Australian Journal of Crop Science   AJCS

OCTOBER 2017 | EARLY VIEW | 11(10)2017 | doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10


Analysis of genotype × environment interaction and stability for grain yield and chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) disease resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba)

Asnakech Tekalign*, Julia Sibiya, John Derera, and Asnake Fikre

African Centre for Crop Improvement, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Holetta Agricultural Research Centre (HARC), P.O. Box 31 Holetta, Ethiopia
Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), P.O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


Abstract
Chocolate spot disease, caused by Botrytis fabae, is a major constraint that limits productivity of faba bean (Vicia faba) in Ethiopia. This is mainly due to lack of disease resistant genotypes from the locally adapted varieties. Therefore, the development of resistant faba bean varieties that are adapted to different agro-ecologies is important as it improves selection efficiency and reduces breeding time and cost. The study was, therefore, conducted to evaluate the effect of the genotype x environment interaction (GEI) for grain yield and chocolate spot disease resistance in 21 faba bean genotypes in six locations. A randomized complete block design with three replicates was used at each location. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) and the genotype and (genotype x environment) (GGE) biplot analyses resulted in highly significant differences amongst genotypes, environments and GEI. The influence of the environment was far larger (61.4% contribution to the total variation observed) than the contributions from the genotypes (20.9%) and GEI (17.7%) In contrast, genotypes had the largest contribution (73.4%) to the variability observed for chocolate spot resistance. The site Kulumsa (E3) provided the best discriminating ability for the genotypes, while both AMMI and GGE biplot analyses identified six most stable and productive genotypes, and four genotypes with low chocolate spot severity but moderate stability. Overall, G14 and G5 with high mean yield, stable and moderate level of resistance at all locations are recommended as the best genotypes.

Pages 1228-1235 | Read More| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne413
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Identification of new pathogenicity related to the gene encoding hypothetical protein in the gray mold fungus (Botrytis cinerea)

Tayb Elassma Ibrahim Mustafa Dafaalla*, Mohnad Abdalla*, Nada Algaili, Elawad Elhaj, Eltayeb Eldigair, Wafa Ali Eltayb, Gui-Hua Li, Qing-Ming Qin

College of Plant Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China
College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Sinnar University, Sinnar 11147, Sudan
School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, China


Abstract
Botrytis cinerea is an important necrotrophic fungus that causes gray mold disease in various important crop plants, leading to substantial economic losses. Herein, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) technique was used to create an insertional mutant library of B. cinerea to investigate its pathogenicity-related genes. Among 1,734 transformations only 46 mutants decreased the pathogenicity on tomato leaves. C2M52 is one of the 46 mutants that its pathogenicity reduction was analyzed deeply. The T-DNA integrated into the promoter region of the hypothetical protein (BcHP) gene. The gene replacement approach via homologous recombination was used to generate knock-out mutant (△bchp) and its functional complementary (△bchp-C) strains. The results warranted that the △bchp mutant strain displayed a significant difference in the virulence on tomato leaves relative to the wild type. These results were consistent with the attenuated pathogenicity caused by T-DNA integration mutant (C2M52). That subsequently revealed the crucial role of BcHP gene in the pathogenicity of B. cinerea.

Pages 1236-1243 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne417
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Heterosis and path analysis for grain yield and chocolate spot disease resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

Asnakech Tekalign*, Julia Sibiya, John Derera

African Centre for Crop Improvement, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Holetta Agricultural Research Centre (HARC), P.O. Box P.O. Box 2003 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


Abstract
This study was conducted to estimate better-parent and mid-parent heterosis for grain yield and chocolate spot resistance and to determine the direct and indirect effects of yield components on yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Ethiopia. Ten genetically diverse inbred lines were crossed in a full diallel to produce 90 F1 progenies. The parents and their 90 F1 progenies were evaluated in a 10 x 10 alpha lattice design with two replications at three locations. Data were analyzed using the Gardner and Eberhart’s analysis II and PATHSAS using SAS program. The maximum heterosis for grain yield (t ha-1) was 162.3% for mid-parent and 133.9% over the better parent. Six crosses; NC58 × ILB-4726, ILB-4726 × Kasa, NC58 × BPL-710, ILB-938 × CS-20-DK, ILB-938 × CS-20-DK and CS-20-DK × BPL-710 are recommended for grain yield breeding. Similarly, crosses ILB-4726 × Kasa, ILB-4726 × Bulga-70, CS-20-DK × Gebelcho, NC58 × ILB-4726, Kasa × BPL-710 and ILB-938 × Kasa are recommended for chocolate spot resistance breeding. Three crosses ILB-4726 × Kasa, ILB-4726 × Bulga-070, NC58 × ILB-4726 are recommended for both grain yield and chocolate spot disease resistance breeding in faba bean. Path coefficient analysis showed a significant direct effect of the number of nodes that had pods, plant height and total biomass on grain yield. However, general chocolate spot disease score (GDS) and relative area under disease progress curve (rAUDPC) had negative direct effect and significant negative correlation with grain yield. These results are useful to faba bean breeders for indirect selection of grain yield during the early segregating generation when yield tests cannot be conducted.

