The means were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. The volume of water and osmoconditioning of substrate was evaluated and data were subjected to regression analysis. The following variables were analyzed: first count of germinated seeds, germination, germination speed index, and electrical conductivity. The results revealed that seeds are neutral photoblasts, needing a constant temperature of 30 °C along with a white light for appropriate germination and vigor. Seeding on two sheets of paper towel moistened with water volume (mL) from 2.62 to 2.70 times was more suitable for conducting the germination test. The osmotic conditioning was inefficient in maintaining germination of these seeds.

Pages 1177-1183 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1139
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Productive and morphogenetic characteristics of sunflower irrigated with domestic treated wastewater on northeast semiarid area

Fabrícia Gratyelli Bezerra Costa, Rafael Oliveira Batista*, Joaquim Odilon Pereira, Miguel Ferreira Neto, Sandra Maria Campos Alves, Welson Lima Simões, Luiz Di Souza, Roberto Vieira Podeus

Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Departamento de Engenharia e Ciências Ambientais, 59625-900, Mossoró - RN, Brazil
Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Departamento de Ciências Agronômicas e Florestais, 59625-900, Mossoró - RN, Brazil
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte, 59190-000, Canguaretama-RN, Brazil
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Unidade Semiárido, 56302-970, Petrolina-PE, Brazil
Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Naturais, 59600-000, Mossoró-RN, Brazil

Abstract

The present study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of the sunflower crop irrigated with treated domestic wastewater and normal water (well-water) in a inceptisol of Apodi, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block experimental design, consisting of five treatments and five replications, using the H-251 sunflower cultivar from Embrapa. The treatments consisted of the application of five proportions of wastewater/well-water (T1 - 100% wastewater; T2 - 75% wastewater and 25% well water, T3 - 50% wastewater and 50% well-water, T4 - 25% wastewater and 75% well-water and T5 - 100% well-water plus chemical fertilizer, control). The variables such as plant height, leaf number, diameter of stem and the head, yield, oil production, thousand-grain weight and head weight were evaluated. The combined use of wastewater and well-water is an alternative for the substitution of mineral fertilization with minimal damage to the productive potential and development of the sunflower crop. In general, the T4 treatment was the most adequate to improve agronomic performance of the sunflower.

Pages 1184-1190 | Full Text PDF| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1158

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Dry weight and nutrient uptake of twenty one sweet sorghum genotypes grown in two separate locations of Turkey

Ibrahim. A. M. Ahmed, Ibrahim Ortaş*, Celal Yucel, Abdullah Oktem, Derya Yucel, Md Toufiq Iqbal*

Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, University of Cukurova, Adana, Turkey
Eastern Mediterranean AgricultureResearch Institute, Adana, Turkey
University of Harran, Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, SanliSanlıurfa, Turkey
Department of Agronomy and Agricultural Extension, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh

Abstract

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is a type of cultivated sorghums and has been recognized widely as potential alternative source of bio-fuel because of its high fermentable sugar content in the stalk. A substantial variation of dry matter (DM) yield and nutrient uptake information is needed for sweet sorghum genotypes under different climatic and soil conditions. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the genotypic variation irrespective to dry matter yield and nutrient up take of sweet sorghum genotypes (ii) to investigate nitrogen use efficiency of sweet sorghum genotypes. This field study was conducted in Adana and Urfa location of Turkey for one growing season where twenty one sweet sorghum genotypes were used as testing plant that collected from USA. These twenty one genotypes were selected through screening of forty nine genotypes. The experiment was conducted randomized block design with four replications in both locations. Growth parameters, nutrient up take and nitrogen (N) use efficiency was determined for the twenty one sweet sorghum genotypes. Biomass yield exhibited non-significant differences among genotypes. In contrast, significant differences were observed between Adana and Urfa irrespective to biomass yield. The N use efficiency by several sweet genotypes varies from 385 to 836 kg/ha and 282 to 779 kg/ha in Adana and Urfa locations respectively. Sweet sorghum genotypes responded differently to potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) uptake. The K uptake varies 381 to 1472 and 374 to 1405 kg/ha in Adana and Urfa locations respectively. The Ca uptake also varies 115 to 582 and 115 to 424 kg/ha in Adana and Urfa locations respectively. The Mg uptake varies 81 to 300 and 50 to 226 kg/ha in Adana and Urfa locations respectively. Our results suggest that diverse genotypic variation from different geographical regions should be considered from better sweet sorghum production from the collected sweet sorghum varieties. This study concluded that sweet sorghum genotypes may be used to develop new varieties with higher dry matter production and lower nutrient utilization by these genotypes along with the adaptations of several climatic conditions in Turkey.


Pages 1191-1199 | Full Text PDF| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.18.12.07.PNE1171



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