Pages 1244-1253 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne473
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Seed productivity, oil content and accumulation of macronutrients in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes in subtropical region

Luiz Antônio Zanão Júnior, Thiago Stock Paschoal, Natália Pereira*, Pedro Mário de Araújo, Deonir Secco, Reginaldo Ferreira dos Santos

Agronomic Institute of Paraná, IAPAR, Santa Tereza do Oeste, 85825 000, Paraná, Brazil
Department of Energy Engineering in Agriculture, University of Western Paraná, UNIOESTE, Cascavel, 85810 110, Paraná, Brazil

Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate eighteen genotypes of safflower and their absorption of macronutrients in an experiment conducted in the western region of the state of Paraná. The experiment was conducted under humid subtropical climate on Typic Hapludox soil with very clayey texture. The treatments were carried out in randomized blocks with four replications. The following traits were evaluated: shoot dry mass production, seed yield, shoot and seed macronutrient accumulation, and oil production. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means compared by Scott-Knott test at 5%. The mean seed yield was 4,531.8 kg ha-1 and the mean oil content was 26%. The descending order of safflower macronutrient uptake was N > K > Ca > P > Mg > S, in all genotypes, and macronutrient export was N > P > K > Mg > S > Ca. Mobility of macronutrients extracted from seeds was low for K and Ca, medium for Mg and S, and high for N and P. The genotypes with higher average yield were less efficient in their utilisation of nutrients.

Pages 1254-1260 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne490
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Interference of Urochloa decumbens and Panicum maximum in the initial growth of six clones of Eucalyptus urograndis

Michel Anderson Almeida Colmanetti, Allan Lopes Bacha, Andreísa Flores Braga, Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves*, Rinaldo César de Paula

Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”. Avenida Pádua Dias, 11. 13418-900 Piracicaba – SP, Brazil
Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Departamento de Biologia Aplicada à Agropecuária. Via de Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, s/n
Rural. 14884 900 Jaboticabal – SP, Brazil
Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Departamento de Produção Vegetal. Via de Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, s/n Rural. 14884 900 Jaboticabal – SP, Brazil


Abstract
Weeds play a strong pressure on the eucalyptus early growth, leading to a delay in their development. Therefore, many studies have tried to identify eucalyptus clones that are more tolerant to weed competition to supply information to producers, genetic improvement programs and the scientific community. The objective of this study was evaluate the interference of signal grass (Urochloa decumbens) and guinea grass (Panicum maximum) in the early growth of six clones of Eucalyptus urograndis, as well as the reciprocal effect. The experiment was conducted in an open and semi-controlled area in 8-L pots using a completely randomized experimental design with a 3 x 6 factorial scheme (U. decumbens, P. maximum and weed-free control and six eucalyptus clones). After ninety days of planting, the following variables were measured: eucalyptus stem diameter, height, total chlorophyll concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), net assimilation rate and eucalyptus and weed dry biomass. In coexistence with Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), clone 3 (ms 709 H) exhibited a 78.2% reduction in dry biomass compared to clone 4 (C 219 H), which obtained the highest dry biomass. In coexistence with signal grass (Urochloa decumbens), clone 6 (ms 686 H) was the most negatively affected by weed competition, with an 80.7% lower dry biomass than clone 4. In general, clones 1 (ms 710 H), 2 (H 1069) and 4 were more resistant, and clones 3 and 6 were more sensitive to weed interference. Both weeds were affected by eucalyptus, but Guinea grass was more sensitive than signal grass.

Pages 1261-1267 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne514
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Beetroot production using Calotropis procera as green manure in the Brazilian Northeast semiarid

Manoel Galdino dos Santos, Ênio Gomes Flôr Souza, Antonia Francilene Alves da Silva, Michele Barboza, Enielson Bezerra Soares, Hamurábi Anízio Lins, Aurélio Paes Barros Júnior*, Lindomar Maria da Silveira, Francisco Bezerra Neto

Departament of Crop Science, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA), Av. Francisco Mota, 572, Costa e Silva, CEP 59625-900, Mossoró, RN, Brazil
Instituto Federal de Alagoas (IFAL), Av. Sergipe, s/n, Xingó, CEP 57460-000, Piranhas, AL, Brazil
Unidade Acadêmica de Serra Talhada (UAST), Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Av. Gregório Ferraz Nogueira, s/n, José Tomé de Souza Ramos, CEP 56909-535, Serra Talhada, PE, Brazil


Abstract
The use of green manures in vegetable crop production systems has increased, but there is still a lack of information about the correct handling of the species for better use by culture. Two field experiments were conducted in Serra Talhada in the semiarid of Pernambuco state, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of amounts of biomass and times of Calotropis procera incorporation into the soil in the agronomic performance of the beetroot 'Early Wonder' in two growing seasons (fall and spring-summer). The experimental design was a randomized block in three replications. The treatments were arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme, with the first factor corresponding to the quantities of C. procera biomass (5.4, 8.8, 12.2, and 15.6 Mg ha-1 on a dry basis) and the second to the times of incorporation into the soil (0, 10, 20, and 30 days before sowing of beetroot). The following characteristics were assessed in the beetroot: plant height, number of leaves per plant, root diameter, total productivity, commercial productivity, and dry mass of roots. The amount of C. procera as well as the time of incorporation and growing season directly influenced the agronomic performance of beetroot. Regardless of the assessed agronomic characteristics, increasing amounts, and decreasing the time of incorporation proportionally influenced the performance of beetroot. The best agronomic performance of the beetroot was obtained by fertilization with 15.6 Mg ha-1 of C. procera. The ideal time of incorporation of green manure coincided with the date of the sowing of beetroot. The cultivation in the fall season resulted in higher total and commercial productivity of beetroots fertilized with C. procera.

Pages 1268-1276 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne520
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Effects of plant growth regulators on eggplant seed germination and seedling growth

Francisco José Domingues Neto*, Samanta Jaqueline Dalanhol, Marcos Machry, Adilson Pimentel Junior, João Domingos Rodrigues, Elisabeth Orika Ono

São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Agriculture, José Barbosa de Barros, nº 1.780, ZIP: 18.610-307, Botucatu, SP, Brazil
São Paulo State University (UNESP), Institute of Biosciences, Dr. Antônio Celso Wagner Zanin, s/n, ZIP: 18.618-689, Botucatu, SP, Brazil
Faculty of Technology of Mogi das Cruzes, Carlos Barattino, nº 908, ZIP: 08.773-600, Mogi das Cruzes, SP, Brazil


Abstract
This study aimed at evaluating the germination and the growth of eggplant (cultivar ‘Embu’) seedlings submitted to imbibition in GA3 and GA4+7+Benzyladenine (BA). The experiment was carried out under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, adopting a completely randomized design, in a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement, i.e. two plant growth regulators (GA3 and GA4+7+BA) and six imbibition conditions (no imbibition, 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg L-1 a.i.). Germination percentage, mean germination time, germination speed index, first germination count, synchronization index, and germination frequency were determined in the laboratory. In greenhouse, evaluations consisted of emergence speed index, seedling height at 15, 30, and 45 days after imbibition; stem diameter at substrate surface level, leaf area, root and shoot dry matter, and Dickson quality index at 45 days. GA3 accelerated the seed germination process and the seedling emergence, and led to an increase in seedling height at 750 mg L-1 up to 30 days. For the mixture GA4+7+BA, the results indicated phytotoxic effects, delaying seed germination and seedling formation. Thus, pre-soaking of eggplant seeds in GA3 at 750 mg L-1 is recommended.

Pages 1277-1282 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne542
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Physiological responses of Urochloa ruziziensis inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense to severe drought and rehydration conditions

Lucas Guilherme Bulegon, Andre Gustavo Battistus, Vandeir Francisco Guimarães, Adriano Mitio Inagaki, Luiz Claudio Offemann, Aline Kelly Pomini de Souza1, Paulo Sergio Rabello de Oliveira

Agricultural Sciences Center. Parana Western State University – UNIOESTE. Pernambuco Street, 1777, Box 91, Zip Code: 85960-000, Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR, Brazil

Abstract
This study evaluated the tolerance of U. ruziziensis under severe water stress conditions and its recovery when rehydrated, based in responses of relative leaf water content and gas exchange of the crop. The experiment was conducted in green house in Oxisol. The experimental design was a randomized block design, totaling five treatments, was represented by inoculation of A. brasilense strains AbV5 + AbV6, as follow: seed inoculation, foliar spray application, seed inoculation + foliar spray application, a non-inoculated control with water deficit treatment and a irrigated control without inoculation. Drought was imposed 45 days after sowing, after the vessel was irrigated until saturation of the substrate, by total removal of irrigation for six days, and evaluated three days after the resumption of water, evaluating gravimetric soil moisture, relative leaf water content and gas exchange. Soil moisture showed non variation to treatments non irrigated, but the relative leaf water content was lower in the control without water. The control and the treatment inoculated with A. brasilense in seeds exhibited lower rates of gas exchange. Recovery full of photosynthetic activity occurred three days after rehydration in all treatments. A. brasilense foliar sprayed is efficient to increase the tolerance of U. ruziziensis to water deficit and presented higher photosynthetic rates even under conditions of severe water deficit.

Pages 1283-1289 | Read More| Supplementary Data| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne577
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Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) physiology and phytomass in saline-sodic soil treated with amendments and single superphosphate

Francisco Vanies da Silva Sá*, Marcos Eric Babosa Brito, Luderlândio de Andrade Silva, Romulo Carantino Lucena Moreira, Pedro Dantas Fernandes, Lizaiane Cardoso de Figueiredo, Alberto Soares de Melo, Emanoela Pereira de Paiva

Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal University of Sergipe, Campus of Sertão, Nossa Senhora da Glória, 49.680-000, Sergipe, Brazil
Federal University of Campina Grande, Academic Unit of Agricultural Science, Pombal, 58.640-000, Paraíba, Brazil
State University of Paraíba, Department of Biological Science, Campina Grande, 58.109-970, Paraíba, Brazil
Federal Rural University of Semi-Arid, Department of Plant Production, Mossoró, 59.625-000, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
Fellow of CNPq Research Productivity, level 2, Brazil
Fellow of CNPq Research Productivity, level 1B, Brazil


Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the physiology and phytomass accumulation of sorghum plants, in saline-sodic soil treated with amendments and doses of single superphosphate. The experiment was conducted in the period from January to June 2013, in a greenhouse in the municipality of Pombal, Paraíba, Brazil, using samples of a saline-sodic soil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, relative to two types of amendments of sodic soil and 5 levels of single superphosphate, with 3 replicates, totaling 30 experimental units. Each plot was represented by two pots with capacity for 2 dm3 with one plant each. At 30 days after sowing, sorghum plants were evaluated for gas exchanges, chlorophyll a fluorescence and phytomass accumulation. Single superphosphate application positively stimulated the gas exchanges of sorghum plants at the doses of 97.9 mg dm-3, for the soil treated with gypsum, and 88.1 mg dm-3, for the soil treated with elemental sulfur. Soil treatment with agricultural gypsum promoted the highest levels of chlorophyll a fluorescence, in comparison to elemental sulfur treatment. Phytomass accumulation was favored by the single superphosphate, with highest accumulation when the dose of 75 mg dm-3 was applied.

Pages 1290-1296 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne592
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Growth and mineral nutrition of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) seedlings subjected to lime in Yellow Alic Latosol

George Rodrigues da Silva, Ismael de Jesus Matos Viégas*, Mário Lopes da Silva Júnior, Marcos André Piedade Gama, Ricardo Shigueru Okumura, Dilson Augusto Capucho Frazão, Gilson Sérgio Bastos de Matos, João Cardoso de Souza Júnior, Eduardo do Valle Lima, Jessivaldo Rodrigues Galvão

Instituto de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Tancredo Neves avenue, 2501, CEP 66077-580, Belém city, Brazil
Capanema campus, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Capanema city, Brazil
Federação da Agricultura do estado do Pará, Belém city, Brazil


Abstract
The management practices of soil fertility, such as use of lime on mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King.) nutrition contribute to the crop yield especially in acidic soils. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the application of lime in early growth and nutrient uptake in mahogany seedlings. The treatments were limestone rates (0, 1.9, 3.2, and 4.6 t ha-1) necessary to increase the base saturation of substrate (currently 12.4%) for 20, 40, 60 and 80%, respectively, with five replications arranged in a randomized design. The variables evaluated were: plant height, stem diameter, root dry matter, shoot dry matter and total dry matter and N, P, K, Ca, and Mg concentration in shoots. Through this, accumulation of nutrients was estimated. Different lime rates positively influenced the vegetative growth of mahogany seedling. The maximum technical efficiencies for stem diameter of 1.40 cm; root dry matter of 28.61 g plant-1; shoot dry matter of 80.25 g plant-1; total dry matter of 107.16 g plant-1; and shoot/root ratio of 2.92 were achieved at rates of 3.33; 4.54; 4.56; 4.58; and 3.82 t ha-1, respectively. Regarding the nutrient concentrations in aerial part of plant, we observed that N (23.14 g kg-1); P (4.43 g kg-1); K (13.04 g kg-1); Ca (4.25 g kg-1); and Mg (3.37 g kg-1) concentration were obtained at rates of 2.88; 3.20; 3.31; 3.64; and 2.93 t ha-1, respectively. Some nutritional requirements were observed in mahogany culture in soil with acidity correction. The nutrient accumulation values were observed according to following descending order: N>Ca>K>Mg>P. In general, for initial development of mahogany we observed that best results, either biometric as a nutritional, were obtained at rates between 2.74 to 3.64 t ha-1 of lime application.

Pages 1297-1303 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne599
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Genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels) in morocco as revealed by SSR markers: Implication for conservation

Chaimaa Yatrib, Bouchra Belkadi, Leila Medraoui, Ouafae Pakhrou, Mohammed Alami, Abdelhamid El Mousadik, Abderrahim Ferradous, Fouad Msanda, Cherkaoui El Modafar, Saad Ibn Souda-Kouraichi, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf*

Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Mohammed Vth University, Rabat, Morocco
Laboratory of Biotechnologies and Valuation of Natural Resources, Ibn-Zohr University, Faculty of Science, Agadir, Morocco
High Commission of Water, Forests and Desertification Control (HCEFLCD), Forestry Research Center (FRC), Marrakech, Morocco
Laboratory of Biotechnology, for the Agro-ressources Valorization and the Protection, Faculty of Sciences and Technics, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco
Laboratory of Microbial Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences and Technics, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, Morocco


Abstract
Argania spinosa L. is an endangered tree of great socio-economic and ecological value in Morocco. In this study, thirteen nuclear SSR primer pairs were used to assess the genetic diversity and structure of 24 natural populations, including 240 individuals, representing 4 geographic regions. A total of 245 alleles were detected with an average of 18.5 per locus ranging from 6 to 35. The polymorphism information content (PIC) was in the range of (0.487-0.936) showing the good discriminating power of the SSR loci used. The observed and the expected heterozygosity across all populations and loci ranged from 0.372 to 0.777 and from 0.486 to 0.735, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the main variation existed within populations (78%) rather than among populations (12%). The Mantel test displayed no significant correlation between the geographic distance and the genetic distances for all populations. The STRUCTURE analysis and UPGMA clustering grouped 240 samples from 24 populations into two subgroups. Implications of the results for argan tree conservations are also discussed in this paper.

Pages 1304-1314 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne602
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Artificial vernalization in strawberry plants: phyllochron, production and quality

Maria Inês Diel*, Marcos Vinícius Marques Pinheiro, Carine Cocco, Leonardo Thiesen, Bruna Stringari Altíssimo, Daniele Cristina Fontana, Bráulio Otomar Caron, Valéria Testa, Denise Schmidt

Agronomy Department, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria–RS, Brazil
Federal University of Santa Maria - Campus Frederico Westphalen- 7th of September Line, s / n BR 386 Km 40, Frederico Westphalen - RS CEP: 98400-000, Brazil
University of Caxias do Sul, Francisco Getúlio Vargas Street, 1130. CEP 95070-560 - Caxias do Sul / RS, Brazil


Abstract
To obtain the best productive performances strawberry plants require an accumulation of cold hours which varies by cultivar; this project evaluated phyllochron, the quality and fruit production from vernalized and non-vernalized seedlings of the strawberry cultivars Albion and Camarosa. The treatments consisted of seedling vernalized before planting for 200 cold hours in a cold chamber with temperatures 4.0 ºC. Seedlings in the control treatments were not vernalized and were transplanted directly after arrival. Phyllochron was evaluated (estimated by the inverse of the angular coefficient of the linear regression between the number of leaves in the main crown and the sum of thermal time accumulated for each transplanted seedling), in addition to production parameters (number of commercial fruits, number of non-commercial fruits, production of commercial and non-commercial fruits); and fruit quality (titratable acidity, total soluble solids and ratio titratable acidity/total soluble solids). The exposure of strawberry seedlings to vernalization treatments significantly affected productivity but did not affect leaf emission rates or quality of fruits, although these factors were different among cultivars. Camarosa showed greater leaf emission rates and higher productivity per plant and lower titratable acidity than Albion which may be related to genotypic acclimatization. Seedling vernalization is recommended because it results in greater fruit production. The cultivar with higher fruit production is Camarosa.

Pages 1315-1319 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne603
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Refining the tetrazolium test for evaluation of Cattleya labiata and C. tigrina seeds viability

Silvério Takao Hosomi,Thatiane Bonome de Souza, Ceci Castilho Custódio, Nelson Barbosa Machado Neto*

Biological Sciences College and Post Graduation Agronomy Program at UNOESTE, Presidente Prudente, SP, CEP 19067175, Brazil
Biological Sciences College at UNOESTE, Presidente Prudente, SP, CEP 19067175, Brazil
Post Graduation Agronomy Program and Agricultural Sciences College at UNOESTE, Presidente Prudente, SP, CEP 19067175, Brazil


Abstract
The evaluation of seed physiological quality can help taking quick decision about the use or disposal of lots for conservation. The tetrazolium test is one of the most traditional in the analysis of seeds quality. Optional preconditioning procedures have improved the efficiency of this test. This work compared the efficiency of different preconditioning procedures, the buffered solution, concentrations and exposure time to tetrazolium solution in assessing the quality of orchid seeds of Cattleya labiata and Cattleya tigrina lots. The analysis was made through magnification of digital images. For preconditioning evaluation, two seed lots were aliquoted and submitted to different treatments: 10% sucrose solution, 10% glucose solution and water at room temperature for 24 hours. After preconditioning, seeds were immersed in tetrazolium solutions - prepared with buffer or water - at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% for periods ranging from 3, 12 and 24 hours, at 40 °C, in a water bath, in the dark. The experiment design was arranged in a factorial 4x3x3x2 and the mean comparison was made by Tukey test at 5% probability. Tetrazolium test in preconditioned orchid seeds allowed better visualization of red viable seeds. Tetrazolium test in orchid seeds preconditioned in glucose 10% solution or sucrose 10% solution was more effective for viable seeds visualization. Diluting tetrazolium salt in buffered solution or water made no difference for the results. Maintaining seeds in contact with tetrazolium 1% solution for 24 hours provided the higher viability values for both seed lots.

Pages 1320-1326 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne606
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Micro-cutting propagation of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla through clumps of axillary buds using different containers and substrates

Ricardo Gallo*, Aloisio Xavier, Brener de Almeida Oliveira, Luciana Coelho de Moura, Natane Amaral Miranda, Kellen Cristina Gatti, Wagner Campos Otoni

Forest Engineering Department, Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory/BIOAGRO, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil
Plant Biology Department, Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory/BIOAGRO, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil


Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the micro-cuttings production in the micropropagation system via clumps of axillary buds in a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, subjected to different types of containers and substrates. Clumps with six to eight differentiated buds of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla established in vitro were used to test containers (polypropylene pot - 500 ml, glass flask - 250 ml; acrylic flask with gas exchange (AFGE) - 250 ml; and test-tube - 55 ml capacity) in a semisolid medium specific for Eucalyptus in a period of 35 days. For the substrates test, acrylic flask with gas exchange (AFGE) were used with different substrates (agar, average particle size vermiculite, and vermiculite: cellulose fiber in a 2:1 ratio) in a period of 35 days. The tests were installed in a completely randomized design (CRD). We evaluated the number of shoots larger than 0.5 cm per clump of bud, the number of micro-cuttings produced larger than 2 cm, the length of the longest micro-cutting (cm) and shoot vigor. Based on the obtained results, it was possible to observe that the best container to produce micro-cuttings larger than 2 cm was the polypropylene pot (500 ml). Glass flask (250 ml) was more advantageous to achieve greater production of micro-cuttings per square meter due to its capacity of better densification. The best substrates to produce micro-cutting larger than 2 cm using acrylic flask with gas exchange (AFGE) containers were agar or vermiculite.

Pages 1327-1333 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne607
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Chemical attributes of archaeological black earth soils in Brazilian Amazon

Keila Christina Bernardes*, Maria de Lourdes Pinheiro Ruivo, Augusto José Silva Pedroso, Possidônio Guimarães Rodrigues, Ricardo Shigueru Okumura

Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária, Manaus city, Brazil
Centro de Ciências da Terra, Museu Paraense Emilío Goeldi, Belém city, Brazil
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Pará, Castanhal city, Brazil
Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Paragominas city, Brazil


Abstract
The substrate of Archaeological Black Earth (ABE) in archaeological sites is characterized by presence of anthropogenic A horizon that contains ceramic fragments and lithic artifacts of indigenous pre-Columbian origin. The aims of this study were to evaluate modification of chemical attributes of soils promoted by anthropic activities carried out in areas around archaeological sites soils in Northeast Pará Islands region. The study areas were located in Barcarena city (Alunorte site), Abaetetuba city (Bittencourt site), and Moju city (Jambuaçu site), State of Pará, Brazil. The experimental design was performed using randomized block design in situ with a collection of 7 ABE profiles at Alunorte site; 12 ABE profiles samples at the Bittencourt site and 6 ABE profiles samples at Jambuaçu site. The soil chemical attributes such as pH, C, OM, N, C/N, Na, K+, Ca+ 2, Mg+ 2, SB, Al+ 3, H+Al, CECef, %V, %m and P data were subjected to Tukey's test and to multivariate analyzer for principal component and cluster analysis. Jambuaçu site contained higher carbon, organic matter, magnesium, sum of bases, potential acidity, cation exchange capacity and phosphorus values compared to Bittencourt and Alunorte sites. Bittencourt site has characteristics such as pH, potassium, calcium and saturation consistent basis with values observed in ABE soils, while Alunorte site has no chemical characteristics like ABE features. Principal component analysis showed that variables such as organic matter and cation exchange capacity were most distinct among the archaeological sites soils (Alunorte, Bittencourt and Jambuaçu site).

Pages 1334-1338 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne611
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Application of different cover crops and mineral fertilizer doses for no-till cultivation of broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage

José Luiz Rodrigues Torres*, Fernando Rodrigues da Cunha Gomes, Antônio Carlos Barreto, Amanda Yamada Tamburús, Dinamar Márcia da Silva Vieira, Zigomar Menezes de Souza, José Carlos Mazetto Júnior

Plant Production, Federal Institute of Mining Triangle (IFTM) – Uberaba Campus, MG, Brazil, Rua João Batista Ribeiro, 4000, Uberaba-MG, Brazil. Zip code: 38064-790
Agronomy, IFTM Campus Uberaba IFTM Campus Uberaba, Rua João Batista Ribeiro, 4000. Uberaba-MG, Brazil. Zip code: 38064-790.
Irrigation, IFTM Uberaba Campus, MG, Brazil. Rua João Batista Ribeiro, 4000. Uberaba-MG, Brazil. Zip code: 38064-790.
Graduate Program in Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences at the Federal University of Uberlândia. Av. Amazonas s/nº, Umuarama. Uberlândia-MG, Brazil. Zip code: 38400-902.
State University of Campinas, School of Agricultural Engineering (Feagri, Department of Water and Soil, Avenida Cândido Rondon, 501, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, CEP 13083-875 Campinas, SP, Brasil

Abstract
No-till practices have not been widely adopted by vegetable producers due to the necessity of seedbed preparation to incorporate organic fertilizers and plant residues of the preceding crops. This study evaluated biomass yield and residue decomposition of different cover crops, and their influence on agronomic performance of Brassica crops cultivated under no-till system. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete blocks with 4 x 3 factorial treatment combinations of four cover crops: Sunn hemp (SH), Signal grass (SG), Pearl millet (PM), and SH + PM mixture, and three doses of mineral fertilizer—0, 50, and 100% of the recommended fertilizer doses for broccoli. The same design and treatments were used for cauliflower and then for cabbage, separately.. The experiment was carried out with 4 repetitions on parcels of 20 m2. No beds were raised, for the planting of seedlings was done in pits. The following agronomic traits were evaluated: Dry biomass (DB) and decomposition of cover crop residues (DR), and the number of leaves (NL), height (H), fresh head weight (FHW) and dry head weight (DHW), and yield (Y) of Brassica crops. The highest DB occurred in treatments with SH (Give value). SG presented the highest DR constant and the shortest half-life of residues in this study.; Broccoli presented better agronomic performance when cultivated on residues containing SH.; Fertilizer doses influenced broccoli and cabbage productivity, which were the highest for the treatment with 100% dose of mineral fertilizer.

Pages 1339-1345 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne645
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Association mapping and genetic control for northern leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum) resistance in maize lines

Kaian Albino Corazza Kaefer*, Adilson Ricken Schuelter, Ivan Schuster, Jonatas Marcolin, Eliane Cristina Gruska Vendruscolo

State University of Western Paraná, Marechal Cândido do Rondon – PR, Brazil
Dow Agrociences, Cravinhos – SP, Brazil
Federal University of Paraná, Palotina – PR, Brazil


Abstract
The aim of this work was to identify genomic regions associated with northern leaf blight resistance (Exserohilum turcicum) in common maize lines and to study the control involved in the resistance. For association mapping, 72 maize lines were previously genotyped for SNP markers on the 650K platform (Affymetrix®), and their respective genotypic values were predicted by mixed models for northern leaf blight. In order to avoid spurious associations between SNP markers and the studied character, the analysis of population structure was initially performed. The analysis of association between the SNP and northern leaf blight markers was carried out using a linear mixed model. For the study of genetic control, the experiment was conducted in 2016 and it was composed of randomized blocks with three repetitions. Through the notes attributed to the lines and their respective generations, the genotypic data related to the inheritance of the studied disease were extracted. Analyzing the results, QTLs were found on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9 and 10 for northern leaf blight in maize, which may increase, reduce or even override the effect of this attribute. Among the QTLs found, five genomic regions were detected for increased resistance to northern leaf blight with the use of SNP markers, found in chromosomes 3 (SNP210703), 8 (SNP507268 and SNP507269), 9 (SNP544616) and 10 (SNP610500). The genetic control of resistance to northern leaf blight is quantitative, with the additive effects being more important in the character determination. In addition, it presents high restricted heritability (88%), which allows good selection efficiency and selection gains.

Pages 1346-1353 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne678
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Acidity neutralization and silicon availability using calcium silicate in soil cultivated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Luiz Antônio Zanão Júnior, Idelvan Bonadiman Blanco, Natália Pereira*, Juliane Aparecida Schneider

Agronomic Institute of Paraná, IAPAR, Santa Tereza do Oeste, 85825 000, Paraná, Brazil
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Western Paraná State University, UNIOESTE, Cascavel, 85810 110, Paraná, Brazil
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Paraná State University of Ponta Grossa, UEPG, Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Paraná, Brazil


Abstract
Most tropical soils have acidity issues. The amount of corrective treatment needed to neutralize such acidity depends on the corrective material and the cultivated species. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate soil acidity neutralization by using calcium silicate (CaSiO3), compared to calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and the effect of increased silicon (Si) availability in soil cultivated with wheat. The treatments under analysis were: A) control (no application of corrective material); B) a calcium carbonate P.A. (CaCO3) dose of 1.5 g kg-1; C) twice this CaCO3 dose, i.e. 3.0 g kg-1; D) calcium silicate (CaSiO3), at the doses of 2.15 and 4.30 g kg-1; and E) CaSiO3 at the dose of 4.30 g kg-1 for providing the same amount of Ca observed with CaCO3 doses and also providing Si, at the doses of 0.09 and 0.18 g kg-1, respectively. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with 5 replicates. After 30-day incubation, pH in CaCl2, Ca, hydrogen + aluminum (H + Al), and Al and Si content, cation-exchange capacity (CEC) at pH 7.0, and soil base saturation were measured. Plant height, number of stalks and grains per plant, dry mass and grain yield, and Si leaf content were also evaluated. Both CaCO3 and CaSiO3 were efficient in correcting acidity and increasing Ca content, base saturation and CEC at pH 7.0 in soil. The application of CaSiO3 has led wheat to absorb more Si, and this provided higher grain yield and greater mass.

Pages 1354-1357 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne701
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Technological aspects of obtaining spineless cactus (Nopalea cochenilifera (L.) Salm-Dyck) bud flour after drying

Emmanuel Moreira Pereira, Nathan José Pereira da Silva, Hyago Costa de Sousa, Ben-Hur Mattiuz, Carlos Roberto Marinho da Silva Filho

São Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences, Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil
Federal University of Paraiba, Center of Human and Agrarian Sciences, Bananeiras-PB, Brazil


Abstract
The spineless cactus has high production of green matter. Its major importance is utilized for production of flour in agro-industrial processes as well as its nutritional characteristics. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of the flour of the spineless cactus bud produced under different temperatures and to describe the drying process by means of mathematical models. The spineless cactus genotype ‘Miúda’ (Nopalea cochenilifera (L.) Salm-Dyck) was used in this study. The buds approximately with 20 cm in length were harvested. Drying was carried out at different temperatures (55, 65, 75 and 85 ° C). Evaluations were done with the application of mathematical models to the data obtained from the drying kinetics, using determination of coefficients (R2) and chi-square (x2). The chemical and toxicological composition of flour was evaluated. The temperature treatments influenced the flour quality. The flour obtained at the temperature of 55 ° C presented the best chemical percentages and showed no toxic effect. The studied models presented good statistical indices as a function of the adjustments to the experimental data. The Wang and Singh model presented the best R2 and x2 for the drying kinetics of the palm shoots. The Peleg model presented a unique graphical behavior, reaching to cross the field of negative water quantity before reaching the equilibrium point of the dehydration process. Therefore, this model cannot be used to simulate the drying process of 'Miúda' shoots within the studied temperature range.

Pages 1358-1365 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne708
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Productivity and nutritional quality of Urochloa brizantha cv. BRS Piatã grass fertirrigated with swine wastewater in different seasons of the year

Eder Pereira Gomes, Arthur Carniato Sanches, José Gutemberg Gimenes Deboleto, Fernanda Lamede Ferreira de Jesus, Fernando Campos Mendonça

Federal University of Grande Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Graduate Course on Agricultural Systems Engineering, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil
Biosystems Engineering Department, ESALQ/USP, Brazil


Abstract
The Brazilian swine production has been grown 38.9% in the last decade. Inherent to the process, the pollution potential has increased which brings environmental concerns, especially about the final disposal of swine wastewater (SW). In this context, this work aimed to evaluate the responses of ‘Piatã’ grass (Urochloa brizantha, cv. BRS ‘Piatã’) to the fertilization with SW, with and without supplemental irrigation. The experiment was carried out for one year from March 2014 to March 2015. The experiment was conducted in a split-plot with a random blocks experimental design with four replications. The treatments in the plots were referred to the use of irrigation (with and without), and in the subplots to the SW doses (four doses: 75, 150, 225 and 300 m3 ha-1). In the irrigated treatment, the irrigation was fulfilled to re-establish soil moisture in the field capacity (Өfc). The parameters used to verify the treatments were: total forage yield (TFY), leaves and stems yield (LSY), crude protein rate (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DivDM). There was a significant increasing effect for doses, reaching a mean TFY of 41.92 Mg ha-1 at the dose of 300 m3 ha-1. The combination of the highest dose of SW combined with supplemental irrigation produced the best results of TFY and LSY with (47.8 and 41.9 Mg ha-1 year-1, respectively). Irrigation also led to the best results per cycle, with the highest forage accumulation in spring, 12.28 and 8.55 Mg ha-1 for irrigated and non-irrigated treatments, respectively. In the bromatological parameters, supplemental irrigation led to the highest average levels of CP, ADF and DivDM of 16.7%, 33.8% and 66.5%, respectively. The NDF did not respond to irrigation and SW doses. The research allowed concluding that irrigation and SW fertigation brought quantitative and qualitative benefits to ‘Piatã’ grass production.

Pages 1366-1373 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne732
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Evaluation of dwarf coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm to the damage intensity caused by foliar diseases

João Manoel da Silva*, Viviane Talamini, Semíramis Rabelo Ramalho Ramos, Joana Maria Santos Ferreira, Jéssica Marcy Silva Melo Santos, Marcelo Ferreira Fernandes

Agriculture and Biodiversity, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon, São Cristóvão, Brazil
Embrapa Coastal Tablelands, Av. Beira Mar, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil


Abstract
Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) is a perennial crop with economic importance in Brazil. However, the culture is susceptible to several pathogens, such as Camarotella acrocomiae (large verrucosis), C. torrendiella (small verrucosis) and Botryosphaeria cocogena (leaf blight). These diseases reduce the leaf area of the plants. They usually occur as complex which are known as verrucosis leaf blight (CVLB). The objective of this study was to evaluate six accessions of dwarf coconut preserved in the active germplasm bank (AGB) of Embrapa Coastal Tablelands: BYD (Brazilian Yellow Dwarf Gramame), MYD (Malaysian Yellow Dwarf), CRD (Camaroonian Red Dwarf), BRD (Brazilian Red Dwarf Gramame), BGD (Brazilian Green Dwarf Jiqui), and MRD (Malaysian Red Dwarf). The study was carried out in a completely randomized block design with six treatments (accessions) and five replications (blocks), with 11 monthly evaluations from June 2015 to May 2016. The incidence and severity variables for the three diseases were evaluated. These six variables were jointly analyzed to describe the damage intensity. According to the non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination technique, most of the variability of the CVLB (72%) was associated with variations in damage caused by small verrucosis. A smaller portion of the variability (23%) was associated with the damage caused by large verrucosis and leaf blight, which in turn, were modulated by both the accessions and by the environmental variables. Interactions between the accessions and the seasonality of environmental conditions modulate the damage caused to dwarf coconut trees by the foliar diseases complex. These interactions, the duration of the occurrence and the magnitude of the differences between the accessions should be considered by the breeding programs.

Pages 1374-1380 | Read More| doi: 10.21475/ajcs.17.11.10.pne748

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